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Full text of "ASME A17.1 (2007): Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 

this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 

reference and that failure to comply with such 

requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 

to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 

the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 

responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 

the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 

and in the states and cities contained therein, "^k 

* * 
* 

ASME A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and 
Escalators, 2007 Edition, as required by 
States and Municipalities, including 
Arizona, Texas, Vermont, Wisconsin, Nevada, 
Colorado, et. alia. 



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ASME A174-2007/CSA B44-07 

(Revision of ASME A17.1-2004 and CSA B44-04) 



Safety Code for 
Elevators and 
Escalators 

Includes Requirements for 
Elevators, Escalators, 
Dumbwaiters, Moving Wallcs, 
Material Lifts, and Dumbwaiters 
Witli Automatic Transfer Devices 



AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD 



Date of Issuance: April 6. 2007 



This edition of the Code is being issued with an automatic addenda subscription service. The use 
of an addenda allows revisions made in response to public review comments or committee actions 
to be published on a regular basis; revisions published in addenda will become effective 6 months 
after the Date of Issuance of the addenda unless noted otherwise within a given addenda. The next 
edition of this Code Is scheduled for publication in 2010. 

ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this Code. 
The interpretations will be included with each edition and subsequent addenda. Interpretations are 
also published on the ASME Web site under the Committee Pages at http://cstools.asme.org as they 
are issued. 

Inquiries should be addressed to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or Canadian Standards 
Association. 



ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National 
Standards. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from 
competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed manual was made available 
for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public Input from industry, academia, 
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large. 

ASME does not "approve,*' "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. 

ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any 
items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for 
infringement of any applicable letters patent, nor assume any such liability. Users are expressly advised that determination 
of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility. 

Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be Interpreted as 
government or Industry endorsement of this code or standard. 

ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established 
ASME procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals. 



No part of this document may be reproduced In any form, 

in an electronic retrieval system or othenwise, 

without the prior written permission of the publisher. 



The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has granted 

the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) permission to 

reprint, repackage, and sell this Code. 



The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 



Copyright © 2007 by 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

All rights reserved 

Printed in U.S.A. 



CONTENTS 



ASME Foreword viii 

ASME Committee Roster xii 

CSA Committees xvi 

ASME Preface xviii 

CSA Preface xxi 

Summary of Changes — xxii 

Part 1 General 1 

1.1 Scope 1 

1.2 Purpose and Exceptions 2 

1.3 Definitions 2 

Part 2 Electric Elevators 17 

2.1 Construction of Hoistways and Hoistway Enclosures 17 

2.2 Pit:s 19 

2.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweights j 21 

2.4 Vertical Clearances and Runbys for Cars and Counterweights J 22 

2.5 Horizontal Car and Coimterweight Clearances 24 

2.6 Protection of Space Below Hoistways .' 25 

2.7 Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control 

Rooms 25 

2.8 Equipment in Hoistways, Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, 

Control Spaces, and Control Rooms 33 

2.9 Machinery and Sheave Beams, Supports, and Foundations 34 

2.10 Guarding of Equipment and Standard Railing 36 

2.11 Protection of Hoistway Openings 37 

2.12 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Electric Contacts, and Hoistway 

Access Switches 45 

2.13 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and Car Doors 49 

2.14 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car Illumination 51 

2.15 Car Frames and Platforms 59 

2.16 Capacity and Loading 63 

2.17 Car and Coimterweight Safeties 67 

2.18 Speed Governors 71 

2.19 Ascending Car Overspeed and Unintended Car Movement 

Protection 74 

2.20 Suspension Ropes and Their Connections 75 

2.21 Coimterweights 81 

2.22 Buffers and Bimipers 83 

2.23 Car and Counterweight Guide Rails, Guide-Rail Supports, and 

Fastenings 85 

2.24 Driving Machines and Sheaves 94 

2.25 Terminal Stopping Devices 96 

2.26 Of >erating Devices and Control Equipment 98 

2.27 Emergency Operation and Signaling Devices 109 

2.28 Layout Drawings 118 

2.29 Identification ; 118 

Part 3 Hydraulic Elevators 120 

3.1 Construction of Hoistways and Hoistway Enclosiu-es 120 

3.2 Pits 120 



3.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweights 120 

3.4 Bottom and Top Clearances and Runbys for Cars and 

Counterweights 120 

3.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clearances 122 

3.6 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistway 122 

3.7 Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control 

Rooms 122 

3.8 Electrical Equipment, Wiring, Pipes, and Ducts in Hoistway, 

Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control 

Rooms 123 

3.9 Machinery and Sheave Beams, Supports, and Foundations 123 

3.10 Guarding of Exposed Auxiliary Equipment 123 

3.11 Protection of Hoistway Landing C^enings 123 

3.12 Hoistway Door Locking Devices, Car Door or Gate Electric Contacts, 

and Hoistway Access Switches 123 

3.13 Power Operation, Power Opening, and Power Closing of Hoistway Doors 

and Car Doors or Gates 123 

3.14 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car Illumination 123 

3.15 Car Frames and Platforms 123 

3.16 Capacity and Loading 124 

3.17 Car Safeties, Coimterweight Safeties, Plunger Gripper, and 

Governors 124 

3.18 Hydraulic Jacks 126 

3.19 Valves, Pressure Piping, and Fittings 129 

3.20 Ropes and Rope Connections 131 

3.21 Counterweights 131 

3.22 Buffers and Bumpers 132 

3.23 Guide Rails, Guide-RaU Supports, and Fastenings 132 

3.24 Hydraulic Machines and Tanks 132 

3.25 Terminal Stopping Devices 133 

3.26 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 134 

3.27 Emergency Operation and Signaling Devices 136 

3.28 Layout Data 136 

3.29 Identification 137 

Part 4 Elevators With Other Types of Driving Machines 138 

4.1 Rack-and-Pinion Elevators 138 

4.2 Screw-Column Elevators 140 

4.3 Hand Elevators 144 

Part 5 Special Application Elevators 147 

5.1 Inclined Elevators 147 

5.2 Limited-Use /Limited- Application Elevators 153 

5.3 Private Residence Elevators 158 

5.4 Private Residence Inclined Elevators 165 

5.5 Power Sidewalk Elevators 169 

5.6 Rooftop Elevators 173 

5.7 Special Purpose Personnel Elevators 177 

5.8 Shipboard Elevators 182 

5.9 Mine Elevators 183 

5.10 Elevators Used for Construction 186 

Part 6 Escalators and Moving Wall« 192 

6.1 Escalators 192 

6.2 Moving Walks 204 

Part 7 Dumbwaiters and Material Lifts 215 

7.1 Power and Hand Dumbwaiters Without Automatic Transfer Devices 215 

iv 



7.2 Electric and Hand EHimbwaiters Without Automatic Transfer 

Devices 219 

7.3 Hydraulic Dumbwaiters Without Automatic Transfer Devices 225 

7.4 Material Lifts Without Automatic Transfer Devices 227 

7.5 Electric Material Lifts Without Automatic Transfer Devices 230 

7.6 Hydraulic Material Lifts Without Automatic Transfer Devices 236 

7.7 Automatic Transfer Devices 236 

7.8 Power Dumbwaiters With Automatic Transfer Devices 237 

7.9 Electric Material Lifts With Automatic Transfer Devices 237 

7.10 Hydraulic Material Lifts With Automatic Transfer Devices 239 

7.11 Material Lifts With Obscured Transfer Devices 239 

Part 8 General Requirements 240 

8.1 Security 240 

8.2 Design Data and Formulas 241 

8.3 Engineering Tests, Type Tests, and Certification 259 

8.4 Elevator Safety Requirements for Seismic Risk Zone 2 or Greater 267 

8.5 Escalator and Moving Walk Safety Requirement for Seismic Risk Zone 2 

pr Greater 287 

8.6 Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement 288 

8.7 Alterations 302 

8.8 Welding 316 

8.9 Code Data Plate 317 

8.10 Acceptance Inspections and Tests 317 

8.11 Periodic Inspections and Tests 332 

'• 8.12 Flood Resistances 343 

Part 9 Reference Codes, Standards, and Specifications 344 

9.1 Reference Documents 345 

9.2 Procurement Information 351 

Figures 

2.16.1.1 Insiide Net Platform Areas for Passenger Elevators 63 

2.20.9.4 Tapered Rope Sockets 78 

2.20.9.5 Wedge Rope Sockets 78 

2.23.3 Elevator Guide Rails 86 

2.23.4.1-1 Maximum Weight of a Car With Rated Load or of Coimterweight With 

iSafety Device for a Pair of Guide Rails as Specified 

m 2.23.4.1 88 

2.23.4.1-2 Minimum Moment of Inertia About x-x Axis for a Single Guide Rail 

With Its Reinforcement 89 

2.27.3.1.6(h) Visual Signal 112 

2.27.3.3.7 Panel Layout 115 

2.27.7.1 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation Instructions 117 

2.27.7.2 Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation 118 

2.27.9 Elevator Corridor Call Station Pictograph 119 

5.1.17.3 Vertical and Horizontal Components of Velocity 151 

6.1.3.3.10 Dimensions 194 

6.1.6.9.1 Caution Sign 202 

8.2.1.2 Minimum Rated Load for Passenger Elevators : 242 

8.2.2.5.1 Turning Moment Based on Class of Loading 244 

8.2.4 Gravity Stopping Distances 246 

8.2.5 Maximum Governor Tripping Speeds 247 

8.2.6 Stopping Distances for Type B Car and Counterweight Safeties 249 

8.2.7 Minimum Factors of Safety of Suspension Wire Ropes of Power 

Passenger and Freight Elevators 252 

8.2.8.1.1 Allowable Gross Loads 254 

8.2.9.1.3 Load Distribution 257 



8.4.3.1.3 Arc of Contact 268 

8.4.8.2-1 12 kg/m (8 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing 270 

8.4.8.2-2 16.5 kg/m (11 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing 271 

8.4.8.2-3 18 kg/m (12 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing 272 

8.4.8.2-4 22.5 kg/m (15 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing 273 

8.4.8.2-5 27.5 kg/m (18.5 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing 274 

8.4.8.2-6 33.5 kg/m (22.5 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing 275 

8.4.8.2-7 44.5 kg/m (30 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing 276 

8.4.8.2-8 Car and Counterweight Load Factor 277 

8.4.8.9 Guide-Rail Axes 280 

8.4.10.1.1 Earthquake Elevator Equipment Requirements Diagrammatic 

Representation 281 

8.4.10.1.3 Earthquake Emergency Operation Diagrammatic Representation 283 

8.11.4.2.19(e) 342 

Tables 

2.4.2.2 Minimum Bottom Runby for Coimterweight Elevators With Spring 

Buffers or Solid Bumpers and Rheostatic Control or Single-Speed 

AC Control 23 

2.15.10.1 Maximum Allowable Stresses in Car Frame and Platform Members 

and Connections, for Steels Specified in 2.15.6.2.1 and 2.15.6.2.2 62 

2.16.1.1 Maximum Inside Net Platform Areas for the Various Rated Loads 64 

2.17.3 Maximum and Minimum Stopping Distances for Type B Car Safeties 

With Rated Load and Type B Counterweight Safeties 68 

2.18.2.1 Maximimi Car Speeds at Which Speed Governor Trips and Governor 

Overspeed Switch Operates 72 

2.18.7.4 Multiplier for Determining Governor Sheave Pitch Diameter 73 

2.20.3 Minimum Factors of Safety for Suspension Wire Ropes 76 

2.20.9.4.5 Relation of Rope Diameter to Diameter of the Small Socket Hole 78 

2.22.3.1 Minimum Spring Buffer Stroke 83 

2.22.4.1 Minimum Oil Buffer Strokes 84 

2.23.3 T-Section Guide-Rail Dimensions 87 

2.23.4.2 Load Multiplying Factor for Duplex Safeties 92 

2.23.4.3.1 Guide Rails for Counterweight Without Safeties 93 

2.23.4.3.3 Intermediate Tie Brackets 93 

2.23.7.2.1 Minimum Thickness of Fishplates and Minimum Diameter of 

Fastening Bolts 94 

2.23.10.2 Minimum Size of Rail-Fastening Bolts 94 

2.26.4.3.2 SIL for Electrical Protective Devices and Other Electrical Safety 

Functions 104 

2.26.12.1 Symbol Identification 108 

4.1.9.1 Maximum and Minimimi Stopping Distances for Rack-and-Pinion 

Safeties With Rated Load 140 

5.1.14.2 Minimum and Maximum Stopping Distances at Given Angles From 

Horizontal 150 

5.1.17.2 Spring Buffer Stroke 151 

5.1.17.4.4 Minimum Oil Buffer Strokes at Given Angle From Horizontal 152 

6.2.3.7 Treadway Width 207 

6.2.4 Treadway Speed 209 

7.2.6.4 Factors of Safety for Wire Rope and Chains 222 

7.2.8.1 Minimum Spring Buffer Strokes 223 

7.2.8.2 Minimum Oil Buffer Strokes 223 

7.4.3 Type B Material Lifts 228 

7.9.2.13 Minimum Spring Buffer Strokes 238 

7.9.2.14 Minimum Oil Buffer Strokes 238 

8.4.8.7 Stresses and Deflections of Guide-Rail Brackets and Supports 279 

8.4.11.3 Pipe Support Spacing 284 



8.4.12.2.2 Maximum Allowable Deflection 287 

8.11.2.1.3(cc)(l) Wire Suspension and Compensation Ropes 334 

8.11.2.1.3(cc)(3) 335 

8.11.2.3.4 Brake Test Loads 337 

Nonmandatory Appendices 

A Control System 353 

B Door Landing and Unlocking Zones 355 

C Location of Top Emergency Exit 356 

D Rated Load and Capacity Plates for Passenger Elevators 357 

E CSA B44 Elevator Requirements for Persons With Physical 

Disabilities 358 

F Ascending Car Overspeed and Unintended Car Movement 

Protection 366 

G Top of Car Clearance (3.4.4) 370 

H Private Residence Elevator Guarding (5.3.1.6.2) 372 

I Escalator and Moving Walk Diagrams 373 

J Relationship of Pit Ladder to Hoistway Door Unlocking Means 379 

K Beveling and Clearance Requirements (7.4.7.4) 380 

L Index of Alteration Requirements for Electric Elevators, Hydraulic 

Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Walks 381 

M Inertia Application for Type A Safety Device Location of Test Weight 

[8.10.2.2.2(bb)(2)] 386 

N Recommended Inspection and Test Intervals in "Months" 387 

P Plunger Gripper Stopping Distances 389 

Q Explanatory Figures for the Definitions of Elevator Machinery Space, 

Machine Room, Control Space, Control Room, Remote Machine 

Room, or Remote Control Room 390 

R Inspection Operation and Hoistway Access Switch Operation 

Hierarchy 393 

Index 395 



(07) 



ASME FOREWORD 



The first edition of this Code was published in January 
1921. It was prepared by an American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Protection 
of Industrial Workers with the assistance of representa- 
tives of a number of interests including manufacturers, 
insurance carriers, regulatory bodies, and technical soci- 
eties. 

Subsequently, ASME requested the American Engi- 
neering Standards Committee (AESC) to authorize the 
organization of a Sectional Committee to undertake this 
revision. They acted favorably on this request, and in 
January 1922, assigned sponsorship for the project 
jointly to the American Institute of Architects, the 
National Bureau of Standards, and ASME, all three of 
whom had taken an active part in the preparation of 
the first edition of the Code. 

The organization meeting of the Sectional Comnuttee 
A17 was held in November 1922. A number of meetings 
of the Committee were held during the next two years 
and in July 1925, a revision of the 1921 Code was com- 
pleted, approved by the AESC, and published as an 
American Standard. 

Subsequent to the publication of the 1925 revision of 
the Code, the necessity for development research on the 
design and construction of car safeties and oil buffers 
and for the development of test specifications for various 
parts of elevator equipment was realized. 

As a result, a Subcommittee on Research, Recommen- 
dations, and Interpretations was appointed in 1926. This 
subcommittee held regular meetings thereafter until 
interrupted by the war in 1940, and carried on an exten- 
sive test program at the National Bureau of Standards 
in connection with oil buffers and car safeties. Subse- 
quent to the war, the name of this subcommittee was 
changed to "Executive Committee for the Elevator 
Safety Code." 

The information gained as a result of these tests, 
together with the developments that had occurred in 
the design of the equipment as a result of installations 
made in very tall buildings, prompted the Sectional 
Conunittee to prepare and issue the third edition of the 
Code in 1931. The third edition was approved by the 
Sectional Committee in February 1931, and subse- 
quently by the sponsors and by the American Standards 
Association (formerly the AESC) in July 1931. 

Further experience and developments in the design 
of elevator equipment, led the Sectional Committee, in 
line with its policy of revising the Code periodically, to 
prepare the fourth edition in 1937, which was approved 



by the sponsors and by the American Standards Associa- 
tion (ASA) in July 1937. 

A fifth edition of the Code was well under way in 
1940 when it was necessary to suspend the work due 
to the Second World War. However, a number of the 
revisions already agreed upon by the Sectional Commit- 
tee and approved by the sponsors and by the ASA in 
April 1942, were issued as a supplement to the 1937 
edition. They were subsequently incorporated in a 
reprint of the 1937 edition in 1945. In response to public 
demand, requirements for private residence elevators 
were also issued in a separate supplement, ASA Al 7.1.5- 
1953, and incorporated into the Code as Part V in the 
1955 edition. 

The Sectional Committee reinitiated consideration of 
the fifth edition of the Code in 1946. Due to the consider- 
able period which had elapsed since the fourth revision 
in 1937, and to the very extensive developments in the 
elevator art, the committee decided that the Code should 
be completely rewritten and brought up to date. 

Special subcommittees were appointed to prepare the 
revisions of the various requirements. The membership 
of each subcommittee consisted of persons especially 
familiar with the requirements to be covered by that 
subcommittee. Fifteen subcommittees were set up with 
a total membership of over 150 persons. The member- 
ship of these subcommittees was not confined to mem- 
bers of the Sectional Committee. It also included other 
persons having expert knowledge of the subjects under 
consideration by the subcommittees. These subcommit- 
tees and their personnel were listed in the 1955 edition 
of the Code. 

The drafts prepared by these subcommittees were 
widely circulated to interested groups for comment. 
After review of the comments and correlation of the 
drafts, the fifth edition of the Code was approved by 
the Sectional Committee, subsequently by the sponsors, 
and by the ASA in June 1955. 

In December 1957, a Supplement to the Code Listing 
a number of revisions was approved by the ASA and 
published by ASME. 

A sixth edition was published in 1960 which incorpo- 
rated the revisions contained in the 1957 Supplement as 
well as approximately 96 revisions which were approved 
by the Sectional Committee in March 1960. 

In 1958 the scope of the A17 Code was enlarged to 
include moving walks. The membership of the Sectional 
Committee was expanded to include manufacturers 
whose primary interest in the Comnuttee was the devel- 
opment of rules and regulations on moving walks. A 



vui 



subcommittee prepared a Safety Code for Moving Walks 
which was approved by the Sectional Committee, the 
sponsors, and by the ASA on March 20, 1962. This Code 
was published as Part XIII of the A17.1 Code, and was 
designated ASA A17.1.13-1962. 

During 1962 and 1963, 38 additional changes to Parts 
I through XII of A17.1 were approved by the Sectional 
Committee, the sponsors, aiid the ASA, and were pub- 
lished as the 1963 Supplement to the 1960 edition of the 
Code. 

A seventh edition was published in 1965 which incor- 
porated the rules of the Safety Code for Moving Walks, 
ASA A17.1.13-1962, as Part Xm, the revisions covered 
by the 1963 Supplement as well as approximately 90 
other revisions approved by the Sectional Committee, 
the sponsors, and the ASA. The title of the Code was 
also changed to the American Standard Safety Code for 
Elevators, Diunbwaiters, Escalators, and Moving Walks. 

On August 24, 1966, the American Standards Associa- 
tion was reconstituted as the United States of America 
Standards Institute. The designation of standards 
approved as American Standards was changed to USA 
Standards. There was no change in the index identifica- 
tion or the technical content of the standards. At the 
same time, the ASA Sectional Committee, A17 on A 
Safety Code for Elevators, was changed to the USA Stan- 
dards Committee, A17 on A Safety Code for Elevators. 
Four supplements to this edition were published from 
1967 through 1970. 

The United States of America Standards Institute later 
changed its name to American National Standards Insti- 
tute, Incorporated (ANSI) on October 6, 1969. At the 
time that the new name became effective, the designa- 
tion USA Standard was changed to American National 
Standard and the name of committees changed from 
USA Standards Committees to American National Stan- 
dards Committees. The alphabetical designation of stan- 
dard documents was changed from USA to ANSI. 

The eighth edition of the Code (1971) incorporated 
the revisions covered by the four supplements and an 
additional 94 revisions. Seven supplements were issued 
from 1972 through 1976. Part XIV covering Material Lifts 
and Ehimbwaiters with Automatic Transfer Devices was 
added in supplement ANSI A17.1d-1975. 

The ninth edition of the Code (1978) incorporated 75 
revisions in addition to those covered by the previous 
supplements. Part XV covering Special Purpose Person- 
nel Elevators was added and the Reference Codes, Stan- 
dards, and Specifications were moved from the Preface 
to a new Part XVI. Two supplements to this edition were 
issued in 1979 and 1980. 

The tenth edition of the Code (1981) incorporated the 
revisions covered by Supplements ANSI A17.1a-1979 
and ANSI A17.1b-1980, as well as the following new 
material: Part XVII, Inclined lilevators; Appendix F, Seis- 
mic Regulations; and Appendix G, Recommended Prac- 
tice for Accelerating Moving Walks. Rule 211.3 and Part 



V were also completely revised, with the Private Resi- 
dence Inclined Lifts moved to Part XVin. Numerous 
other revisions and additions were also included which 
were approved since the time of the 1980 supplement. 

The tenth edition of the Code was approved by the 
A17 Standards Committee. Since that time, the commit- 
tee was reorganized in accordance with the ANSI 
Accredited Organization Method under the sponsorship 
of ASME. With this reorganization, the National Bureau 
of Standards and the American Institute of Architects 
relinquished their roles as cosecretariats. The Standards, 
Conference, and Executive Committees were also 
restructured as the Main Committee and the National 
Interest Review Committee, with the Working Commit- 
tees (subcommittees) continuing to operate as before. 

This reorganization also prompted a change in the 
title of the Code to the ANSI/ ASME A17.1 Safety Code 
for Elevators and Escalators. The title was also shortened 
for convenience, and it should not be construed that the 
Code no longer covers dumbwaiters, moving walks, or 
the other equipment included within the Scope of the 
Code. 

Two supplements to the 1981 edition were issued: 
ANSI/ASME A17.1a-1982 and ANSI/ASME A17.1b- 
1983. The 1982 supplement included a new Part XIX 
covering Elevators Used for Construction. In the 1983 
supplement, the requirements for Private Residence 
Inclined Lifts in Part XVIII were expanded and incorpo- 
rated into a new Part XXI covering Private Residence 
Inclined Stairway Chairlifts and Inclined and Vertical 
Wheelchair Lifts. Part XX was added to cover these same 
devices installed in buildings other than private resi- 
dences. Requirements for Screw Column Elevators were 
also added and designated as Part XVEEI. 

The eleventh edition of the Code (1984) incorporated 
the changes made in the 1982 and 1983 supplements, as 
well as additional revisions. 

The eleventh edition was updated with five supple- 
ments which were issued approximately every 6 months 
in 1985 through the spring of 1987. Appendix I (since 
redesignated as Appendix E) was added in 
ANSI/ASME A17.1a-1985. Requirements for rack and 
pinion elevators were added in ANSI/ASME A17.1c- 
1986, designated as Part XVI. The previous Part XVI 
(Reference Codes, Standards, and Specifications) was 
moved to Section 4 of the Introduction. In 
ANSI/ASME A17.1d-1986, the requirements for side- 
walk elevators in Part IV, and alterations in Part XII, 
were completely revised. 

The twelfth edition of the Code incorporated the 
changes made in supplements A17.1a-1985 through 
A17.1e-1987, as well as additional revisions. Among 
these changes was a complete revision of the require- 
ments for dimibwaiters in Part VII, The format of the 
Code was also changed editorially to incorporate Excep- 
tions into the body of the Rules. 



IX 



The thirteenth edition of the Code incorporated the 
changes made in A17.1a-1988 and A17.1b-1989 as well 
as additional revisions. Part XXII, Shipboard Elevators, 
was added in A17.1b-1989. Part XXIII, Rooftop Elevators, 
appeared for the first tirae in this edition. 

The fourteenth edition of the Code incorporates the 
changes made in A17.1a-1991 and A17.1b-1992 as well 
as the revisions shown in the Summary of Changes. 
Safety requirements for seismic risk zone 3 and greater 
were moved fron\ Appendix F into new Part XXIV, Eleva- 
tor Safety Requirements for Seismic Risk Zone 2 or 
Greater. Requirements for seismic risk zone 2 were 
added to Part XXIV. 

The fifteenth edition of the Code incorporates the 
changes made in A17.1a-1994 and A17.1b-1995 as well 
as the revisions shown in the Summary of Changes. Part 
XXV, Limited Use /Limited Application Elevators, was 
added in A17.1b-1995. The rules in Part III have been 
harmonized with the CAN/CSA B44, Elevator Safety 
Standard, Sections 4 and 11, and Appendix G4. 

The sixteenth edition of the Code incorporates 
changes made in A17.1a-1997 through A17.1d-2000. 
Requirements for Mine Elevators have also been added 
in Section 5.9 of this edition. In addition, the entire Code 
was reformatted to incorporate a decimal numbering 
system. For this edition of the Code cross-reference 
tables have been provided in order to facilitate the corre- 
lation between requirernents from the fifteenth edition 



of the Code to the renumbered requirements of the six- 
teenth edition and vice versa. It is also noted, that this 
edition of A17.1 was the result of a joint effort between 
the ASME A17 Elevator and Escalator Committee and 
the CSA B44 Technical Coirmiittee to harmoruze require- 
ments between the ASME A17.1, Safety Code for Eleva- 
tors and Escalators, and the CSA B44, Safety Code for 
Elevators. 

The seventeenth edition of the Code incorporates 
changes made in A17.1a-2002 and A17.1b-2003. Addi- 
tionally, in Sections 8.10 and 8.11, cross-references have 
been updated to reflect ASME A17.2-2001, Guide for 
Inspection of Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Walks. 

This eighteenth edition of the Code is a fully 
bi-national standard. All former deviations between the 
ASME A17.1 Code and the CSA B44 Code have been 
fully addressed within this one Code. Additionally, this 
edition incorporates revisions to address the advance- 
ment of technologies used in the design and construction 
of elevator equipment which has enabled the installation 
of the equipment in other than traditional locations such 
as machine rooms. New requirements have also been 
added to address programmable electronic systems in 
safety-related applications of elevators. 

The following is a complete Hst of past editions and 
supplements to the Code that have been published and 
the dates when they received final approval. The dates of 
issuance are also included for the documents published 
since 1974, and the dates on which they became effective 
are included for those pubhshed since 1978. 



Editions and Supplements 


Approved 


Issued 


First Edition 


1921 


January 1921 




Second Edition 


A17-1925 


April 1925 




Third Edition 


ASA A17-1931 


July 1931 




Fourth Edition 
Supplements 


ASA A17.1-1937 
ASA A17.3-1942 
ASA A17.1.5-1953 


July 1937 
AprU 1942 
June 9, 1953 




Fifth Edition 
Supplements 


ASA A17.1-1955 
ASA A17.1a-1957 


June 15, 1955 
December 10, 1957 




Sixth Edition 
Supplements 


ASA A17.1-1960 
ASA A17.1.13~1962 
ASA A17.1a-1963 


August 29, 1960 
March 20, 1962 
August 16, 1963 




Seventh Edition 
Supplements 


ASA A17.1-1965 
USAS A17.1a-1967 
USAS A17.1b-1968 
USAS A17.1C-1969 
ANSI A17.1d-1970 


July 29, 1965 
July 7, 1967 
December 11, 1968 
May 6, 1969 
March 2, 1970 




Eighth Edition 
Supplements 


ANSI A17.1-1971 
ANSI A17.1a-1972 
ANSI A17.1b-1973 
ANSI A17.1C-1974 
ANSI A17.1d-1975 
ANSI A17.1e-1975 


July 27, 1971 
February 16, 1972 
October 11, 1973 
April 26, 1974 
February 26, 1975 
March 26, 1975 


September 15, 1974 
October 31, 1975 
October 31, 1975 



Effective 



• 



Editions and Supjplements 


Approved 


Issued 


Effective 




ANSI A17.1f-1975 


AprU 2, 1975 


October 31, 1975 






ANSI A17.1g-1976 


August 12, 1976 


November 30, 1976 




Ninth Edition 


ANSI A17.1-1978 


May 4, 1978 


June 15, 1978 


September 15, 1978 


Supplements 


ANSI A17.1a-1979 


February 5, 1979 


March 30, 1979 


June 30, 1979 




ANSI A17.1b-1980 


March 20, 1980 


May 15, 1980 


August 15, 1980 


Tenth Edition 


ANSI/ASME A17.1-1981 


September 8, 1981 


October 22, 1981 


AprU 22, 1982 


Supplements 


ANSI/ASME A17.1a-1982 


October 5, 1982 


November 30, 1982 


May 30, 1983 




ANSI/ASME A17.1b-1983 


October 24, 1983 


December 23, 1983 


June 23, 1984 


Eleventh Edition 


ANSI/ASME A17.1-1984 


August 16, 1984 


September 16, 1984 


March 16, 1985 


Supplements 


ANSI/ASME A17.1a-1985 


February 27, 1985 


April 15, 1985 


October 15, 1985 




ANSI/ASME A17.1b-1985 


August 6, 1985 


October 15, 1985 


April 15, 1986 




ANSI/ASME A17.1C-1986 


March 5, 1986 


April 30, 1986 


October 31, 1986 




ANSI/ASME A17.1d-1986 


September 8, 1986 


November 30, 1986 


May 31, 1987 




ANSI/ASME A17.1e-1987 


February 18, 1987 


April 30, 1987 


October 30, 1987 


Twelfth Edition 


ASME/ANFSI A17.1-1987 


October 20, 1987 


January 15, 1988 


July 16,1988 


Supplements 


ASME/AJ>JSI A17.1a-1988 


October 6, 1988 


November 15, 1988 


May 16, 1989 




ASME/AiSrSI A17.1b-1989 


November 10, 1989 


November 30, 1989 


May 31, 1990 


Thirteenth Edition 


ASME A17.1-1990 


October 8, 1990 


February 8, 1991 


August 9, 1991 


Supplements 


ASME A17.1a-1991 


October 21, 1991 


February 28, 1992 


August 29, 1992 




ASME A17.1b-1992 


October 28, 1992 


December 29, 1992 


June 30, 1993 


Fourteenth Edition 


ASME A17.1-1993 


October 18, 1993 


December 31, 1993 


July 1, 1994 


Supplements 


ASME A17.1a-1994 


August 17, 1994 


December 31, 1994 


July 1, 1995 




ASME A17.1b-1995 


October 5, 1995 


January 31, 1996 


August 1, 1996 


Fifteenth Edition 


ASME A17.1-1996 


October 3, 1996 


December 31, 1996 


July 1, 1997 


Supplements 


ASME A17.1a-1997 


January 8, 1998 


February 27, 1998 


August 28, 1998 




ASME A17.1b-1998 


November 13, 1998 


February 19, 1999 


August 20, 1999 




ASME A17.1C-1999 


May 13, 1999 


June 30, 1999 


December 31, 1999 




ASME A17.1d-2000 


October 12, 2000 


November 30, 2000 


January 31, 2001 


Sixteenth Edition 


ASME A17.1-2000 


October 16, 2000 


March 23, 2001 


March 23, 2002 


Supplements 


ASME A17.1a-2002 


February 26, 2002 


April 4, 2002 


October 4, 2002 




ASME A17.1b-2003 


April 10, 2003 


May 30, 2003 


November 30, 2003 


Seventeenth Edition 


ASME A17.1-2004 


January 14, 2004 


AprH 30, 2004 


October 31, 2004 


Supplements 


ASME A17.1a-2005 


March 18, 2005 


AprU 29, 2005 


October 29, 2005 




ASME A17.1S-2005 


March 23, 2005 


August 12, 2005 


February 12, 2006 


Eighteenth Edition 


ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 


February 20, 2007 


AprU 6, 2007 


October 6, 2007 



(ED) 



XI 



ASMEA17 ELEVATOR 
AND ESCALATOR COMMITTEE 



(May 2007) 



STANDARDS COMMITTEE 

J. W. Coaker. Chair 
H. E. Peelle III, Vice Chair 
N. B. Martin, Vice Chair 
G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretory 
E. V. Baker, NEIEP 

R. E. Baxter, Richard E. Baxter and Associates, LLC 
L. Bialy. Otis Elevator Co. 
N. Marchitto, Aiternate, Otis Elevator Co. 
J. R, Brooks, North Carolina Department of Labor 
W. C. Burklund, Kone, Inc. 
J. W. Coaker, Coaker & Co., PC 
E. A. Donoghue, Edward A. Donoghue Associates, Inc. 
R. E. Droste, Consultant 

j. A. Filippone, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey 
J. H. Humphrey, Alternate. Port Authority of New York and New 
jersey 

C. C. Fox, Rainbow Security Control Ltd. 

G. W. Gibson, George W. Gibson and Associates, Inc. 

R. A. Gregory, Vertex Corp. 

A. P. juhasz, Kone, Inc. 

L. C. Kanicki, Elevator Subcode Official Township of Burlington, NJ 

G. A. Kappenhagen, Schindler Elevator Corp. 

J. W. Koshak, Thyssen Krupp Elevator Co. 

H, Simpklns, Alternate, Thyssen Krupp Elevator Co. 

K. S. Lloyd, Abell Elevator International 

S. K. Lloyd, Alternate, Abell Elevator International 

N. B. Martin, Chief Elevator Insp. State of Ohio 

Z. R. McCain, Jr., McCain Engineering Associates, Inc. 

M. V. Farinola, Alternate, MV Farinola, Inc. 

D. McColl, Otis Canada, Inc. 

H. E. Peelle III, The Peelle Co., Ltd. 

S. P. Reynolds, Alternate, The Peelle Co., Ltd. 

R. L. Phillips, Georgia Department of Labor 

A. Rehman, Schindler Elevator Corp. 

V. P. Robibero, Schindler Elevator Corp. 

C. W. Rogler, State of Michigan 

R. L. Seymour, Robert L. Seymour and Associates, Inc. 

R. S. Seymour, Alternate, Robert L. Seymour and Associates, Inc. 

D. L. Steel, David L. Steel Escalators 

D. L. Turner, Davis L. Turner & Associates 
R. S. Caporale, Alternate, Elevator World, Inc. 
A. H. Verschell, Consulting Engineer 

C. E. VlahovIc, TSSA 

R. Haddaller, Alternate, TSSA 

D. M. Winkle, lUEC Local #14 

D. A. Witham, GAL Manufacturing 



L. |. Blaiotta 

W. E. Chamberlain 

B. J. Fanguy 
W. J. Figiel 

H. E. Godwin, Jr. 

C. E. Hempel 
C. L Kort 



Honorary Members 

A. A. Mascone 
J. McAulay, Jr. 
E. M. Philpot 
R. L. Rogers 
R. W. Young 
L. E. White 



L. C. Kanicki, Chair 
N. B. Martin, Vice Chair 
G. A. Burdeshaw, Staff 

Secretory 
J. R. Runyan, Secretary 
G. Antona 
J. R. Brooks 
J. H. Burpee 
P. Cap loon 
N. C. Dimitruck 
A. N. Griffin 
R. F. Hadaller 
S. J. Hickory 



Regulatory Advisory Council 

I. D. Jay 

M. J. Mellon, Jr. 
J. L. Meyer 
K. P. Morse 
M. E. Pedersen 
J. P. Roche 

C. W. Rogler 

D. M. Stanlaske 
S. F. Stout 
L. M. Taylor 
C. D. Wagner 
W. C. Watson 
W. J. Witt 



NATIONAL INTEREST REVIEW COMMITTEE 



J. P. Andrew 
G. Antona 
T. D. Barkand 
M. L. Blankenship 
R. J. Blatz 
|. E. Brannon 
M. T. Brierley 
J. A. Caluori 
M. A. Chavez 
H. J. Clifford 
R. F. Dieter 
B. Faerber 
J. G. Gerk 
L. A. Giovannetti 
N. R. Herchell 
J. E. Herwig 
J. Inglis 
F. A. Kilian 
M. L Lane 



W. R. Larsen 

B. H. Larson 

M. R. Liberatore 
M. A. Malek 
J. J. Mancuso 

C. C. Mann 

N. E. Marchitto 
J. J. Marcusky 
J. L. Meyer 
T. S. Mowrey 
F. G. Newman 
J. J. O'Donoghue 
M. J. Pfeiffer 
M. Poulin 
P. M. Puno 
L. S. Rigby 
R. D. Schloss 
S. Shanes 

D. A. Swerrie 



Xll 



B44.1/A17.5 ELEVATdR AND ESCALATOR 
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT COMMITTEE 



J. H. ShuU, Chair 
M. L. Hite, Vice Chair 
T. J. Tulshi, Secretary 
P. D. Bamhart 
J. W. Blain 
A. D. Brown 
J. D. Busse 
J. Caldwell 
I. D. Jay 



R. MacKenzie 

P. F. McDermott 

M. Mihai 

A. Rehman 

j. P. Rennekamp 

V. M. Todt 

J. L. Delia Porta, Alternate 

J. M. Weber, Alternate 



CODE COORDINATION COMMITTEE 

E. A. Donoghue, Choir G. A. Gress 



G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 

L Bialy 

R. Bukowski 

P. Caploon 

R. Cote 

G. W. Gibson 



G. A. Kappenhagen 
J. W. Koshak 
E. D. Kuligowski 
K. Paarlberg 
R. D. Weber 



DUMBWAITER AND ATD COMMITTEE 



J. B. Peskuski, Chair 

R. Mohamed, Secretary 

R. Dolan 

E. A. Donoghue 

R. A. Gregory 

M. J. Holat 



K. Holdcraft 
R. Kremer 

B. P. McCune 

C. Milley 

H. E. Peelle. Jr. 



EARTHQUAKE SAFETY COMMITTEE 

G. W. Gibson, Chair W. C. Ribeiro 

J. Smith, Vice Choir J. K. Ruth 

E. S. Cho, Secretary W. C. Schadrack 

B. Blackaby A. J. Schiff 

R. E. Droste A. J. Shelton 

R. E. Fleming D. A. Kalgren, Alternate 

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE 



E. A. Donoghue, Chair 

D. JVlcColl, Vice Choir 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretory 



J. A. Filippone 
C. E. Vlahovic 



ELECTRICAL COMMITTEE 



A. P. Juhasz, Chair 

J. D. Busse, Vice Choir 
G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 
T. D. Barkand 
P. D. Barn hart 
S. H. Benjamin 

B. Blackaby 
J. W. Blain 
J. Caldwell 

F. J. Christensen 
J. P. Donnelly 

R. E. Droste 
R. Elias 
S. E. Fisher 

G. Henry 
Y. C. Ho 

N. E. IVlarchitto 



P. F. JVIcDermott 

T. iVIoskal 

A. L. Peck 

D. K. Prince 

P. iW. Puno 

V. P. Robibero 

M. Stergulc 

M. Yonemoto 

D, Alley, Alternate 

R. L. Frazler, Alternate 

S. H. Grainer, Alternate 

R. F. Hadaller, Alternate 

D. Henderson, Alternate 

tA, Mihai, Alternate 

T. H. Nguyen, Alternate 

J. P. Rennekamp, Alternate 

J. M, Weber, Alternate 



ELEVATORS USED FOR CONSTRUCTION 
COMMITTEE 



N. B. JVIartin, Choir 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 

R. E. Baxter 

E. A. Donoghue 



C. C. Fox 

J. R. Quackenbush 

C. W. Rogler 



EMERGENCY OPERATIONS COMMITTEE 



M. JVIartin, Choir 

R. Mohamed, Secretary 

J. Beamish 

D. R. Beste 

JVI. T. Brierley 

M. W. Bunker, Jr. 

P. Caploon 

D. Cook 

E. A. Donoghue 

B. R. Fraser 
D. Henderson 
S. R. James 

C. Koenig 
J. Latham 

D. McColl 

C. H. Murphy 



T. F. Norton 

J. J. O'Donoghue 

R. L O'Neill 

D. K. Prince 

A. Rehman 

L. F. Richardson 

R. L Seymour 

M. Tevyaw 

D. J. Winslow 

D. A. Witham 

J. C. Carlson, Alternate 

R. F. Hadaller, Alternate 

H. ickes. Alternate 

J. K. O'Donnell, Alternate 

R. J. Roux, Alternate 

J. Varon, Alternate 



ESCALATOR AND MOVING WALK COMMITTEE 



D. L. Steel, Chair 

D. L. Turner, Vice Chair 

R. Mohamed, Secretary 

K. A. Apperson 

P. E. Burge 

D. R. Evans 

J. Filippone 

J. G. Gerk 

R. A. Glanzmann 

P. L. Hackett 

K. Harris 

H. A. Hausmann 

J. A. Kinahan 



C. Milley 

T. G. Moskal 
T. R. Nurnberg 

D. E. Rush 
K. J. Smith 
P. J. Welch 

A. D. Clarke, Jr., Alternate 
R. E. Creak, Alternate 
K. G. Ham by. Alternate 
A. Rehman, Alternate 
J. E. Tyler, Alternate 
P. Velasquez, Jr., Alternate 



EVACUATION GUIDE COMMITTEE 



D. L. Turner, Choir 

R. S. Seymour, Vice Choir 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 

D. Cook 

E. A. Donoghue 



R. E. Fleming 
C. C. Fox 
J. L Meyer 
J. O'Donoghue 



xiu 



EXISTING INSTALLATIONS COMMITTEE 



D. B. Labrecque, Chair 

E. S. Cho, Secretary 
R. E. Baxter 

J. Bera 

M. L Blankenship 

W. C. Burklund 

J. H. Butler 

J. D. Carlisle. Jr. 

E. A. Donoghue 

C J. Duke 

A. T. Gazzaniga 

R. A. Gregory 

J. A. Jaudes 

A. P. Jolly 
R. Kremer 

B. H. Larson 
R. Lauch 



K. S. Lloyd, Jr. 

G. M. Losey 

Z. R. McCain. Jr. 

D. McColl 

P. McPartland 

N. R. Mistry 

G. Nyborg Hi 

R. L. Phillips 

S. A. Quinn 

T. Quinn 

J. S. Rearick 

A. J. Saxer 

G. Stiffler 

P. J. Welch 

L. E. White 

R. D. Cary, Alternate 



HAND AND SIDEWALK ELEVATOR COMMITTEE 



R. S. Caporale, Chair 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 

V. G. Bahna 

E. A. Donoghue 

G. Greenberg 



H. J. Macuga 

N. J. Montesano 

G. West 

J. P. Merkel, Alternate 



HOISTWAY COMMITTEE 



L. M. Capuano, Choir 
D. McColl. Vice Chair 
R. Mohamed. Secretary 
L. Bialy 
L. J. Blaiotta 

D. S, Boucher 

F. R. Cooper 

E. A. Donoghue 

G. W. Gibson 

H. J. Gruszynski 
R. F. Hadaller 
J. L Harding 
M. E. Jagoditz 
J. R. Johnson 
D. Kaczmarek 
D. P. Kraft 



H. E. Peelle 111 
R. L. Phillips 
R. Quinlan 

F. Regalado 
A. Rehman 

S. P. Reynolds 

H. Simpkins 

S. W. Smith 

D. A. Witham 

A. S. Conkling. Alternate 

M. P. Lamb, Alternate 

R. K. Leckman, Alternate 

G. L. Nuschler, Alternate 
M. Tevyaw, Alternate 

K. Uerling. Alternate 
J. Varon, Alternate 



HYDRAULIC COMMITTEE 



G. A. Kappenhagen. Chair 

M. G. Miller, Vice Chair 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 

L. Bialy 

P. E. Burge 

C. C. Fox 

R. F. Hadaller 

H. A. Hammerstrom 

C. B. Jackson 
A. Jahn 

D. McColl 

T. S. Mowrey 
L. S. Rigby 



C. W. Rogler 
J. N. Rouse III 
W. M. Shrum. Jr. 
H. Simpkins 

D. B. Spaethe 
J. Strzelec 

J. A. Kennedy. Alternate 
J. W. Koshak. Alternate 
A. M. McClement. Alternate 
S. S. Pearson, Alternate 
A. Rehman. Alternate 
K. Rice. Alternate 
J. L. Shrum, Alternate 



INCLINED ELEVATOR COMMITTEE 

A. H. Veischell, Chair R. Ellas 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary T. L. Pope 

J. R. Carrtck 

INSPECTIONS COMMITTEE 



K. S. Lloyd, Jr., Chair 

W. F. Barkman, Vice Chair 

R. Mohamed. Secretary 

G. Antona 

C. Archer 

R. E. Baxter 

M. L Blankenship 

J. R. Brooks 

J. W. Coaker 

C. E. Cunningham 

E. A. Donoghue 

M. V. Farinola 

J. A. Filippone 

H. S. Frank 

R. F. Hadaller 

J. T. Herrity 

L C. Kanicki 



INTERNATIONAL 

G. W. Gibson, Chair 

L. Bialy, Vice Choir 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 

V. a Bates 

B. Blackaby 

R. S. Caporale 

E. A. Donoghue 

R. E. Droste 

G. L. Harmon 



J. J. Knolmajer 
N. B. Martin 
Z. R. McCain, Jr. 
J. S. Rearick 

C. W. Rogler 

J. D. Rosenberger 
R. D. Schloss 
R. S. Seymour 
W. M. Snyder 

D. M. Stanlaske 
J. Strzelec 

M. Tevyaw 

J. A. Kennedy. Alternate 
S. K. Lloyd, Alternate 
D. McLellan. Alternate 



STANDARDS COMMITTEE 

A. P. Juhasz 

G. A. Kappenhagen 

J. W. Koshak 

V. P. Robibero 

D. M. Stanlaske 

J. Strzelec 

D. L. Turner 

T. Derwinski, Alternate 

D. R. Evans, Alternate 



# 



LIMITED-USE/LIMITED-APPLICATION 
ELEVATOR COMMITTEE 



R. L Baxter, Choir 

D. C. Balmer, Vice Chair 
C. S. Bradley, Secretary 
P. M. Bass 

K. Brinkman 
R. G. Buonora 
P. Chance 

E. A. Donoghue 
C. C. Fox 

F. J. Giampa 
E. J. Matot II 
M. L. McDonald 



W. M. McKinley 

C. H. Murphy 
R. Murphy 

S. Z. Sanossian 
M. W. Schumacher 
R. D. Stephens 
A. H. Verschell 
R. B. Weber 

D. M. Winkle 

G. L. Harmon, Alternate 
J. L. Mickel, Alternate 



XIV 



MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND REPLACEMENT 



COMMITTEE 



NEW TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE 



Z. R. McCain, Jr., Chair 

R. A. Gregory, Vice Chair 

E. S. Cho, Secretary 

R. E. Baxter 

M. L Blankenship 

|. J. DeLorenzi 

E. A. Donoghue 

C. J. Duke 

M. V. Farinola 
J. A. RUppone 
S. P. Greene 
R. F. Hadaller 
R. E. Haukeness 
A. S. Hopkirk 
J. E. Jaster 
J. A. Jaudes 
R. Kremer 

D. B. Labrecque 



B. H. Larson 

K. S. Lloyd, Jr. 

G. M. Losey 

D. McCoU 

N. R. IMistry 

R. C. Morrical 

J. IMurphy 

W. B. Pletch 

J. R. Quackenbush 

T. Quinn 

J. S. Rearick 

A. Rehman 

V. P. Robibero 

A. Saxer 

R. D. Schloss 

J. Strzelec 

R. Lauch, Alternate 



MECHANICAL DESIGN COMMITTEE 



G. W. Gibson, Chair 
I. Blaly, Vice Chair 

D. L Turner, Vice Chair 

E. S. Clio, Secretary 
E. V. Baker 

R. J. Bolen 
R. E. Fleming 

C. C. Fox 
H. S. Frank 
R. F. Hadaller 

D. Kaczmarek 
D. A. Kalgren 
IC Konyar 

J. W. Kosliak 



IVl. P. Umb 
M. L. Lane 
D. McColl 
T. G. IMoskal 
A. Rehman 
W. C. Ribeiro 
H. Simpkins 

C. E. Vlahovic 
S. P. Wurlh 

R. E. Creak, Alternate 
JM. E. Jagoditz, Alternate 

D. P. Kraft, Alternate 
R. Kremer, Alternate 



MINE ELEVATOR COMMITTEE 



T. D. Barkand, Chair 
E. S. Cho, Secretary 

C. D. Barchet 
R. M. Bates 
W. JM. Dietz 
P. E. Fematt 
M. G. Kalich 
J. B. Ketchem 

D. C. Lewetag 



A. L. IMartin 
N. B. Martin 
G. L. Miller 
H. E. Newcomb 
A. J. Saxer 
D. J. Shook 
R. L. Sidwell 
J. K. Taylor 



J. W. Coaker, Chair 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 

M. H. Bayyari 

L. Bialy 

A. D. Brown 

A. D. Byram 

R. S. Caporale 

L. M. Capuano 

E. A. Donoghue 

R. E. Droste 

G. W. Gibson 

A. N. Griffin 

1. D. Jay 

A. P. Juhasz 



L C Kanicki 

R. M. Kennedy 

J. W. Koshak 

G. W. Kosinski 

R. H. Laney 

K. S. Lloyd, Jr. 

D. McColl 

M. Pedram 

V. P. Robibero 

D. M. Stanlaske 

T. J. TulshI 

D. L. Turner 

C. E. Vlahovic 

R. E. Baxter, Alternate 



RACK AND PINION AND SPECIAL PURPOSE 
PERSONNEL ELEVATOR COMMITTEE 



A. J. Marchant, Chair 

P. E. Borders, Vice Choir 
G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary 

B. E. Cassity 
G. A. Cox 

D. F. Grund 



5. Harris 

J. A. Harrison 

R. E. Haukeness 

B. L. O'Neill 

P. J. Welch 

K. M. Harrison, Alternate 



RESIDENCE ELEVATOR COMMITTEE 



A. H. Verschell. Chair 
P. M. Bass, Vice Chair 

C. S. Bradley, Secretory 

D. C. Balmer 
R. E. Baxter 
K. Brinkman 
R. G. Buonora 
P. Chance 

D. J. DeGere 
P. Edwards 
R. Ellas 
F. J. Giampa 
F. M. Hoch 



M. J. Holat 

S. D. Holat 

M. L McDonald 

W. M. McKinley 

W. M. Middleton 

R. Murphy 

R. L Phillips 

T. L. Pope 

R. D. Stephens 

G. L. Harmon, Alternate 

J. C. Lund, Alternate 

J. L. Mickel, Alternate 

J. B. Peskuski, Alternate 



SHIPBOARD ELEVATOR COMMITTEE 

M. R. Tilyou, Choir W. D. George 

G. A. Burdeshaw, Secretary T. J. Ingram 

E. J. Crawford R. Wagner 



XV 



CSA B44 COMMITTEE 
ON THE ELEVATOR SAFETY CODE 



TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 

R. Hadaller, Chair, Technical Standards and Safety Authority, 

Toronto. Ontario, Canada 
D. McCoU, Vice Chair, Otis Canada, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, 

Canada 
T, Tulshi, Project Manager, Canadian Standards Association, 

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 
T. Baik« Toronto Transit Commission, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
S. Bomstein, KONE Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
A. Byram, New Brunswici^ Department of Public Safety, Saint John, 

New Brunswick, Canada 
R. Cavan, Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 

Ottawa, Ontario. Canada 
D. Cook, Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada 

D. Eastman, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. 
John's, Newfoundland, Canada 

A. Griffin, Albert:a Municipal Affairs, Edmonton, Albert:a, Canada 
A. Hopkirk, Canadian Elevator Contractors Association, 

Scarborough, Ontario. Canada 
U. Huskic, Fujitec Canada Inc., Richmond Hill, Ontario. Canada 
L. Janssens, Saskatchewan Corrections and Public Safety, 

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada 
I. Jay, British Columbia Safety Authority (BCSA), New Westminster, 

British Columbia, Canada 
K. Jenkins KJA Consultants Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
F. Kassem, CNIM Canada Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
I. Kennedy, Brighton, Ontario, Canada 
R. Kennedy, Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour, 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada 

E. MacArthur, Prince Edward Island Department of Community and 
Cultural Affairs, Charlottetown. Prince Edward Island, Canada 

A. Marchant, Allmak Hek, Inc., Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA 
R. Marion, Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, 

Northwest Territories, Canada 
R. JMarsiglio, H. H. Angus & Associates Ltd., Don Mills, Ontario, 

Canada 
L Martineau, STM (Montreal Transport Society), Montreal, Quebec, 

Canada 

A. McGregor, Rooney, Irving & Associates Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario, 
Canada 

B. Mclntyre, lUEC Local No. 50, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada 
S. Mercier, Regie du batiment du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, 

Canada 
M. Pedram, ThyssenKrupp Northern Elevator Corp., Scarborough, 

Ontario, Canada 
H. Peelle, The Peelle Company Limited, Brampton, Ontario, 

Canada 
A. Rehman, Schindler Elevator Corporation, Scarborough, Ontario, 

Canada 
T. Rieger, Manitoba Department of Labour and Immigration, 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada 
J. Rooney, Priestman, Neilson & Associates Ltd., Kanata, Ontario, 

Canada 
R. Scharfe, Public Works and Government Services Canada, 

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 



B. Virk, Unitech Elevator Company, Pickering, Ontario, Canada 
P. Yau, Public Works and Government Services Canada, Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada 



Associate Members 

G. Befekadu, Oil Lift Systems Inc., Ayr, Ontario, Canada 

L Bialy, Otis Elevator Company, Farmington, Connecticut, USA 

B. Blackaby, Otis Elevator Company, Farmington, Connecticut, USA 

M. Brierley, Coldwater, Ontario, Canada 

A. Brown, KONE Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

E. Donoghue, Edward A. Donoghue Associates Incorporated, 

Salem, New York, USA 
R. Droste, Avon, Connecticut, USA 
G. Gibson, George W. Gibson & Associates Inc., Sedona, Arizona, 

USA 
P, Girouard, Plafolift Inc., Warwick, Quebec, Canada 
G. Kappenhagen, Schindler Elevator Corporation, Morristown, New 

Jersey, USA 
j. Koshak, ThyssenKrupp Elevator, Collierville, Tennessee, USA 
M. Liberatore, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada 
I. Mercer, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, St John's, 

Newfoundland, Canada 
A. Reistetter, National Elevator & Escalator Association, 

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 
E. Sopeju, Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada, Scarborough, 

Ontario, Canada 
D. Walton, Eastern Elevator Inc., Bowmanville, Ontario, Canada 

D. Wame, Alberta Elevating Devices and Amusement Rides Safety 
Association, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 

E. Zebedee, Government of Nunavut Community and Government 
Services, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

T. Tulshi, Project Manager, Canadian Standards Association, 

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 
S. Bornstein, KONE Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
R. Hadaller, Technical Standards & Safety Authority, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada 
L, Janssens, Saskatchewan Corrections and Public Safety, 

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada 
1. Jay, British Columbia Safety Authority (BCSA), New Westminster, 

British Columbia, Canada 
R. Kennedy, Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour, 

Halifax, Nova Scotia. Canada 
D. McCoU, Otis Canada, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 
S. Mercier, Regie du batiment du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, 

Canada 
M. Pedram, ThyssenKrupp Northern Elevator Corp., Scarborough, 

Ontario, Canada 
A. Rehman, Schindler Elevator Corporation, Scarborough, Ontario, 

Canada 



• 



XVI 



CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5; JOINT COMMITTEE ON 

ELEVATOR AND ESCALATOR ELECTRICAL 

EQUIPMENT 

J. ShuU, Chair, Otis Elevator Company, Farmington, Connecticut, 

USA 
M. Hite, Vice Chair, KONE Inc., MclCinney, Texas, USA 
T. Tulshi» Project Manager, Canadian Standards Association, 

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 
P. Barahart, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Research Triangle Park, 

North Carolina, USA 
J. Blain, Schindler Elevator Corporation, Morristown, New jersey, 

USA 
A. Brown, KONE Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
J. Busse, Fujitec America Incorporated, Lebanon, Ohio, USA 
J. Caldwell, ThyssenKrupp Elevator, Middleton, Tennessee, USA 
J. Delia Porta, Otis Elevator Company, Farmington. Connecticut, 

USA 
I. lay, British Columbia Safety Authority (BCSA), New Westminster, 

British Columbia, Canada 
R. MacKenzle, CSA Intennational, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
P. McDermott, Technical Standards & Safety Authority, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada 
M. Mihal, Technical Standards a Safety Authority, Toronto, Ontario, 

Canada 
A. Rehman, Schindler Elevator Corporation, Scarborough, Ontario, 

Canada 
J. Rennekamp, Fujitec America Incorporated, Lebanon, Ohio, USA 



V. Todt, Elevator Constructors, St. Louis, Missouri, USA 
J. Weber. KONE Inc., Moline, Illinois, USA 

TASK FORCE ON THE NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF 

CANADA FOR THE CSA B44 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 

ON THE ELEVATOR SAFETY CODE 

A. Rehman, Chair, Schindler Elevator Corporation, Scarborough, 

Ontario, Canada 
M. Brierley, Coldwater, Ontario, Canada 
R. Cavan, Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 

C. Frechette, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, 
Canada 

R. Hadaller, Technical Standards & Safety Authority, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada 
1. Kennedy, Brighton, Ontario, Canada 

D. McColl, Otis Canada, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada 
S. Mercier, Regie du batiment du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, 

Canada 
C. Nicol, The Toronto Advocacy Committee of the CNIB, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada 
S. Reynolds, The Peelle Company Limited, Brampton, Ontario, 

Canada 

E. Sopeju, Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada, Scarborough, 
Ontario, Canada 

C. Taraschuk, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, 

Canada 
T, Tulshi, Canadian Standards Association, Mississauga, Ontario, 

Canada 



ASME PREFACE 



GENERAL 

This Code is one of the numerous codes and standards 
developed and published by The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) under the general aus- 
pices of the American National Standards Institute, Inc. 
(ANSI). 

The Code is intended to serve as the basis for the 
design construction, installation, operation, testing, 
inspection, maintenance, alteration, and repair of eleva- 
tors, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, and mate- 
rial lifts. 

Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance 
public health and safety. Revisions result from commit- 
tee consideration of factors such as technological 
advances, new data, and changing environmental and 
industry needs. Revisions do not imply that previous 
editions were inadequate. 

This Code applies to new installations only, except 
Part 1, and 5.10, 8.1, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, and 8.11, 
which apply to both new and existing installations. Also, 
see ASME A17.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators and 
Escalators, for further requirements. 

The following conditions are not addressed in this 
Code: 

(a) assignment of the responsibility for compliance to 
any particular party. 

(b) establishment of a frequency for periodic inspec- 
tions and tests. See Nonmandatory Appendix N for rec- 
ommended inspections and test intervals. 

(c) assignment of responsibility for persons author- 
ized to make and witness inspections and tests. 



APPLICATION OF REQUIREMENTS TO NEW 
TECHNOLOGY 

With the advent of new technologies, materials, and 
processes in the mechanical, structural, electronic, and 
optic fields, and the analytical capabilities now available, 
the need for flexibility to introduce products into the 
marketplace using these technical developments is 
desirable. Previous editions of ASME A 17.1 had long- 
standing provisions, in Section 1.2, that suggested that 
Authorities Having Jurisdiction should recognize safety 
equivalent to that required by the Codes. This edition 
of ASME A17.1/CSA B44 recognizes ASME A17.7/ 
CSA B44.7 provides a structured method for establishing 
the safety of designs and products and that compliance 
with ASME A17.7/CSA B44.7 is equivalent to compli- 
ance with the requirements in ASME Al 7.1 /CSA B44. 



FORM AND ARRANGEMENT 

This Code consists of parts and sections, each covering 
a specific subject so as to facilitate reference to the 
requirements. 

The Foreword, Preface, Notes, and Appendices that 
are included in this document, and the Interpretations 
that are provided as a separate booklet are not part of 
this American National Standard. They are advisory in 
nature and are intended for clarification only. 

In this edition, the revisions that are appearing for the 
first time are identified by (07). Where editorial changes 
have been made, they are identified by (ED). See also 
Summary of Changes. 



METRIC (SI) UNITS 

This edition of the Code uses hard metric (SI) units 
wherever practical. The acceptable equivalent imperial 
units are shown in parentheses. Information on the 
usage of SI units and conversion to imperial units is 
contained in lEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997 Standard for the 
Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Mod- 
em Metric System, ASME Guide SI-1, Orientation and 
Guide for Use of SI (Metric) Units, or CAN/CSA-Z234.1, 
Canadian Metric Practice Guide. 

Tables related to speed and load use the hard metric 
and hard imperial units in common practice, even 
though they are not exactly equivalent (e.g., see Table 
2.22.4.1, Minimum Buffer Strokes). The tabular values 
have been derived using 8,2.1 formulas and the metric 
and imperial values for buffer strokes, safety stopping 
distances, etc., are therefore not equivalent. 



ASME ELEVATOR PUBLICATIONS 

The following ASME publications are of special inter- 
est to users of this Code. For prices and availability, 
contact: 

ASME Order Department 

22 Law Drive 

Box 2300 

Fairfield, NJ 07007-2300 

Tel: 800-843-2763 

Fax: 973-882-1717 

E-Mail: infocentral@asme.org 

ASME Website: www.asme.org/catalog 



ASME A17.2, Guide for Inspection of Elevators, Escala- 
tors, and Moving Walks. This Guide gives detailed pro- 
cedures for the inspection and testing of elevators, 
escalators, and moving walks required to conform to 
the Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, A17.1- 
1955 and later editions and the Safety Code for Existing 
Elevators and Escalators, A17.3. Subsections are 
arranged to focus on routine and periodic inspection 
requirements, as well as acceptance criteria. 

ASME Al 73 Safety Code for Existing Elevators and Esca- 
lators. This Code covers retroactive requirements for 
existing elevators and escalators. The purpose of this 
Code is to estabUsh minimum requirements that will 
provide a reasonable degree of safety for the general 
public. While many of these requirements will also 
increase the degree of safetj^ for the elevator mechanic 
and inspector, this area has not been specifically 
addressed at this time. 

ASME A17 CD-ROM for Elevators and Escalators. This 
CD-ROM contains the ASME A17.1, A17.2, and A17.3 
standards. In addition, it contains the published inter- 
pretations applicable to these standards. 

ASME A17.4 Guide for Emergency Personnel. This 
guide for emergency personnel (fire, police, etc.), build- 
ing owners, lessees, and building operating managers 
explains the proper procedures to be used for the safe 
removal of passengers from stalled cars. 

CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5 Elevator and Escalator Electri- 
cal Equipment. This Code contains requirements for 
obtaining, labeling, and listing electrical equipment for 
elevators, escalators, moving walks, dumbwaiters, mate- 
rial lifts, platform lifts, and stairway lifts. 

ASME A17.7/CSA B44.7 l>erformance-Based Safety 
Code for Elevators and Escalators. This American 
National Standard performance-based safety code cov- 
ers the design, construction, installation, operation, test- 
ing, maintenance, alteration, and repair of elevators, 
dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, and material 
lifts. 

Published Interpretations. Interpretations of the vari- 
ous A17 standards are published periodically. 

Interpretations of A17.1 and A17.2 approved by the 
A17 Committee from Jime 14, 1972 through June 1979, 
were published in a separate book in 1980. 

Starting with the 1981 edition of the Code, interpreta- 
tions are published with each new edition and supple- 
ment of the applicable standard. A compilation of 
Interpretations Nos. 2-13 Qurie 1979-May 1989) has also 
been published by ASME. A compilation of all interpre- 
tations can also be obtained through the A17 CD-ROM. 

Handboolc on A17.1/B44 Safety Code. This handbook 
augments the A17.1/B44 Code with commentary, dia- 
grams, and illustrations that are intended to explain the 
requirements of the A17.1/B44 Code. 

The commentary contained in the Handbook is the 
opinion of the author and has not been approved by the 



A17 Committee or the B44 Technical Committee. 

QEI-1 Standard for the Qualification of Elevator Inspec- 
tors. This Standard covers requirements for the qualifi- 
cation and duties of inspectors and inspection 
supervisors engaged in the inspection and testing of 
equipment within the scope of the A17.1/B44 Code. 
It also includes requirements for the accreditation of 
organizations that certify inspectors and inspection 
supervisors as meeting the QEI criteria. 

ASME A18.1 Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and 
Stairway Chairlifts. This safety Standard covers the 
design, construction, installation, operation, inspection, 
testing, maintenance, and repair of inclined stairway 
chairlifts and inclined and vertical platform lifts 
intended for transportation of a mobility impaired per- 
son only. 

CORRESPONDENCE WITH A17 COMMITTEE 

ASME codes and standards are developed and main- 
tained with the intent to represent the consensus of con- 
cerned interests. As such, users of this and other ASME 
A17 codes and standards may interact with the commit- 
tee by requesting interpretations, proposing revisions, 
and attending committee meetings. Correspondence 
should be addressed to: 

Secretary, A17 Standards Committee 
The American Society of Mechanical 

Engineers 
Three Park Avenue 
New York, NY 10016 
E-mail: infocentral@asme.org 

All correspondence to the Committee must include 
the individual's name and post office address in case 
the Committee needs to request further information. 

Proposing Revisions. Revisions are made periodically 
to the Code to incorporate changes that appear necessary 
or desirable, as demonstrated by the experience gained 
from the application of the procedures, and in order to 
conform to developments in the elevator art. Approved 
revisions will be published periodically. 

The Committee welcomes proposals for revisions to 
this Code. Such proposals should be as specific as possi- 
ble: citing the Section number(s), the proposed wording, 
and a detailed description of the reasons for the proposal 
including any pertinent documentation. 

Requesting Interpretations. On request, the A17Com- 
mittee will render an interpretation of any requirement 
of the Code. Interpretations can only be rendered in 
response to a written request sent to the Secretary of 
the Standards Committee. 

The request for interpretation should be clear and 
unambiguous. It is further recommended that the 
inquirer submit his request utilizing the following 
format: 





Abbreviations Used in This Code 




Abbreviation 


Unit 


Abbreviation 


Unit 


A 


Ampere 


lb 


pound (mass) 


*'C 


degree Celsius 


Ibf 


pound (force) 


deg 


degree (angle) 


Ix 


lux 


°F 


degree Fahrenheit 


m 


meter 


ft/min 


foot per minute 


m^ 


square meter 


ft/s 


foot per second 


m^ 


cubic meter 


ft 


foot 


mA 


milliampere 


fc 


footcandle 


m/s 


meter per second 


ft^ 


square foot 


m/s^ 


meter per second per second 


ft3 


cubic foot 


mm 


millimeter 


ft/s^ 


foot per second per second 


mm^ 


square millimeter 


h 


hour 


mm^ 


cubic millimeter 


Hz 


hertz 


MPa 


megapascal 


in. 


inch 


N 


Newton 


in.2 


square inch 


psi 


pound per square inch 


in.3 


cubic inch 


s 


second 


kg 


Icilogram 


SIL 


Safety Integrity Level 


kPa 


kilopascal 


V 


volt 



Subject: Cite the applicable Section number(s) and 
a concise description. 

Edition: Cite the applicable edition and supplement 
of the Code for which the interpretation is 
being requested. 

Question: Phrase the question as a request for an inter- 
pretation of a specific requirement suitable 
for general understanding and use, not as 
a request for an approval of a proprietary 
design or situation. The question shall be 
phrased, where possible, to permit a specific 
"yes" or "no" answer. The inquirer may also 
include any plans or drawings that are nec- 
essary to explain the question; however, 
they should not contain proprietary names 
or information. 



Requests that are not in this format will be rewritten 
in this format by the Committee prior to being answered, 
which may inadvertently change the intent of the origi- 
nal request. 

ASME procedures provide for reconsideration of any 
interpretation when or if additional information that 
might affect an interpretation is available. Further, per- 
sons aggrieved by an interpretation may appeal to the 
cognizant ASME committee or subcommittee. ASME 
does not "approve," "certify," "rate," or "endorse" any 
item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. 

Attending Committee Meetings. The A17 Standards 
Committee and the various Working Committees regu- 
larly hold meetings all of which are open to the public. 
Persons wishing to attend any meeting should contact 
the Secretary of the Standards Comnuttee. 



CSA PREFACE 



This is the first edition of ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. It 
replaces the previous editions of CSA B44, published in 2004, 2000, 1994, 1990, 1985, 1975, 1971, 
1966, 1960, and 1938. 

This Code is the result of a joint effort by the CSA B44 Technical Committee on the Elevator Safety 
Code and the ASME A17 Committee on Elevators and Escalators to harmonize the provisions of 
CSA B44 and ASME A17.1. This edition of ASME A17.1/CSA B44 consists of the complete 
ASME A17.1 Code, with additional requirements applicable only in Canadian jurisdictions. These 
Canadian requirements are prefaced in the body of the Code by the following: "In jurisdictions 
enforcing the NBCC. . ," 

CSA B44 was originaUy developed to facilitate the implementation of uniform legislation across 
Canada and to replace the existing legislation, which had proved inadequate for prevailing 
elevator practices. The primary purpose of the Code is to establish minimum requirements, 
suitable for adoption by regulatory authorities throughout Canada, for the design, installation, 
and maintenance of elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters, moving walks, and material lifts. It is 
also intended as a standard reference for architects, consulting engineers, elevator manufacturers, 
and building owners. 

This Code is considered suitable for use for conformity assessment within the stated scope of 
the Code. 

This Code was prepared for use in Canada by the CSA Technical Committee on the Elevator 
Safety Code under the jurisdiction of the CSA Strategic Steering Committee on Mechanical 
Industrial Equipment Safety. It has been formally approved by the CSA Technical Committee. 

February 2007 

NOTES: 

(1) Use of the singular does not exclude the plural (and vice versa) when the sense allows. 

(2) Although the intended primary application of this Code is stated in its Scope, it is important to note that it 
remains the responsibility of the users of the Code to judge its suitability for their particular purpose. 

(3) This publication was developed by consensus, which is defined by CSA Polio/ governing standardization — Code 
of good practice for standardization as "substantial agreement. Consensus implies much more than a simple 
majority but not necessarily unanimity." It is consistent with this definition that a member may be included 
in the Technical Committee list and yet not be in full agreement with all clauses of this publication. 

(4) CSA Codes and Standards are subject to periodic review, and suggestions for their improvement will be referred 
to the appropriate committee. 

(5) All enquiries regarding this Code, including requests for interpretation, should be addressed to Canadian 
Standards Association, 5060 Spectrum Way, Suite 100, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 5N6. Requests for 
interpretation should 

(a) define the problem, making reference to the specific clause, and, where appropriate, include an IQustra- 
tive sketch 

(b) provide an explanation of circiimstances surrounding the actual field condition 

(c) be phrased where possible to permit a specific "yes" or "no" answer. 

Committee inteqiretations are processed in accordance with the CSA Directives and guidelines governing 
standardization and are published in CSA's periodical Info Update, which is available on the CSA Web site at 
www.csa.ca. 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 
SUMMARY OF CHANGES 



Following approval by the ASME A17 Elevator and Escalator Committee, and after public review, 
ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on 
February 20, 2007. It was issued on April 6, 2007, and is effective as of October 6, 2007. 

ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 incorporates the revisions and editorial changes made in ASME 
A17.1a-2005 and ASME A17.1S-2005, as well as additional revisions and editorial changes. 
Revisions are identified by a margin note, (07). Changes made to correct errors, as well as other 
new editorial changes, are identified by (ED). Revisions introduced in ASME A17.1S-2005 are 
indicated by (058). Revision designators will remain on the pages up to the publication of the 
next edition of the Code. The (ED) designators will appear only when the editorial changes are 
introduced. The following is a summary of the latest revisions and changes: 



Page 


Location 


Change 


viii-xii 


ASME Foreword 


Revised 


xix-xxi 


ASME Preface 


Revised 


xxii 


CSA Preface 


Added 


1 


1.1.1 
1.1.2 


Revised 
(1) Subp 



2-16 



Section 1.2 
Section 1.3 



17 



2.1.1.1.2 



(1) Subparagraph (d) revised 

(2) Subparagraphs (v) and (w) editorially 
revised 

(3) New subparagraph (x) added 

Revised in its entirety 

(1) Definition of alteration, as part of an; 
electrical/electronic/programmable 
electronic system (E/E/PES); electrical/ 
electronic/programmable electronic 
(E/E/PE); escalator, skirt, dynamic; fire 
barrier; fire-protection rating; machine, 
driving: chain-hydraulic drive machine; 
manually (manual) reset, elevator; mode 
of operation; and safety integrity level 
(SIL) added 

(2) Definition of elevator observation; 
entrance, elevator, dumbwaiter, or 
material lift; entrance hardware, 
assembly; fire-resistance rating; fire- 
resistive construction; and leveling 
device, elevator, dumbwaiter, or material 
lift revised 

(3) Definition of clearance, top car, 
electronic elevators and control system 
editorially revised 

(4) Definition of fire endurance and travel 
deleted 

First paragraph revised 



Page Location Change 

18 2.1.2.3(c) Editorially revised 

19, 20 2.1.6.2 Revised in its entirety 

2.2.2.5 Revised 

2.2.4 Revised in its entirety 

21 2,2.8 Second sentence added 

2.3.3.1 Revised 

23 2.4.6.2(d)(1) Editorially revised 

2.4.6.2(e) Editorially revised 

25 2.7.1.1.2 Editorially revised 

26 2.7.1.3.1 Revised and Note added 

28 2.7.5.1.2(e) Second sentence editorially revised 

29 2.7.5.2.1 Revised in its entirety 
2.7.5.3 Editorially revised 

31 2.7.6.3.4(a) Editorially revised 

32 2.7.8.1 Revised 

33 2.8.2.2 Revised 

34 2.8.3.3.2 Paragraph revised 
2.8.3.3.4 Revised in its entirety 

37 2.11.1.3 Editorially revised 

2.11.1.4 Last sentence revised 

43 2.11.14.1(a) Editorially revised 

44 2.11.15.1 Title and paragraph revised 
2.11.15.1.1(d) Added 

2.11.15.1.2 Revised in its entirety 

2.11.15.1.3 Added 

2.11.15.1.4 Added 

2.11.15.2 Title and first paragraph revised 

45 2.11.19 Revised 
2.11.19.2 Editorially revised 

2.12.2.4.1 Editorially revised 

46 2.12.2.4.6 Deleted and replaced by previously 

designated 2.12.2.4.7 

2.12.3.1(a) Editorially revised 

2.12.3.1(b) Editorially revised 

47 2.12.3.4.5 Deleted and replaced by previously 

designated 2.12.3.4.6 

48 2.12.6.2.4 Revised 

2.12.7.3.2 Revised 



Page 


Location 


Change 


54 


2.14.2.1.1 


Editorially revised 




2.14.2.1.2 


Revised 




2.14.2.1.3 


Editorially revised 


59 


2.14.7.1.3(a) 


Revised 




2.14.7.1.4 


Revised 


71 


Z18.4.2 


Editorially revised 


74 


2.19.1.2(a)(1)(b) 


Revised 




2.19.2.2(a)(1)(b) 


Revised 


82,83 


2.21.4 


Third paragraph revised 




2.21.4.1 


Revised 




2.21.4.2 


Revised in its entirety 


85 


2.22.4.10.3 


Editorially revised 


88 


Fig. 2.23.4.1-1 


For 10 000 kg, parenthetical convei 
value editorially corrected 


89-92 


Fig. 2.23.4.1-2 


For 10 000 kg, parenthetical convei 
value editorially corrected 


99 


2.26.1.4.1(d)(1) 


Revised 


103 


2.26.2.38 


Added 




2.26.4.2 


Revised 




2.26.4.3 


Revised in its entirety 




2.26.5 


Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised 


104, 105 


Table 2.26.4.3.2 


Added 


106, 107 


2.26.8.2 


Revised in its entirety 




2.26.9.3 


First paragraph revised 




2.26.9.3(c) 


Editorially revised 




2.26.9.4 


Revised in its entirety 




2.26.9.5 


Editorially revised 




2.26.9.5.1 


Revised in its entirety 




2.26.9.5.2 


Revised 




2.26.9.5.3 


Revised 




2.26.9.5.4 


Revised 




2.26.9.6 


Editorially revised 




2.26.9.6.1 


Revised in its entirety 


109 


Section 2.27 


Note revised 




2.27.1.1.1 


Revised 




2.27.1.1.2 


Revised 




2.27.1.1.4 


Revised 


110 


2.27.1.2(d) 


Editorially revised 



xxiv 



Page 



111 



112 



113, 114 



115, 116 



117 
119 
122 

123 
124 
125 



126 

128 



Location 


Change 


2.27.3 


Revised in its entirety 


2.27.3.1.1 


First paragraph revised 


2.27.3.1.2 


Revised 


2.27.3.1.6(1) 


Second sentence corrected by errata 


2.27.3.1.6(1) 


Revised in its entirety 


Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h) 


Revised 


2.27.3.1.6(n) 


Added 


2.27.3.2.2 


Revised in its entirety 


2.27.3.2.3(b) 


Revised 


2.27.3.2.3(c) 


Revised 


2.27,3.2.3(d) 


Editorially revised 


2.27,3.2.4(b) 


Editorially revised 


2.27.3.3 


Revised in its entirety 


2.27.3.3.1(c) 


Revised 


2.27.3.3.1(h) 


Last sentence added 


2.27.3.3.1(1) 


Revised 


2.27.3.3.1(k) 


Revised 


2.27.3.3.1 (m) 


Revised and Note added 


2.27.3.3.1(n) 


Added 


2.27.3.3.2 


Revised 


2.27.3.3.4 


Revised 


2.27.3.4 


Revised in its entirety 


2.27.3.5 


Revised in its entirety 


2.27.4(a) 


Editorially revised 


2.27.4.2 


Last sentence of fourth paragraph 
corrected by errata 


2.27.5.2(a) 


Revised 


2.27.8 


Revised in its entirety 


Fig. 2.27.9 


Revised 


Section 3.7 


Subparagraphs 3.7.1.1 through 3.7,1, 
corrected by errata 


Section 3.14 


Revised 


Section 3.17 


Title revised 


3.17.1.3 


Editorially revised 


3,17,3.2.2(b) 


Revised 


3.17.3.6.2 


Revised 


3.17.4 


Added 


3.18.6 


Added 



Change 

Revised 

Title and paragraph revised 

Revised 

Added 

Added 

Added 

Revised in its entirety 

Added 

Added 

Last sentence added 

Second paragraph revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

Second paragraph editorially revised 

First and third paragraphs editorially 
revised 

147 Part 5 In Scope, subparagraphs (g) and (i) 

revised 



Page 


Location 


129 


3.19.3.1 


133 


3.25.2.2 




3.25.2.2.1 




3.25.2.3 




3.25.2.4 




3.25.2.4.1 


135 


3.26.6.2 




3.26.6.3 




3.26.6.4 


136 


3.27.1 




3.27.2 


138 


4.1.2.2 


139 


4.1.9.1 


144 


4.3.4 


146 


4.3.15 



148 


5.1.8.1 


153, 154 


5.2.1.1.2 




5.2.1.4.2 




5.2.1.7 




5.2.1.8 




5.2.1.12 


155 


5.2.1.13 


157, 158 


5.2.1.27 




5.2.2 




5.3.1.1 




5.3.1.1.1 




5.3.1.1.2 


159 


5.3.1.7.1 




5.3.1.7.8 




5.3.1.7.9 


160 


5.3.1.8.1(d) 




5.3.1.8.2(a) 


162 


5.3.1.16.2(a) 


163 


5.3.1.16.2(j) 




5.3.1.16.5 



Revised ^^^ 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

Title and paragraph revised in its entirety 

Title and paragraph revised 

First paragraph revised 

Title and paragraph revised in its entirety 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised 

Added 

Added 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised 

Subsubparagraphs (7) and (8) added 

Added 

Added 



Page 

164 



165 

169 
173 
174 
176 
177 
182 

183 
185 



186 
192 

194 

195, 196 
198 
199 

203, 204 



210 

213 

214 
215, 216 



Location 
5.3.1.18,2 

5.3.L18.4(b) 

5.3.2.2.1 

5.3.2.3 

5.4.15.5.2 

5,5.1.26 

5,6.1.4(d) 

5.6.1.25.3 

Section 5.7 

5.8.1.1 

5.8.1.2 

Section 5,9 

5.9.14.1(a) 

5.9.14.1(b) 

5.9.14.1(c) 

5.9.17.6 

6.1.3.3.1(a)(1) 

6.1.3.3.1(a)(2) 

6.1.3.3,9(c)(2) 

6.1.3.5.6 

6.1.6 

6.1.6.3 

6.1.6.3.1(a) 

6.1.6.11(b) 

6.1.7.3.2 

6.1.7.4.2 

6.1.8.1 

6.1.8.2 

6.2.6.3.1(a) 

6.2.6.10(b) 

6.2.7.3.2 

6.2.7.4.2 

6.2.8.1 

6.2.8.2 

Part 7 

Section 7.1 



Change 

(1) Subparagraph (c) revised 

(2) New subparagraph (d) added, and 
previous (d) redesignated as (e) 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Editorially revised 

Editorially revised 

First paragraph editorially revised 

First paragraph revised 

First sentence revised 

First sentence revised 

First paragraph revised 

Second sentence revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Editorially revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Editorially revised 

Both paragraphs revised 

Requirement 6.1.6.7 deleted 

Editorially revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

In Scope, second paragraph added 

Second paragraph deleted 



Page 


Location 




7.1.1.2 




7.1.4.3 


218 


7.1.12.1.1 


219 


7.1.12.4 




Section 7.2 


221 


7.2.2.8 




7.2.3.3.1 


224 


7.2.12.4 




7.2.12.4.3 




7.2.12.10 


225 


Section 7.3 


226 


7.3.11.5.2 


227 


7.4.2 




7.4.5 


228 


Table 7.4.3 


229 


7.4.9 




7.4.11 




7.4.12 


232 


7.5.3.4 


237 


7.9.1.1 


240, 241 


8.1.1 




8.1.2 




8.1.3 




8.1.4 


259 


Section 8.3 


265 


8.3.7.3 


270 


Fig. 8.4.8.2-1 


271 


Fig. 8.4.8.2-2 


272 


Fig. 8.4.8.2-3 


273 


Fig. 8.4.8.2-4 


274 


Fig. 8.4.8.2-5 


275 


Fig. 8.4.8.2-6 


276 


Fig. 8.4.8.2-7 


282 


8.4.11.2 


287 


8.4.13.2 


288, 289 


Section 8.6 



Change 

Revised 

Added 

Subparagraphs (b) and (c) editorially 
revised 

Revised ir\ its entirety 

Second sentence deleted 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised 

Revised 

Added 

Revised in its entirety 

Second sentence deleted 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

Under Clearances, last entry revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

(1) First paragraph revised 

(2) Note (d) added 

Subparagraph (a)(4) editorially revised 

Editorially revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised in its entirety 

Revised 



XXVlll 



Page Location Change 

8.6.1.2.1(a)(1)(f) Added 

8.6.1.2.1(e) Added 

8.6.1.2.1(f) Added 

8.6.1.4.1(d) Editorially revised 

290 8.6.1.6.3(d) Revised and Note added 

292 8.6.3.7.2 Second paragraph revised 

8.6.4.1.3 Revised 

294 8.6.4.18 Added 

299 8.6.12 Added 

302, 303 8.7.1.7 Second sentence added 

8.7.1.8 Second sentence added 

8.7.2.1.3 Editorially revised 

8.7.2.1.4 Editorially revised 

8.7.2.7.6 Editorially revised 

8.7.2.7.7 Editorially revised 

306 8.7.2.15.2 Revised in its entirety 
8.7.2.17 Title editorially revised 

8.7.2.17.1 Title and paragraphs editorially revised 

307 8.7.2.17.2(b)(5) Editorially revised 

308 8.7.2.23 Revised in its entirety 
8.7.2.25.1(a) Editorially revised 
8.7.2.25.2(a) Editorially revised 
8.7.2.25.2(b) Editorially revised 

309 8.7.2.27.6 First paragraph revised 
8.7.2.27.8 Added 

310 8.7.3.15.3 Editorially revised 

311 8.7.3.19 Editorially revised 

8.7.3.22 Title editorially revised 

8.7.3.22.1 First paragraph and subparagraphs (b), 

(c), and (e) editorially revised 

8.7.3.23.1 Revised 

312 8.7.3.23.2 Revised 
8.7.3.23.3 Revised 

313 8.7.3.31.11 Added 

8.7.4.3.7 Title and paragraphs editorially revised 

314 8.7.6.1.1 Revised in its entirety 

315 8.7.6.1.5 Revised in its entirety 



Page 



317 



318-323 



324-330 



Location 


Change 


8.7.6.1.9 


Third paragraph deleted 


8.7.6.2.1 


Revised 


8.9.2 


Revised 


8.10.1.4 


Added 


8.10.2.2.1(j)(l) 


Revised 


8.10.2.2.1(j)(2) 


Revised 


8.10.2.2.2 


Revised in its entirety 


8.10.2.2.3 


Subparagraphs (v), (w)(3), and (bb)(3) 

revised 
(2) Subparagraphs (ee) through (ii) added 


8.10.2.2.4 


Subparagraphs (1) through (o) added 


8.10.2.2.5 


(1) Subparagraphs (f) and (h)(3) revised 

(2) Subparagraphs (k) through (p) added 


8.10.2.2.7 


Added 


8.10.2.2.8 


Added 


8.10.2.3.2(n) 


Editorially revised 


8.10.3.2.1 


Subparagraphs (v) through (x) added 


8.10.3.2.2 


Revised in its entirety 


8.10.3.2.3 


Revised in its entirety 


8.10.3.2.4 


Revised in its entirety 


8.10.3.2.5 


Revised in its entirety 


8.10.3.2.7 


Added 


8.10.3.3.2 


Subparagraphs (p) and (q) revised 


8.10.4.1.1 


(1) Subparaeraph (c)(l)(7) added 





8.10.4.1.2 


331 


8.10.5.2 


333-335 


8.11.1.6 




8.11.1.7 




8.11.2.1.1 




8.11.2.1.2 




8.11.2.1.3 




8.11.2.1.4 




8.11.2.1.5 




8.11.2.1.7 


336, 337 


8.11.2.2.2(a) 



(2) Subparagraph (i) revised 

(3) Subparagraph (j)(5) deleted 

(4) Subparagraph (s)(2) revised 

(5) Subparagraph (t)(6) revised 

Subparagraphs (d)(3)(b), (d)(6), and (v) 
added 

Title and first paragraph revised 

Title and paragraph revised 

Added 

Subparagraphs (v) through (x) added 

Revised in its entirety 

Subparagraphs (ee) through (ii) added 

Subparagraphs (m) through (o) added 

Subparagraphs (k) through (p) added 

Added 

Editorially revised 



Page 



338-340 



Location 

8.11.2.2.6 

8.11.2.2.10 

8.11.2.2.11 

8.11.2.3.1 

8.11.2.3.2 

8.11.2.3.3 

8.11.3.1.1 

8.11.3.1.2 
8.11.3.1.3 
8.11.3.1.4 
8.11.3.1.5 





8.11.3.1.7 




8.11.3.2.2 




8.11.3.2.3 




8.11.3.2.4 




8.11.3.3.1 




8.11.3.4.5 




8.11.4.1 


341 


8.11.4.2.13 


342 


8.11.5.2 


345-350 


Section 9.1 


351, 352 


Section 9.2 


358-365 


Nonmandatory Appendix E 


379 


Nonmandatory Appendix J 



Change 

Editorially revised 

Added 

Added 

Last paragraph deleted 

Subparagraph (c) added 

Subparagraph (e) deleted 

(1) Subparagraphs (d), (e), ar\d (q) 
revised 

(2) Subparagraphs (v) through (x) added 

Revised in its entirety 
Revised in its entirety 
Subparagraphs (1) through (n) added 

(1) Subparagraphs (b) and (h) revised 

(2) Subparagraph (k) redesignated as (j) 

(3) New subparagraphs (k) through (p) 
added 

Added 

Title revised 

Subparagraphs (a), (f ), and (h) revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Added 

(1) Subparagraphs (j), (m), and (s) revised 

(2) Subparagraphs (t) and (u) deleted 

(3) Subparagraph (v) redesignated as (t) 

Second paragraph added 

Title and first paragraph revised 

Editorially revised 

Address for GSA updated 

Revised in its entirety 

Deleted and replaced with new 
Appendix 



381-385 



Nonmandatory Appendix L Revised 



SPECIAL NOTE: 



The interpretatior\s to ASME A17.1 issued between July 2004 through June 2006 follow the last page 
of this edition as a separate supplement. Interpretation No. 28. 



m 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA BA4-07 



SAFETY CODE FOR ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 

Part 1 
General 



SECTION 1.1 
SCOPE 

(07) 1.1.1 Equipment Covered by this Code 

This Code covers the design, construction, operation, 
inspection, testing, maintenance, aheration, and repair 
of the following equipment and its associated parts, 
rooms, spaces, and hoistways, where located in or adja- 
cent to a building or structure (see 1.2): 

(a) hoisting and lowering mechanisms, equipped 
with a car, that move between two or more landings. 
This equipment includes, but is not limited to elevators 
(see 1.3). 

(b) power-driven stairwaj/^s and walkways for car- 
rying persons between landings. This equipment 
includes, but is not limited to escalators and moving 
walks (see 1.3). 

(c) hoisting and lowering mechanisms equipped with 
a car that serves two or more landings and is restricted 
to the carrying of material by its limited size or limited 
access to the car. This equipment includes, but is not 
limited to dimibwaiters and material lifts (see 1.3). 



(07) 
(ED) 



1.1.2 Equipment Not Covered by tliis Code 

Equipment not covered by this Code includes, but is 
not limited to, the following: 

(a) persormel hoists within the scope of ANSI A10.4 
and CSA-Z185 

(b) material hoists within the scope of ANSI A10.5 
and CSA-Z256 

(c) platform lifts and staii-way chairlifts within the 
scope of ASME A18.1, CSA B355, and CSA B613 

(d) manlifts within the scope of ASME A90.1 and 
CSA B311, and in jurisdictions enforcing NBCC Special 
Purpose Personnel Elevators (ASME A17.1, Section 5,7) 

(e) mobile scaffolds and towers; platforms within the 
scope of ANSI/SIA A92 and CSA-B354 

(f) powered platform and equipment for exterior and 
interior building maintenance within the scope of ASME 
A120.1 and CSA-Z271 

(g) conveyors and related equipment within the scope 
of ASME B20.1 



(h) cranes, derricks, hoists, hooks, jacks, and slings 
within the scope of ASME B30, CSA Z150, CSA B167, 
CSA Z202, and CSA Z248 

(i) industrial trucks within the scope of ASME B56 
and CSA B335 

(j) portable equipment, except for portable escalators, 
that are covered by 6.1 

(k) tiering or piling machines used to move material 
to and from storage located and operating entirely 
within one story 

(I) equipment for feeding or positioning material at 
machine tools, printing presses, etc. 

(m) skip or furnace hoists 

(n) wharf ramps 

(o) amusement devices 

(p) stage and orchestra lifts 

(q) lift bridges 

(r) railroad car lifts and dumpers 

(s) mechanized parking garage equipment 

(t) line jacks, false cars, shafters, moving platforms, 
and similar equipment used for installing an elevator 

(u) platform elevators installed in a ship or offshore 
drilling rig and used for the purpose of loading and 
unloading cargo, equipment, and personnel 

(v) dock levelers (freight platform lifts) having a rise 
of 500 mm (20 in.) or less 

(w) in Canadian jurisdictions, devices having a rise 
of 2 000 mm (79 in.) or less and used only for the transfer 
of materials or equipment 

(x) in jurisdictions enforcing NBCC, mine elevators 
within the scope of 5.9 

1.1.3 Application of Parts 

This Code applies to new installations only, except 
Part 1, and 5.10, 8.1, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, and 8.11, that 
apply to both new and existing installations. 

1.1.4 Effective Date 

The requirements of this edition and subsequent 
addenda to the Code are effective as of the date noted 
on the copyright page of this document. The authority 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



having jurisdiction will establish the effective date for 
their local regulations. 

(07) SECTION 1.2 

PURPOSE AND EXCEPTIONS 

1.2.1 Purpose 

The purpose of this Code is to provide for the safety 
of life and limb, and to promote the public welfare. 
Compliance with this Code shall be achieved by 

(a) conformance with the requirements in 
ASME A17.1/CSA B44; or 

(b) conformance with some of the requirements in 
ASME A17.1/CSA B44 and for systems, subsystems, 
components, or functions that do not conform with cer- 
tain requirements in ASME A17.1/CSA B44, conform 
with the applicable requirements in ASME Al 7.7/ CSA 
B44.7; or 

(c) conformance with the requirements in 
ASME A17.7/CSA B44.7 

1.2.2 Exceptions to ASME A17.1 

The provisions of this Code are not intended to pre- 
vent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equiva- 
lent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, 
effectiveness, durability, and safety to those prescribed 
by this Code, provided that there is technical documen- 
tation to demonstrate the equivalency of the system, 
method, or device. 

1.2.2.1 The specific requirements of this Code shall 
be permitted to be modified by the authority having 
jurisdiction based upon technical documentation or 
physical performance verification to allow alternative 
arrangements that will assure safety equivalent to that 
which would be provided by conformance to the corres- 
ponding requirements of this Code. 

1.2.2.2 This Code contains requirements that are 
also covered in the National Building Code of Canada 
(NBCC). Reference to the NBCC is recognition that said 
requirements are not within the scope of this Code in 
Canada. 

In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the use of 
the NBCC is not intended. 

1.2.2.3 Exceptions shall be based on the require- 
ments of 1.2.2.1. 



(07) SECTION 1.3 

(05S) DEFINITIONS 

Section 1.3 defines various terms used in this Code. 
In addition, some nomenclature and terminology used 
in the elevator industry and other ASME publications 
are defined. 

access switch: see hoistway access switch. 



alteration: any change to equipment, including its parts, 
components, and /or subsystems, other than mainte- 
nance, repair, or replacement. 

alteration, as part of an: a repair or replacement that is 
included with other work that is classified as an alter- 
ation. 

alternate level: a floor level identified by the building 
code or fire authority, other than the designated level. 

annunciator, car: an electrical device in the car that indi- 
cates visually the landings at which an elevator landing 
signal registering device has been actuated. 

applied frame entrance: a wraparound or partial addi- 
tion to an existing entrance frame used to improve the 
appearance or to provide the required clearances. 

approved: acceptable to the authority having juris- 
diction. 

authority having jurisdiction: the organization, office, 
or individual responsible for enforcement of this Code. 
Where compliance with this Code has been mandated 
by legislation or regulation, the ''authority having juris- 
diction" is the regulatory authority (see regulatory 
authority). 

authorized personnel: persons who have been 
instructed in the operation of the equipment and desig- 
nated by the owner to use the equipment. 

automatic transfer device: a power-operated mecha- 
nism that automatically moves a load consisting of a 
cart, tote box, pallet, wheeled vehicle, box, or other simi- 
lar object from and /or to the car. 

auxiliary power lowering device: an alternatively pow- 
ered auxiliary control system that will, upon failure of 
the main power supply, aUow a hydraulic elevator to 
descend to a lower landing. 

brake, driving machine, elevator, dumbwaiter, or mate- 
rial lift: an electromecharucally or electrohydraulically 
released spring, or gravity applied device, that is part 
of the electric driving machine of the elevator, dvimb- 
waiter, or material lift used to apply a controlled force 
at a braking surface to hold or retard the elevator, dumb- 
waiter, or material lift. See Nonmandatory Appendix F. 

electrohydraulically released: a means of release in which 
an electric current applied to a solenoid valve or the 
motor of a hydraulic pump directs pressurized hydraulic 
fluid to an actuator (such as a hydraulic jack) that over- 
comes a resisting force (such as a spring) as long as the 
electric current flows. 

electromechanically released: a means of release in which 
an electric current applied to an actuator (such as a 
solenoid) causes an electromagnetic force that over- 
comes a resisting force (such as a spring) as long as the 
electric current flows. 

brake, driving machine, escalator, or moving walk: an 

electromechanical device that is part of the electric driv- 
ing machine of the escalator or moving walk, used to 



M 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



apply a controlled force to a braking surface to stop and 
hold the escalator /moving walk system. 

brakings electrically assisted: retardation of the eleva- 
tor, assisted by energy generated by the driving-machine 
motor. See Nonmandatory Appendix F. 

brake, emergency: a mechanical device independent of 
the braking system used to retard or stop an elevator 
should the car overspeed or move in an unintended 
marmer. Such devices include, but are not limited to, 
those that apply braking force on one or more of the 
following: 

(a) car rails 

(b) coimterweight rails 

(c) suspension or compensation ropes 

(d) drive sheaves 

(e) brake drums 

For further information, see Nonmandatory Appen- 
dix F 

brake, main drive shaft, escalator and moving walk: a 

device located on the main drive shaft of the escalator 
or moving walk used to apply a controlled force to the 
braking surface to stop and hold the escalator or moving 
walk system. 

braking system: driving-machine brake alone, or in 
combination with electrically assisted braking, that 
operates to slow down and stop the elevator. See Non- 
mandatory Appendix R 

buffer: a device designed to stop a descending car or 
counterweight beyond its normal limit of travel by stor- 
ing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy 
of the car or counterweight. 

oil buffer: a buffer using oil as a medium, that absorbs 
and dissipates the kinetic energy of the descending car 
or coimterweight. 

gas spring-return oil buffer: an oil buffer utilizing the 
pressure of a compressed gas to return the buffer plunger 
or piston to its fully extended position. 

mechanical spring-return oil buffer: an oil buffer utiliz- 
ing the force of the compressed mechanical spring or 
springs to return the buffer plunger or piston to its fully 
extended position. 

oil buffer stroke: the oil-displacing movement of the 
buffer plunger or piston, excluding the travel of the 
buffer plunger accelerating device. 

spring buffer: a buffer utilizing one or more springs 
to cushion the impact force of the descending car or 
counterweight. 

spring buffer load rating: the load required to com- 
press the spring buffer an amount equal to its stroke. 

spring buffer stroke: the distance the contact end of 
the spring can move imder a compressive load until all 
coils are essentially in contact or until a fixed stop is 
reached. 



building code: an ordinance that sets forth requirements 
for building design and construction, or where such an 
ordinance has not been enacted, one of the following 
model codes: 

(a) International Building Code (IBC) 

(b) Building Construction and Safety Code 
(NFPA 5000) 

(c) National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) 

NOTE: Local regvdations or laws take precedence. In the absence 
of local regulation a model building code is applicable. 

bumper: a device, other than an oil or spring buffer, 
designed to stop a descending car or counterweight 
beyond its normal limit of travel by absorbing the 
impact. 

cable, traveling: see traveling cable, 

capacity: see rated load. 

car door interlock: a device having two related and 
interdependent functions, which are 

(a) to prevent the operation of the driving machine 
by the normal operating device imless the car door is 
locked in the closed position 

ib) to prevent the opening of the car door from inside 
the car unless the car is within the landing zone and is 
either stopped or being stopped 

car door or gate, power-closed: a door or gate that is 
closed by a door or gate power operator. 

car door or gate electric contact: an electrical device, 
the function of which is to prevent operation of the 
driving machine by the normal operating device unless 
the car door or gate is in the closed position. 

car door or gate power closer: a device or assembly of 
devices that closes a manually opened car door or gate 
by power other than hand, gravity, springs, or the move- 
ment of the car. 

car, dumbwaiter, material lift: the load-carrying unit 
that includes a platform or transfer device and may 
include an enclosure and/or car frame. 

car, elevator: the load-carrying unit including its plat- 
form, car frame, enclosure, and car door or gate. 

car enclosure: the top and the waUs of the car resting 
on and attached to the car platform. 

car frame: the supporting frame to which the car plat- 
form, upper and lower sets of guide shoes, car safety, 
and the hoisting ropes or hoisting-rope sheaves, or the 
plunger or cylinder of a direct-acting elevator, are 
attached. 

car frame, overslung: a car frame to which the hoisting 
rope fastenings or hoisting-rope sheaves are attached to 
the crosshead or top member of the car frame. 

car frame, sub-post: a car frame all of whose members 
are located below the car platform. 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



car frame, underslung: a car frame to which the hoisting- 
rope fastenings or hoisting-rope sheaves are attached at 
or below the car platform. 

car platform: the structure that forms the floor of the 
car and that directly supports the load. 

car platform, laminated: a self-supporting platform con- 
structed of plywood, with a bonded steel sheet facing 
on both top and bottom surfaces. 

car platform frame: a structural frame, composed of 
interconnecting members, that supports the car plat- 
form floor. 

car top access panel: a car top access panel is similar in 
design to a car top emergency exit panel. Used on mine 
elevators to permit frequent inspection of mine elevator 
hoistways for damage caused by environmental condi- 
tions. Such panels are openable without the use of tools 
or keys. 

NOTE: Subject to the modifications specified in 5.9.14.1(c). 

ceramic permanent magnet: a magnet of the type that 
has a force that does not deteriorate with time. 

certified: see listed/certified. 

certifying organization: an approved or accredited, 
independent organization concerned with product eval- 
uation that maintains periodic inspection of production 
of listed /certified equipment or material and whose list- 
ing/certification states whether that equipment meets 
appropriate standards or has been tested and found 
suitable for use in a specified manner. 

NOTE: For the purpose of this definition, accredited means that an 
organization has been evaluated and approved by an Authorized 
Agency to operate a Certification /Listing program, and is desig- 
nated as such in a publication of the Authorized Agency. 

chain, suspension (hoisting): chain used to raise and 
lower a dumbwaiter or material lift car or its cotmter- 
weight. 

chassis: that portion of an inclined elevator that serves 
as a car frame with weight-bearing guide rollers. 

clearance, bottom car: the clear vertical distance from 
the pit floor to the lowest structural or mechanical part, 
equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, 
except guide shoes or rollers, safety jaw assemblies, and 
platform or guards, when the car rests on its fully com- 
pressed buffers. 

clearance, top car, electric elevators: the shortest vertical 
distance between the top of the car crosshead, or 
between the top of the car where no crosshead is pro- 
vided, and the nearest part of the overhead structure or 
any other obstruction when the car floor is level with 
the top terminal landing. 

clearance, top car, hydraulic elevators: the shortest ver- 
tical distance within the hoistway between the hori- 
zontal plane described by the top of the car enclosure 



and the horizontal plane described by the lowest part 
of the overhead structure or other obstruction when the 
car floor is level with the top terminal landing. 

clearance, top car, inclined elevators: the shortest dis- 
tance in the direction of travel between the upwardmost 
portion of the chassis (car frame) and the nearest 
obstruction when the car is level with the top terminal 
landing. 

clearance, top counterweight: the shortest vertical dis- 
tance between any part of the counterweight structure 
and the nearest part of the overhead structure or any 
other obstruction when the car floor is level with the 
bottom terminal landing. 

comb, escalator and moving walk: the toothed portion 
of a combplate designed to mesh with a grooved step, 
pallet, or treadway surface. 

combplate, escalator and moving walk: that portion of 
the landing adjacent to the step, pallet, or treadway 
consisting of one or more plates to which the combs are 
fastened. 

compensating rope sheave switch: a device that auto- 
matically causes the electric power to be removed from 
the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift driving- 
machine motor and brake when the compensating 
sheave approaches its upper or lower limit of travel. 

compensation means: wire rope, chain, or other 
mecharucal means used to coimterbalance, or partially 
coimterbalance, the weight of the suspension ropes. 

component rated pressure: the pressure to which a 
hydraulic component can be subjected. 

control, motion: that portion of a control system that 
governs the acceleration, speed, retardation, and stop- 
ping of the moving member. 

control, AC motor: a motion control that uses an alter- 
nating current motor to drive the machine. 

control AC motor, DC injection: a motion control for 
an AC motor that produces retardation torque by 
injecting a DC current into either a stator winding of 
the motor or a separate eddy-current brake. 

control, single speed AC: a motion control for an AC 
motor that has a single synchronous speed. 

control, two speed AC: a motion control for an AC 
motor that has two different synchronous speeds by 
connecting the motor windings so as to obtain a different 
number of poles. 

control, variable voltage, variable frequency (WVF): 
a motion control that changes the magnitude and fre- 
quency of the voltage applied to the motor. 

control, variable voltage AC (VVAC): a motion control 
for an AC motor that varies the amount and direction 
of output torque by controlling the magnitude and phase 
sequence of the voltage to the motor. 

control, DC motor: a motion control that uses a DC 
motor to drive the machine. 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



• 



control, dual bridge ihyristor converter: a motion con- 
trol for a DC motor that supplies the armature with 
variable voltage of either polarity, and is capable of cur- 
rent flow in both directions. 

control, generator field: a motion control that is accom- 
plished by the use of an individual generator for each 
driving-machine motor wherein the voltage applied to 
the motor armature is adjusted by varying the strength 
and direction of the generator field current. 

control, multivoltage: a motion control that is accom- 
plished by impressing successively on the armature of 
the driving-machine motor a number of substantially 
fixed voltages such as may be obtained from multi- 
commutator generators common to a group of elevators. 

control, rheostatic: a motion control that is accom- 
plished by varying resistance and /or reactance in the 
armature and/or field circuit of the driving-machine 
motor. 

control, single bridge thyristor converter: a motion con- 
trol for a DC motor that supplies the armature with 
variable voltage of fixed polarity. The field is reversed 
to control direction and to cause regeneration. 

control, electrohydraulic: a motion control in which the 
acceleration, speed, retardation, and stopping are gov- 
erned by varying fluid flow to the hydraulic jack. 

control, static: a motion control in which control func- 
tions are performed by solid-state devices. 

control, operation: that portion of a control system that 
initiates the starting, stopping, and direction of motion, 
in response to a signal from an operating device. 

operation, automatic: operation control wherein the 
starting of the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift car 
is effected in response to the momentary actuation of 
operating devices at the landing, and /or of operating 
devices in the car identified with the landings, and /or 
in response to an automatic starting mechanism, and 
wherein the car is stopped automatically at the landings. 
operation, group automatic: automatic operation of 
two or more nonattendant elevators equipped with 
power-operated car and hoistway doors. The operation 
of the cars is coordinated by a supervisory control sys- 
tem including automatic dispatching means whereby 
selected cars at designated dispatching points automati- 
cally close their doors and proceed on their trips in a 
regulated manner. It includes one button in each car for 
each floor served and "UP" and "DOWN" buttons at 
each landing (single buttons at terminal landings). The 
stops set up by the momentary actuation of the car 
buttons are made automatically in succession as a car 
reaches the corresponding Landing, irrespective of its 
direction of travel or the sequence in which the buttons 
are actuated. The stops set up by the momentary actua- 
tion of the landing buttons may be accomplished by any 
elevator in the group, and are made automatically by 
the first available car that approaches the landing in the 
corresponding direction. 



operation, nonselective collective automatic: automatic 
operation by means of one button in the car for each 
landing served and one button at each landing, wherein 
all stops registered by the momentary actuation of land- 
ing or car buttons are made irrespective of the number 
of buttons actuated or of the sequence in which the 
buttons are actuated. With this type of operation, the 
car stops at all landings for which buttons have been 
actuated, making the stops in the order in which the 
landings are reached after the buttons have been actu- 
ated, but irrespective of its direction of travel. 

operation, selective collective automatic: automatic 
operation by means of one button in the car for each 
landing served and by "UP" and "DOWN" buttons at 
the landings, wherein all stops registered by the momen- 
tary actuation of the car buttons are made as defined 
under nonselective collective automatic operation, but 
wherein the stops registered by the momentary actua- 
tion of the landing buttons are made in the order in 
which the landings are reached in each direction of travel 
after the buttons have been actuated. With this type of 
operation, all "UP" landing calls are answered when the 
car is traveling in the up direction and all "DOWN" 
landing calls are answered when the car is traveling in 
the down direction, except in the case of the uppermost 
or lowermost calls, that are answered as soon as they 
are reached, irrespective of the direction of travel of 
the car. 

operation, single automatic: automatic operation by 
means of one button in the car for each landing served 
and one button at each landing, so arranged that if any 
car or landing button has been actuated the actuation 
of any other car or landing operating button will have 
no effect on the operation of the car until the response 
to the first button has been completed. 

operation, car switch: operation control wherein the 
movement and direction of travel of the car are directly 
and solely under the control of the attendant by means 
of a manually operated car switch or of continuous- 
pressure buttons in the car. 

operation, car switch automatic floor-stop: operation in 
which the stop is initiated by the attendant from within 
the car with a definite reference to the landing at which 
it is desired to stop, after which the slowing down and 
stopping of the elevator is effected automatically 

operation, continuous-pressure: operation control by 
means of buttons or switches in the car and at the land- 
ings, any one of which may be used to control the move- 
ment of the car as long as the button or switch is 
manually maintained in the actuating position. 

operation, preregister: operation control in which signals 
to stop are registered in advance by buttons in the car 
and at the landings. At the proper point in the car travel, 
the attendant in the car is notified by a signal, visual, 
audible, or otherwise, to initiate the stop, after which 
the landing stop is automatic. 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



operation, signal: operation control by means of single 
buttons or switches (or both) in the car, and "UP" or 
"DOWN" direction buttons (or both) at the landings, 
by which predetermined landing stops may be set up 
or registered for an elevator or for a group of elevators. 
The stops set up by the momentary actuation of the car 
buttons are made automatically in succession as the car 
reaches those landings, irrespective of its direction of 
travel or the sequence in which the buttons are actuated. 
The stops set up by the momentary actuation of the 
"UP" and "DOWN" buttons at the landing are made 
automatically by the first available car in the group 
approaching the landings in the corresponding direc- 
tion, irrespective of the sequence in which the buttons 
are actuated. With this type of operation, the car can be 
started ordy by means of a starting switch or button in 
the car. 

(05S) control room, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: an 

enclosed control space outside the hoistway, intended 
for full bodily entry, that contains the motor controller. 
The room could also contain electrical and /or mechaiu- 
cal equipment used directly in connection with the eleva- 
tor, dumbwaiter, or material lift but not the electric 
driving machine or the hydraulic machine. (See Non- 
mandatory Appendix Q.) 

(055) control space, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: a 

space inside or outside the hoistway, intended to be 
accessed with or without full bodily entry, that contains 
the motor controller. This space could also contain elec- 
trical and /or mechanical equipment used directly in 
connection with the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material 
lift but not the electric driving machine or the hydraulic 
machine. (See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.) 

NOTE: See 2.7.6.3.2 for an exception regarding the location of a 
motor controller. 

control system: the overall system governing the start- 
ing, stopping, direction of motion, acceleration, speed, 
and retardation of the moving member. See Nonmanda- 
tory Appendix A. 

controller: a device or group of devices that serves to 
control in a predetermined manner the apparatus to 
which it is connected. 

controller, motion: an operative unit comprising a 
device or group of devices for actuating the moving 
member. 

controller, motor: the operative units of a motion control 
system comprising the starter devices and power con- 
version equipment required to drive an electric motor. 

controller, operation: an operative unit comprising a 
device or group of devices for actuating the motion 
control. 

deck, escalator: see escalator deck. 



designated attendant: where elevator operation is con- 
trolled solely by authorized personnel (attendant ser- 
vice, independent, hospital service, and other similar 
operations). 

designated level: the main floor or other floor level 
that best serves the needs of emergency personnel for 
firefighting or rescue purposes identified by the building 
code or fire authority: 

dispatching device, elevator automatic: a device, the 
principal function of which is to either 

(a) operate a signal in the car to indicate when the 
car should leave a designated landing, or 

(h) actuate its starting mechanism when the car is at 
a designated landing 

displacement switch: a device actuated by the displace- 
ment of the counterweight, at any point in the hoistway, 
to provide a signal that the counterweight has moved 
from its normal larle of travel or has left its guide rails. 

door: the movable portion(s) of an entrance that closes 
the openings. It consists of one or more solid face panels 
that are permitted jto be equipped with a vision panel. 

door, horizontally sliding: a door that moves horizon- 
tally 

center-opening: a horizontally sliding door con- 
sisting of two panels, so arranged to open away from 
each other. 

center-opening, multiple-speed: a horizontally sliding 
door consisting of Jmore than two panels, so arranged 
that the panels or groups of panels open away from 
each other. 

door, folding: a hinged door consisting of two or 
more panels that fold and move horizontally. 

multiple-speed: a horizontally sliding door with two 

or more panels, so arranged to open away from one side. 

single-speed: a one-panel horizontally sliding door. 

door or gate, manually operated: a door or gate that is 
opened and closed^ by hand. 

door or gate, power-operated: a door or gate that is 
opened and closed by a door or gate power-operator. 

door or gate, self-closing: a manually opened door or 
gate that closes when released. 

door, swinging: a door that pivots around a vertical axis. 

door, vertically sliding: a counterweighted or counter- 
balanced door consisting of one or more panels that 
move vertically to open or close. 

door, vertically sliding sequence operation: where the 
operung and closing relationship of the car and hoistway 
doors do not occur simultaneously. 

door, hiparting: di weiiicdWy sliding door consisting 
of two or more sections, so arranged that the sections 
or groups of sections open away from each other. 

door, wraparound: a horizontally sliding door that 
bends around a car enclosure. 

door locked out of service: a hoistway entrance in which 
the door is mecharucally locked by means other than 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



m 



the interlock to prevent the door being opened from the 
car side without keys or special equipment. 

door or gate closer: a device that closes a door or gate 
by means of a spring or gravity. 

door or gate electric contact: an electrical device, the 
function of which is to prevent operation of the driving 
machine by the normal operating device imless the door 
or gate is in the closed position. 

door or gate power operator: a device or assembly of 
devices that opens a hoistway door(s) and /or a car door 
or car gate by power other tiian hand, gravity, springs, 
or the movement of the car; and that closes them by 
power other than hand, gravity, or the movement of 
the car. 

driving machine: see machine, driving. 

dumbwaiter: a hoisting and lowering mechanism 
equipped with a car of limited size that moves in guide 
rails and serves two or more landings that is used exclu- 
sively for carrying materials, and is classified by the 
following types. 

dumbwaiter, .hand: a dumbwaiter utilizing manual 
energy to move the car. 

dumbwaiter, power: a dumbwaiter utilizing energy 
other than gravitational or manual to move the car. 

dumbwaiter, electric: a power dumbwaiter where the 
energy is applied by means of an electric driving 
machine. 

dumbwaiter, hydraulic: a power dumbwaiter where 
the energy is applied, by means of a liquid under pres- 
sure, in a cylinder equipped with a plunger or piston. 

dumbwaiter, direct-plunger hydraulic: a hydraulic 
dumbwaiter having a plunger or cylinder directly 
attached to the car frame or platform. 

dumbwaiter, electrohydraulic: a direct-plunger 
dumbwaiter where liquid is pumped imder pressure 
directly into the cylinder by a pump driven by an electric 
motor. 

dumbwaiter, maintained-pressure hydraulic: a direct- 
plunger dumbwaiter where liquid under pressure is 
available at all times for transfer into the cylinder. 

dumbwaiter, roped-hydraulic: a hydraulic dumb- 
waiter having its piston connected to the car with 
wire rope. 

dumbwaiter, undercounter: a dumbwaiter that has its 
top terminal landing located underneath a counter. 

earthquake protective devices: a device or group of 
devices that serve to regulate the operation of an elevator 
or group of elevators in a predetermined maimer during 
or after an earthquake. 

electrical/electronic/programmable electronic system 

(E/E/PES): a system for control, protection, or monitor- 
ing based on one or more electrical/electronic /program- 
mable electronic devices, including all elements of the 
system such as power supplies, sensors and other input 



devices, data highways and other commimication paths, 
and actuators and other output devices. 

electrical/electronic/programmable electronic(E/E/PE): 

based on electrical (E), and /or electronic (E), and /or 
programmable electronic (PE) technology. 

NOTE: The term is intended to cover any and all devices or 
systems operating on electrical principles. 

EXAMPLE: Electrical/electronic/programmable electronic 
devices include 

(a) electromechanical devices (electrical) 

(b) solid-state nonprogrammable electronic devices (electronic) 

(c) electronic devices based on computer technology (program- 
mable electronic) 

elevator: a hoisting and lowering mechanism, equipped 
with a car, that moves within guides and serves two or 
more landings and is classified by the following types 

NOTE: See 1.1.2, Equipment Not Covered by this Code. 

elevator, freight: an elevator used primarily for carrying 
freight and on which only the operator and the persons 
necessary for unloading and loading the freight are per- 
mitted to ride. 

NOTE (elevator, freight): Its use is subject to the modifications 
specified in 2.16. 

elevator, hand: an elevator utilizing manual energy to 
move the car. 

elevator, inclined: an elevator that travels at an angle 
of inclination of 70 deg or less from the horizontal. 

elevator, mine: an elevator installed in the mine 
hoistway, used to provide access to the mine for person- 
nel, materials, equipment, and supplies. To meet the 
requirements of a mine elevator, the components must 
be designed and installed in conformance to Part 2 of 
this Code, except as modified in 5.9. Mine elevators are 
similar to electric passenger elevators but are modified 
to operate in the mine environment. 

elevator, multicompartment: an elevator having two or 
more compartments located one above the other. 

elevator, observation: an elevator that permits exterior 
viewing by passengers while the car is traveling. 

elevator, passenger: an elevator used primarily to carry 
persons other than the operator and persons necessary 
for loading and unloading. 

elevator, power: an elevator utilizing energy other than 
gravitational or manual to move the car. 

elevator, electric: a power elevator where the energy 
is applied by means of an electric driving machine. 

elevator, hydraulic: a power elevator in which the 
energy is applied, by means of a liquid under pressure, 
in a hydraulic jack. 

elevator, direct-acting hydraulic: a hydraulic eleva- 
tor in which the energy is applied by a direct hydraulic 
driving machine. 

elevator, electrohydraulic: a hydraulic elevator in 
which liquid imder pressure is supplied by a hydraulic 
machine. 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



elevator, maintained-pressure hydraulic: a direct-act- 
ing hydraulic elevator in which liquid under pressure is 
available at all times for transfer into the hydraulic jack. 
elevator, roped-hydraulic: a hydraulic elevator in 
which the energy is applied by a roped-hydraulic driv- 
ing machine, 

elevator, limited-useAimited-application: a power passen- 
ger elevator in which the use and application is limited 
by size, capacity speed, and rise. 

elevator, private residence: a power passenger elevator 
that is limited in size, capacity, rise, and speed, and is 
installed in a private residence or in a multiple dwelling 
as a means of access to a private residence. 

elevator, rack-and-pinion: a power elevator with or with- 
out a counterweight that is supported, raised, and low- 
ered by a motor or motors that drive a pinion or pinions 
on a stationary rack mounted in the hoistway. 

elevator, rooftop: a power passenger or freight elevator 
operating between a landing at roof level and landings 
below. It opens onto the exterior roof level of a building 
through a horizontal opening. 

elevator, screw column: a power elevator having an 
uncounterweighted car that is supported, raised, and 
lowered by means of a screw thread. 

elevator, shipboard: lifting equipment installed in ships, 
in offshore drilling rigs, or offshore oil production plat- 
forms for the purpose of transporting personnel, mainte- 
nance equipment, and ship stores that serves defined 
landing levels; comprised of an enclosed car running 
between rigid guides, the dimensions and means of con- 
struction of which permit the access of persons. 

elevator, sidewalk: an elevator of the freight type 
operating between a landing in a sidewalk or other exte- 
rior area and floors below the sidewalk or grade level. 
It opens onto the exterior area through a horizontal 
opening. 

elevator, special purpose personnel: an elevator that is 
limited in size, capacity, and speed, and permanently 
installed in structures such as grain elevators, radio 
antenna, bridge towers, underground facilities, dams, 
power plants, and similar structures to provide vertical 
transportation of authorized personnel and their tools 
and equipment only. 

elevator, used for construction: an elevator being used 
temporarily, only for construction purposes. 

elevator personnel: persons who have been trained in 
the construction, maintenance, repair, inspection, or test- 
ing of equipment. 

emergency personnel: persons who have been trained 
in the operation of emergency or standby power and 
firefighters' emergency operation or emergency evacu- 
ation. 

emergency signal device: a device that can be operated 
from within the elevator car to inform persons outside 
the hoistway that help is required. 



emergency stop switch: a device located as required and 
readily accessible for operation, that, when manually 
operated, causes the electric power to be removed from 
the driving-n\achine motor and brake of an electric ele- 
vator; or from the electrically operated valves and pump 
motor of a hydraulic elevator; or of a dumbwaiter; or 
of a material lift. 

endurance limit of a component: the maximum stress 
that can be alternated or reversed within specified limits 
without producing fracture of the component material. 

enforcing authority: see authority having jurisdiction and 
regulatory authority. 

engineering test: a test carried out by or witnessed by 
a registered or licensed professional engineer, testing 
laboratory, or certifying organization to ensure confor- 
mance to Code requirements. 

entrance assembly, elevator, dumbwaiter, or material 
lift: the protective assembly that closes the hoistway 
openings normally used for loading and unloading, 
including the door panel(s), gate(s), transom panel, fixed 
side panel, gibs /guides, sill /sill structure, header, frame, 
and entrance hardware assembly, if provided. 

entrance assembly, horizontally sliding type: an entrance 
assembly in which the door(s) slides horizontally. 

entrance assembly, swinging type: an entrance assembly 
in which the door(s) swings around vertical hinges. 

entrance assembly, vertically sliding type: an entrance 
assembly in which the door(s) slides vertically. 

entrance frame, applied: see applied frame entrance. 

entrance hardware assembly: the track(s), hangers, 
drive arms, pendant bolts, chains, belts, cables, sheaves, 
pulleys, hinges, vertically sliding guide shoes, and 
related hardware that are necessary to suspend and 
maintain the position of the doors within the entrance 
assembly. 

escalator: power-driven, inclined, continuous stairway 
used for raising or lowering passengers. 

escalator, conventional: an escalator on which the run- 
ning gear is driven by a single drive shaft at a terminal. 

escalator, modular: an escalator on which the nmning 
gear along the incline is driven by one or more drive 
units. 

escalator deck: the transverse members of the balus- 
trade, having an interior or exterior section, or both. A 
high deck is located immediately below the handrail 
stand. A low deck is located immediately above the skirt 
panel. 

escalator molding: the connecting means between the 
various portions of the balustrade. 

escalator newel: the balustrade termination at the 
landing. 

escalator newel base: the panel located immediately 
under the newel. 



# 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



escalator panels exterior: the panel enclosing the exterior 
side of the balustrade. 

escalator panel, interior: the panel located between the 
skirt and the escalator high deck or the handrail stand. 

escalator skirt: the fixed, vertical panels located immedi- 
ately adjacent to the steps. 

escalator skirt cover, dynamic: the stationary cover that 
protects the interface between the dynamic skirt panel 
and the escalator balustrade. 

escalator skirt, dynamic: see skirt panel, dynamic. 

escalator wellway: an opening in a floor provided for 
escalator installation between two levels of a building. 

escalators, tandem operation: escalators used in series 
with common intermediate landings. 

factor of safety: the ratio of the ultimate strength to 
the working stress of a member under maximum static 
loading, unless otherwise specified in a particular 
requirement. 

fail safe: a characteristic of a system or its elements 
whereby any failure or malfunction affecting safety will 
cause the system to revert to a state that is known to 
be safe. 

fire barrier: a fire-resistance-rated vertical or horizontal 
assembly of material designed to restrict the spread of 
fire in which the openings are protected. 

fire-protection rating: a designation indicating the dura- 
tion of the fire test exposure to which a fire door assem- 
bly (entrance) was exposed and for which it met all the 
acceptance criteria as deternnined in accordance with a 
recognized fire test standard. Ratings are stated in hours 
or minutes. 

fire-resistance rating: a designation indicating the dura- 
tion of the fire test exposure to which components of 
building construction (walls, floors, roofs, beams, and 
columns) are exposed and for which it met all the accept- 
ance criteria as determined iii accordance with a recog- 
nized fire test standard. Ratings are stated in hours or 
minutes. 

fire-resistive construction: a method of construction 
that prevents or retards the passage of hot gases or 
flames, specified by the building code. 

fixed side panel: a panel used to close a hoistway enclo- 
sure opening on the side of a hoistway entrance. 

flat steps: the distance, expressed in step lengths, that 
the leading edge of the escalator step travels after emerg- 
ing from the comb before moving vertically. 

gate: the moveable portion(s) of an entrance that closes 
the opening. A gate has through openings. 

horizontally sliding collapsible gate: a series of horizon- 
tally sliding vertical members, joined by a scissors-like 
linkage that allows the assembly to collapse. 



horizontally sliding noncollapsible gate: a noncollapsible 
assembly consisting of one or more sections that slide 
horizontally. 

vertically sliding gate: a cotmterweighted or counterbal- 
anced assembly, consisting of one or more sections that 
move vertically to open or close. 

gate, semiautomatic: a gate that is opened manually 
and that is closed automatically as the car leaves the 
landing. 

governor: see speed governor. 

governor pull-through tension (force): the magnitude 
of the tensile load developed in the moving governor 
rope after the governor rope retarding means is actuated. 

governor rope retarding means: a mechanical means of 
developing a sufficient force in the governor rope to 
activate the car or coimterweight safeties or to trip the 
governor rope releasing carrier, where used. Such 
mechanical means include, but are not limited to, rope- 
gripping jaws, clutch mecharusms, and traction arrange- 
ments. 

handrail stand: the uppermost portion of the balustrade 
that supports and guides the handrail. 

hoistway (shaft), elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift: 

an opening through a building or structure for the travel 
of elevators; dumbwaiters, or material lifts, extending 
from the pit floor to the roof or floor above. 

hoistway, blind: the portion of a hoistway where 
hoistway entrances are not provided. 

hoistway, multiple: a hoistway with more than one ele- 
vator, dumbwaiter, or material lift. 

hoistway, single: a hoistway with a single elevator, 
dumbwaiter, or material lift. 

hoistway, mine: The area within a mine shaft, and its 
aboveground structure required for the elevator equip- 
ment, associated supports, and operations, including a 
minimum of 450 mm (18 in.) around same. 

hoistway access switch: a switch, located at a landing, 
the function of which is to permit operation of the car 
with the hoistway door at this landing and the car door 
or gate open, in order to permit access to the top of the 
car or to the pit, 

hoistway door: see door. 

hoistway door electric contact: see door or gate electric 
contact, 

hoistway door or gate locking device: a device that 
secures a hoistway door or gate in the closed position 
and prevents it from being opened from the landing 
side except inider certain specified conditions. 

hoistway door combination mechanical lock and electric 
contact: a combination mechanical and electrical device 
with two related, but entirely independent functions, 
that are 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(a) to prevent operation of the driving machine by 
the normal operating device unless the hoistway door 
is in the closed position 

(b) to lock the hoistway door in the closed position 
and prevent it from being opened from the landing side 
imless the car is within the landing zone 

NOTE: As there is no positive mechanical connection between 
the electric contact and the door locking mechanism, this device 
enstires only that the door will be closed, but not necessarily locked, 
when the car leaves the landing. Should the lock mechanism fail 
to operate as intended when released by a stationary or retiring 
car-cam device, the door can be opened from the landing side even 
though the car is not at the landing. If operated by a stationary 
car-cam device, it does not prevent opening the door from the 
landing side as the car passes the floor. 

hoistway door interlock: a device having two related 
and interdependent functions, that are 

(a) to prevent the operation of the driving machine 
by the normal operating device unless the hoistway door 
is locked in the closed position 

(b) to prevent the opening of the hoistway door from 
the landing side unless the car is within the landing 
zone and is either stopped or being stopped 

hoistway door interlock retiring cam device: a device 
that consists of a retractable cam and its actuating mech- 
anism and that is entirely independent of the car door 
or hoistway door power operator. 

hoistway gate separate mechanical loch a mechanical 
device the function of which is to lock a hoistway gate 
in the closed position after the car leaves a landing and 
prevent the gate from being opened from the landing 
side unless the car is within the landing zone. 

hoistway enclosure: the fixed structure, consisting of 
vertical walls or partitions, that isolates the hoistway 
from all other areas or from an adjacent hoistway and 
in which entrances are installed. 

hoistway gate: usually a counterweighted (counterbal- 
anced) assembly, consisting of one or more sections that 
are guided in the vertical direction to open or close. The 
gate may be of wood or metal construction. Wood gates 
may consist of either horizontal or vertical slats. Metal 
gates are usually constructed of perforated or expanded 
metal. 

hospital service: a special case of operation by a desig- 
nated attendant used only for medical emergencies. 

hydraulic jack: a uiut consisting of a cylinder equipped 
with a plunger (ram) or piston, that applies the energy 
provided by a liquid under pressure. 

hydraulic machine: a unit consisting of pump, motor, 
valves, and associated internal piping, that converts elec- 
trical energy and supplies it as a liquid under pressure. 

in-car stop switch: a device located in the car and acces- 
sible for operation by elevator personnel only, that, when 
manually operated, causes the electric power to be 
removed from the driving-machine motor and brake 



of an electric elevator or from the electrically operated 
valves and pump motor of a hydraulic elevator. 

inclined elevator: see elevator, inclined. 

installation: a complete elevator, dumbwaiter, escalator, 
material lift, or moving walk, including its hoistway, 
hoistway enclosures and related construction, and all 
machinery and equipment necessary for its operation. 

installation, existing: an installation that has been com- 
pleted or is under construction prior to the effective date 
of this Code. 

installation, new: any installation not classified as an 
existing installation by definition, or an existing elevator, 
dumbwaiter, escalator, material lift, inclined lift, or mov- 
ing walk moved to a new location subsequent to the 
effective date of this Code. 

interlock: see car door interlock and hoistway door interlock. 

labeled/marked: equipment or material to which has 
been attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark 
of an approved or accredited independent certifying 
organization, concerned with product evaluation, that 
maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled/ 
marked equipment or material, and by whose labeling/ 
marking the manufacturer indicates compliance with 
appropriate standards or performance in a specified 
manner. 

NOTE: For the purpose of this definition, accredited means that cin 
organization has been evaluated and approved by an Authorized 
Agency to operate a Certification/ Listing program, and is desig- 
nated as such in a publication of the Authorized Agency. 

landing, dumbwaiter: that portion of a floor, balcony, 
platform, or landing door used to discharge and receive 
materials. 

landing, elevator or material lift: that portion of a floor, 
balcony, or platform used to receive and discharge pas- 
sengers or freight. 

landing, bottom terminal: the lowest landing served by 
the elevator or material lift that is equipped with a 
hoistway entrance. 

landing, top terminal: the highest landing served by the 
elevator or material lift that is equipped with a hoistway 
entrance. 

landing, escalator or moving walk: the stationary area 
at the entrance to or exit from an escalator, a moving 
walk, or moving walk system. 

landing, lower, escalator: that landing of least elevation 
of the two landings. 

landing, lower, moving walk: that landing of least eleva- 
tion of ti:ie two landings. On moving walks where the 
two landings are of equal elevation, the lower landing 
is that landing designated by the manufacturer. 

landing, upper, escalator: that landing of greatest eleva- 
tion of the two landings. 

landing, upper, moving walk: that landing of greatest 
elevation of the two landings. On moving walks where 



10 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



the two landings are of equal elevation, the upper land- 
ing is that landing designated by the manufacturer. 

landing, next available: the first landing in the direction 
of travel that the elevator is electrically and mechanically 
capable of serving with a normal slowdown and stop. 

landing zone: a zone extending from a point 450 mm 
(18 in.) below a landing to a point 450 rmn (18 in.) above 
the landing. 

left, right convention: left and right designations of 
escalator and moving walk con\ponents are determined 
by facing the equipment at the lower landing. 

leveling: controlled car movement toward the landing, 
within the leveling zone, by means of a leveling device, 
that vertically aligns the car platform sill relative to the 
hoistway landing sill to attain a predetermined accuracy. 

leveling device, elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift 
car: the portion of a motion control system comprised 
of a device or group of devices that, either automatically 
or under control of the operator, initiates leveling, and 
automatically stops the car at the landing. 

leveling device, anticreep: a leveling device used on 
hydraulic elevators to correct automatically a change in 
car level caused by leakage or contraction of fluid in the 
hydraulic system. 

leveling device, inching: a leveling device that is con- 
trolled by the operator by means of continuous-pressure 
switches. 

leveling device, one-zuay automatic: a device that corrects 
the car level only in case of under-nm of the car, but will 
not maintain the level during loading and unloading. 

leveling device, two-way automatic maintaining: a device 
that corrects the car level on both under-run and over- 
run, and maintains the level during loading and 
unloading. 

leveling device, two-way automatic nonmaintaining: a 
device that corrects the car level on both under-run and 
over-run, but will not maintain the level during loading 
and unloading. 

leveling zone: the limited distance above or below an 
elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift landing within 
which the leveling device is permitted to cause move- 
ment of the car toward the landing. 

listed/certified: equipment or materials accepted for 
inclusion in a publication by a certifying organization. 

NOTE: The means for identifying listed/certified equipment may 
vary for each organization concerned with product evaluation, 
some of which do not recognize equipment as listed /certified 
unless it is also labeled/marked. The authority having jurisdiction 
utilizes the system employed by the listing /certifying organization 
to identify a listed /certified product. 

load, dynamic: the load applied as a result of accelera- 
tion or deceleration. 



load, impact: a suddenly applied load. 

load, static: the load applied as a result of the weight. 

lower landing, escalator: see landing, lower, escalator, 

lower landing, moving walk: see landing, lower, mov- 
ing walk. 

machine, driving: the power unit that applies the energy 
necessary to drive an elevator or other eqxiipment cov- 
ered by the scope of this Code. 

driving machine, electric: a driving machine in which 
the energy is applied by an electric motor. It includes the 
motor, driving-machine brake, and the driving sheave or 
drum, together with its connecting gearing, belt, or 
chain, if any. See Nonmandatory Appendix F. 

driving machine, direct: an electric driving machine, 
the motor of which is directly connected mechanically 
to the driving sheave, drtun, or shaft without the use 
of belts or chains, either with or without intermediate 
gears. 

geared driving machine: a direct driving machine 
in which the energy is transmitted from the motor to 
the driving sheave, drum, or shaft through gearing. 

winding drum machine: a geared driving 
machine in which the suspension ropes are fastened to 
and wind on a drum. 

traction machine: a direct driving machine in 
which the motion of a car is obtained through friction 
between the suspension ropes and a traction sheave. 

geared traction machine: a geared-drive traction 
machine. 

gearless traction machine: a traction machine, 
without intermediate gearing, that has the traction 
sheave and the brake drum mounted directly on the 
motor shaft. 

worm-geared machine: a direct driving machine in 
which the energy from the motor is transmitted to the 
driving sheave or drum through worm gearing. 

driving machine, indirect: an electric driving machine, 
the motor of which is cormected indirectly to the driving 
sheave, drum, gear reducer, or shaft by means of a belt 
drive or chain drive. 

belt driving machine: an indirect driving machine 
equipped with a belt system as the cormecting means. 
chain driving machine: an indirect driving machine 
with a chain system as the connecting means. 

driving machine, rack-and-pinion: an electric driving 
machine in which the motion of the car is obtained by 
a power-driven rotation pinion(s) mounted on the car, 
traveling on a stationary rack mounted in the hoistway. 

driving machine, screw: an electric driving machine, 
the motor of which drives a nut on a vertical screw or 
rotates a vertical screw to raise or lower an elevator car. 
driving machine, chain, dumbwaiter or material lift: a driv- 
ing machine in which the motion of a car is obtained 
through a connection between a driven sprocket and 
the suspension chains. 



11 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



driving machine, hydraulic: a driving machine in which 
the energy is provided by a hydrauhc machine and 
applied by a hydraulic jack. 

chain-hydraulic drive machine: a hydraulic driving 
machine in which the drive member of the hydraulic jack 
is connected to the car by chains or indirectly coupled to 
the car by means of chains and sprockets. 

direct hydraulic driving machine: a hydraulic driving 
machine in which the driving member of the hydraulic 
jack is directly attached to the car frame or platform. 

roped'hydraulic driving machine: a hydraulic driving 
machine in which the driving meniber of the hydraulic 
jack is connected to the car by wire ropes or indirectly 
coupled to the car by means of wire ropes and sheaves. 
It includes multiplying sheaves, if any, and their guides. 

(OSS) machine room and control room^ remote, elevator, 
dumbwaiter, material lift: a machine room or control 
room that is not attached to the outside perimeter or 
surface of the walls, ceiling, or floor of the hoistway 
(See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.) 

(OSS) machine room, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: an 

enclosed machinery space outside the hoistway, 
intended for full bodily entry, that contains the electric 
driving machine or the hydraulic machine. The room 
could also contain electrical and /or mechanical equip- 
ment used directly in connection with the elevator, 
dumbwaiter, or material lift. (See Nonmandatory 
Appendix Q.) 

(OSS) machine space, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift: a 

space inside or outside the hoistway, intended to be 
accessed with or without full bodily entry, that contains 
elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift mechanical equip- 
ment, and could also contain electrical equipment used 
directly in connection with the elevator, dumbwaiter, or 
material lift. This space could also contain the electric 
driving machine or the hydraulic machine. (See Non- 
mandatory Appendix Q.) 

(OSS) machinery space and control space, remote, elevator, 
dumbwaiter, material lift: a machinery space or control 
space that is not within the hoistway, machine room, or 
control room, and that is not attached to the outside 
perimeter or surface of the walls, ceiling, or floor of the 
hoistway. (See Nonmandatory Appendix Q.) 

main floor: the floor providing normal egress from a 
building. 

maintained pressure: the hydraulic pressure between 
the pressure source and the control valves of a main- 
tained pressure hydraulic elevator. 

maintenance: a process of routine examination, lubrica- 
tion, cleaning, and adjustment of parts, components, 
and /or subsystems for the purpose of ensuring perform- 
ance in accordance with the applicable Code require- 
ments. (See also repair and replacement.) 

manually (manual) reset, elevator: 



(a) a type or feature of an elevator part or component 
that, when actuated, requires intervention of a person 
in order to reinstate it to its non-actuated state. 

(b) a type of action required to be taken by a person to 
reinstate an elevator part or component from an actuated 
state to its non-actuated state. 

manual reset, escalator, and moving walk: a means, 
not accessible to the general public, requiring personal 
intervention by an authorized person prior to restarting 
the escalator or moving walk. 

material lift: a hoisting and lowering mechanism nor- 
mally classified as an elevator, equipped with a car that 
moves within a guide system installed at an angle of 
greater than 70 deg from the horizontal, serving two or 
more landings, for the purpose of transporting materials 
that are manually or automatically loaded or imloaded. 
Material lifts without an automatic transfer device are 
Type A or Type B. On Type A material lifts no persons 
are permitted to ride. On Type B material lifts authorized 
personnel are permitted to ride. 

may: indicates permission, not a mandatory 
requirement. 

mechanical lock: see hoistway door combination mechanical 
lock and electric contact and hoistway gate separate mechani- 
cal lock. 

mode of operation: a way in which a safety-related 
system is intended to be used, with respect to the rate 
of demands made upon it, that may by either 

(a) low demand mode: where the frequency of demands 
for operation made on an electrical safety function is 
not greater than one per year and not greater than twice 
the proof-test frequency 

(b) high demand or continuous mode: where the fre- 
quency of demands for operation made on a safety- 
related system is greater than one per year or greater 
than twice the proof-test frequency 

NOTE: High demand or continuous mode covers those safety- 
related systems that implement continuous control to maintain 
functional safety. 

(c) proof-test: a periodic test performed to detect fail- 
ures in a safety-related system so that, if necessary, the 
system can be restored to an "as new" condition or as 
close as practical to this condition 

NOTE: See lEC 61508-4, Clause 3.8.5 for additional information 
on this definition. 

modernization: see alteration. 

module: the increment of rise in a modular escalator 
that one drive imit is capable of powering. 

molding, escalator: see escalator molding. 

moving walk: a type of passenger-carrying device on 
which passengers stand or walk, and in which the pas- 
senger-carrying surface remains parallel to its direction 
of motion and is uninterrupted. 



12 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



• 



moving walk, belt pallet type: a moving walk with a 
series of connected and power-driven pallets to which 
a continuous belt tread way is fastened. 

moving walk, belt type: a moving walk with a power- 
driven continuous belt treadway. 

moving walk, edge-supported belt type: a moving walk 
with the treadway supported near its edges by a succes- 
sion of rollers. 

moving walk, pallet type: a moving walk with a series 
of connected and power-driven pallets that together con- 
stitute the treadway. 

moving walk, roller-bed type: a moving walk with the 
treadway supported throughout its width by a succes- 
sion of rollers, 

moving walk, slider-bed type: a moving walk with the 
treadway sliding upon a supporting surface. 

moving walk newel: the balustrade termination at the 
landing. 

moving walk newel base: the panel located immedi- 
ately under the newel. 

moving walk wellway: an opening in a floor provided 
for moving walk installation. 

newel, escalator: see escalator newel. 

newel, moving walk: see moving walk newel. 

newel base, escalator: see escalator newel base. 

newel base, moving walk: see moving walk newel base. 

nonstop switch, elevator: a switch that, when operated, 
will prevent the elevator from making registered landing 
stops. 

normal stopping means: that portion of the operation 
control that initiates stopping of the car in normal opera- 
tion at landings. 

operating device: the car switch, push buttons, key or 
toggle switches, or other devices used to actuate the 
operation control. 

operating speed in the down direction: the speed at 
which a hydraulic elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift 
is set to lower with rated load. 

operation, inspection: a special case of continuous-pres- 
sure operation used for troubleshooting, maintenance, 
repair, adjustments, rescue, and inspection. 

overhead structure: all of the structural members, walls, 
platforms, etc., supporting the elevator machinery, 
sheaves, and equipment at the top of the hoistway. 

pallet, moving walk: one of a series of rigid platforms 
that together form an articulated treadway or the sup- 
port for a continuous treadway. 

panel, exterior escalator: see escalator panel, exterior. 

panel, interior escalator: see escalator panel, interior. 

parking device, elevator: an electrical or mechanical 
device, the function of whicli is to permit the opening 



of the hoistway door from the landing side when the 
car is within the landing zone of that landing. The device 
may also be used to close the door. 

penetrate a floor: to pass through or pierce a floor in 
such a way that the opening has a continuous perimeter 
and is provided only to allow the equipment to pass 
through the floor. 

periodic tests, category: a grouping of tests performed at 
common time intervals required by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

Phase I Emergency Recall Operation: the operation of 
an elevator where it is automatically or manually 
recalled to the recall level and removed from normal 
service because of activation of firefighters' emergency 
operation. 

Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation: the operation of 
an elevator by firefighters where the elevator is under 
their control. 

piston: a short cylindrical member that is provided with 
a sealing means that travels with the member within a 
hydraulic cylinder. Pistons may be coupled to the eleva- 
tor, dumbwaiter, or material lift by a coupling means 
that passes through a sealing means provided in the 
cylinder head. 

piston, rod: the coupling means between the piston and 
its driven member. 

pit, dumbwaiter, material lift: the portion of a hoistway 
extending from the floor level of the bottom terminal 
landing to the floor at the bottom of the hoistway. 

pit, elevator: the portion of a hoistway extending from 
the sill level of the bottom terminal landing to the floor 
at the bottom of the hoistway. 

plunger (ram): a long cylindrical compression member 
that is directly or indirectly coupled to the car frame. 
This member is not provided with a sealing means. 
Where used in assembly with a cylinder, the sealing 
means is provided on the cylinder head. In the case of 
telescopic plungers and cylinders, a sealing means may 
be used in the moving plunger, that is also a cylinder. 

plunger gripper: a mechanical device attached to a sup- 
porting structure in the pit, that stops and holds the car 
by gripping the plunger. 

position indicator: a device that indicates the position 
of the elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift car in the 
hoistway. It is called a hall position indicator when 
placed at a landing or a car position indicator when 
placed in the car. 

power unit, hydraulic: see hydraulic machine. 

pressure piping: the piping for a hydraulic elevator 
between the pvunp and the hydraulic jack. 

private residence: a separate dwelling or a separate 
apartment in a multiple dwelling that is occupied only 
by the members of a single family imit. 



13 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



private residence elevator: see elevator. 

rated load, elevator, dumbwaiter, material lift, or esca- 
lator: the load that the equipment is designed and 
installed to lift at the rated speed. 

rated load, moving walk: the load that the moving walk 
is designed and installed to move, horizontally or at an 
incline, at the rated speed. 

rated load performance: the operation of the elevator 
with its rated load at rated speed. 

rated speed: the speed at which the elevator, dumb- 
waiter, escalator, moving walk, or material lift is 
designed to operate under the following conditions: 

elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift: the speed in the up 
direction with rated load in the car. (See also operating 
speed in the down direction.) 

escalator: the rate of travel of the steps, measured along 
the centerline of the steps in the direction of travel, 
with rated load on the steps. In the case of a reversible 
escalator, the rated speed shall be the rate of travel of 
the steps in the up direction, measured along the center- 
line of the steps on the incline, with rated load on the 
steps. 

moving walk: the rate of travel of the treadway, horizon- 
tally or at an incline, with rated load on the treadway. 
In the case of reversible inclined moving walks, the rated 
speed is the rate of travel of the treadway in the up 
direction, measured along the centerline of the treadway 
surface in the direction of travel, with rated load on the 
treadway. 

readily accessible: capable of being reached quickly for 
operation, renewal, or inspection, without requiring 
those to whom ready access is a requisite to climb over 
or remove obstacles or resort to portable ladders, 
chairs, etc. 

recall level: the designated or alternate level that cars are 
returned to when Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is 
activated. 

recycling operation, telescope plunger: an operation for 
restoring the relative vertical positions of the multiple 
plungers in a telescoping plunger arrangement. 

regulatory authority: the person or organization respon- 
sible for the administration and enforcement of the 
applicable legislation or regulation governing the 
design, construction, installation, operation, inspection, 
testing, maintenance, or alteration of equipment covered 
by this Code. (See also authority having jurisdiction.) 

rehabilitation: see alteration; maintenance; repair; and 
replacement. 

releasing carrier, governor rope: a mechanical device 
to which the governor rope may be fastened, calibrated 
to control the activation of a safety at a predetermined 
tripping force. 



remote machine and control rooms: rooms that do not 
share a common wall, floor, or ceiling with the hoistway. 

repair: reconditioning or renewal of parts, components, 
and /or subsystems necessary to keep equipment in 
compliance with applicable Code requirements. (See 
also replacement and maintenance.) 

replacement: the substitution of a device or component 
and /or subsystems, in its entirety, with a unit that is 
basically the same as the original for the purpose of 
ensuring performance in accordance with applicable 
Code requirements. (See also repair and maintenance.) 

restricted area: (applicable to Part 7) an area accessible 
only to authorized personnel who have been instructed 
in the use and operation of the equipment. 

rise: the vertical distance between the bottom terminal 
landing and the top terminal landing of an elevator, 
dumbwaiter, or material lift. 

rise, escalator and moving walk: the vertical distance 
between the top and bottom landings of the escalator 
or moving walk. 

rope, aircraft cable: a wire rope built for a special pur- 
pose having special flexibility properties, zinc-coating, 
high breaking strength> and antirust qualities. Designed 
originally for use with aircraft controls. 

rope, car counterweight: wire rope used to connect the 
car and counterweight that does not pass over the driv- 
ing means. 

rope, counterweight: wire rope used to raise and lower 
the coimterweight on an electric elevator, dim\bwaiter, 
or material lift having a winding drum machine. 

rope, governor: wire rope with at least one end fastened 
to the safety activating means or governor rope releasing 
carrier, passing over and driving the governor sheave, 
and providing continuous information on the speed and 
direction of the car or counterweight. 

rope, safety drum (also known as "Tail rope'' and 
"Minne Line"): a corrosion-resistant wire rope used to 
connect the governor rope to the safety. Primarily used 
with wedge clamp safeties. 

rope, suspension (hoisting): wire rope used to raise and 
lower an elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift car or its 
counterweight, or both. 

rope equalizer, suspension: a device installed on an 
elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift car or counter- 
weight to equalize automatically the tensions in the sus- 
pension wire ropes. 

rope-fastening device, auxiliary: a device attached to 
the car or counterweight or to the overhead dead-end 
rope-hitch support that will function automatically to 
support the car or coimterweight in case the regular 
wire rope fastening fails at the point of connection to the 
car or counterweight or at the overhead dead-end hitch. 



• 



14 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



rope sprocket drive: a driving means consisting of wire 
rope with fixed links at constant intervals throughout 
its length. The links engage in slots on a grooved drive 
cog to provide a positive drive force. 

runby> bottom, elevator car: the distance between the 
car buffer striker plate and the striking surface of the 
car buffer when the car floor is level with the bottom 
terminal landing. 

runby, bottom, elevator counterweight: the distance 
between the counterweight buffer striker plate and the 
striking surface of the counterweight buffer when the 
car floor is level with the top terminal landing. 

runby, top, direct-plunger hydraulic elevator: the dis- 
tance the elevator car can run above its top terminal 
landing before the plunger strikes its mechanical stop. 

running gear, escalator: all the components of an escala- 
tor moving along the tracks. 

running gear, moving walk: all the components of a 
moving walk moving along the tracks. 

safety, car or counterweight: a mechanical device 
attached to the car, car frame, or to an auxiliary frame; 
or to the counterweight or counterweight frame; to stop 
and hold the car or counterweight under one or more 
of the following conditions: predetermined overspeed, 
free fall, or if the suspension ropes slacken. 

safety, self-resetting: a car or counterweight safety 
released and reset by movement in the up direction. 

safety bulkhead: a closure at the bottom of the cylinder 
located above the cylinder head and provided with an 
orifice for controlling the loss of fluid in the event of 
cylinder head failure. 

safety integrity level (SIL): the discrete level (one out 
of a possible four) for specifying the safety integrity 
requirements of the safety functions to be allocated to 
the E/E/PE safety-related system, where safety integrity 
level 4 has the highest level of safety integrity and safety 
integrity level 1 has the lowest. 

screw column: a vertical structural member provided 
with screw threads that support the car of a screw col- 
umn elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift. The screw 
column may be either in tension or compression. 

seismic switch: a device activated by ground movement 
to provide a signal that a potentially damaging earth- 
quake is inuninent. 

sequence operation: see door, vertically sliding sequence 
operation. 

shaft: see hoistway. 

shall: indicates a mandatory requirement. 

should: indicates a recommendation, not a mandatory 
requirement. 

sight guard: a vertical member mounted on the hoistway 
side of the leading edge of the hoistway door. It is used 



to reduce the opening between the leading edges of the 
hoistway door and the car door. 

signal device, elevator car flash: one providing a signal 
light in the car, that is illuminated when the car 
approaches the landings at which a landing signal regis- 
tering device has been actuated. 

signal registering device, elevator landing: a button or 
other device located at the elevator landing, that, when 
actuated by a waiting passenger, causes a stop signal to 
be registered in the car. 

signal system, elevator separate: one consisting of but- 
tons or other devices located at the landings, that, when 
actuated by a waiting passenger, illuminates a flash sig- 
nal or operates an annunciator in the car indicating 
floors at which stops are to be made. 

signal transfer device, elevator automatic: a device by 
means of which a signal to be registered in a car is 
automatically transferred to the next car following, in 
case the first car passes a floor for which a signal has 
been registered without making a stop. 

signal transfer switch, elevator: a manually operated 
switch, located in the car, by means of which the operator 
can transfer a signal to the next car approaching in the 
same direction, when the operator desires to pass a floor 
at which a signal has been registered in the car. 

skirt, escalator: see escalator skirt. 

skirt panel, dynamic: the moving vertical panels, with 
a positive mechanical connection to the running gear, 
adjacent to, and moving with the steps. 

slack-rope switch: a device that automatically causes the 
electric power to be removed from the elevator driving- 
machine motor and brake when the suspension ropes 
of a winding drum machine become slack. 

sleeving (liner): the insertion of a smaller diameter cyl- 
inder inside the existing cylinder of a hydraulic jack. 

sling: see car frame. 

slope, moving walk: the angle that the centerlihe of the 
treadway makes with the horizontal. 

software system failure: a behavior of the software, 
including its support (host) hardware, that is not in 
accordance with the intended function. 

solid-state device: an element that can control current 
flow without moving parts. 

speed governor: a continuously operating speed moni- 
toring and detection device that, at predetermined 
speeds, provides signals to the controller and imparts 
a retarding force to activate the car or counterweight 
safety. 

speed governor, escalator and moving walk: a continu- 
ously operating speed monitoring and detection device 
that, at predetermined speeds, provides signals to the 
controller to stop the escalator or moving walk. 



15 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



starters control panel, elevator: an assembly of devices 
by means of which the starter may control the manner 
in which an elevator or group of elevators function. 

static switching: switching of circuits by means of solid- 
state devices. 

tandem operation escalators: see escalators, tandem oper- 
ation, 

terminal landing: see landing, elevator or material lift. 

terminal speed-limiting device, emergency: a device 
that automatically reduces the car and counterweight 
speed to within the rated buffer striking speed prior to 
buffer engagement. 

terminal speed reducing device, hydraulic: a device on 
hydraulic elevators that will reduce the speed prior to 
contacting the stop ring in the up direction. 

terminal stopping device, emergency: a device that 
automatically causes the power to be removed from the 
driving-machine motor and brake if the car fails to slow 
down as intended when approaching the terminal 
landing. 

terminal stopping device, final: a device that automati- 
cally causes the power to be removed from a driving- 
machine motor and brake, or from a hydraulic machine, 
independent of the functioning of the normal stopping 
means, normal terminal stopping device, and any emer- 
gency terminal speed-limiting device, after the car has 
passed a terminal landing. 

terminal stopping device, machine final (stop-motion 
switch): final terminal stopping device operated directly 
by the driving machine. 

terminal stopping device, normal: device(s) to slow 
down and stop an elevator, dumbwaiter, or material lift 
car automatically at or near a terminal landing, indepen- 
dently of the functioning of the normal stopping means. 

threshold comb, moving walk: see comb, escalator and 
moving walk. 

threshold plate, moving walk: see comhplate, escalator 
and moving walk. 

transom: a panel or panels used to close a hoistway 
enclosure opening above a hoistway entrance. 

traveling cable: a cable made up of electric conductors, 
that provides electrical connection between an elevator, 
dumbwaiter, material lift car, or counterweight, and a 
fixed outlet in the hoistway or machine room. 

treadway, moving walk: the passenger-carrying mem- 
ber of a moving walk. 

truck zone, elevator: the limited distance above an ele- 
vator landing within which the truck zoning device per- 
mits movement of the elevator car. 

truck zoning device, elevator: a device that will permit 
the operator in the car to move a freight elevator within 



the truck zone with the car door or gate and a hoistway 
door open. 

type test: a test carried out by or witnessed by a certi- 
fying organization concerned with product evaluation 
and the issuing of certificates to ensure conformance to 
Code requirements. 

unlocking device, hoistway door: a mechanical device, 
the function of which is to unlock and permit the open- 
ing of a hoistway door from a landing irrespective of 
the position of the car. 

unlocking zone: a zone extending from the landing floor 
level to a point not less than 75 mm (3 in.) nor more 
than 450 mm (18 in.) above and below the landing. 

upper landing, escalator: see landing, upper, escalator. 

upper landing, moving walk: see landing, upper, mov- 
ing walk. 

valley break: a broken wire in a wire rope in which the 
outside wire of a strand breaks in the immediate vicinity 
of the point where it contacts a wire or wires of an 
adjacent strand, generally at a point not visible when 
the wire rope is examined externally One end of the 
broken wire is long enough to reach from one valley to 
the next one and the other end of the broken wire gener- 
ally cannot be seen. 

valve, overspeed: a device installed in the pressure pip- 
ing of a hydraulic elevator, between the hydraulic 
machine and the hydraulic jack, that restricts and ceases 
oil flow from the hydraulic jack through the pressure 
piping when such flow exceeds a preset value. 

volatile memory: memory lost when operating power 
is removed, 

waiting-passenger indicator: an indicator that shows at 
which landings and for which direction elevator hall 
stop-or-signal calls have been registered and are unan- 
swered. 

weatherproof: so constructed or protected that exposure 
to the weather will not interfere with successful oper- 
ation. 

width, moving walk: the exposed width of the treadway. 

window: an assembly consisting of a surrounding frame 
and one or more sashes, ventilators, or fixed lights, or 
a combination of these, designed to be installed in a 
wall opening for the purpose of admitting light or air, 
or both. 

working pressure: the pressure measured at the hydrau- 
lic machine when lifting car and its rated load at rated 
speed, or with Class C2 loading when leveling up with 
maximum static load. 

yield strength: the tensile stress that is sufficient to pro- 
duce a permanent deformation of 0.2%. 



# 



16 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Part 2 
Electric Elevators 



SCOPE 

Part 2 applies to electric elevators installed at an angle 
greater than 70 deg from the horizontal. It applies to 
other equipment ordy as referenced in the applicable 
Part. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
electric elevators. 



SECTION 2.1 

CONSTRUCTION OF HOISTWAYS AND HOISTWAY 

ENCLOSURES 

2.1.1 Holstway Enclosures 

Hoistway enclosures shall conform to 2.1.1.1, 2.1.1.2, 
or 2.1.1.3. 

2.1.1.1 Fire-Resistive Construction 

2.1.1.1.1 Where fire-resistive construction is 
required, hoistways shall be enclosed in conformance 
with the requirements of the building code (see 1.3). 

(07) 2.1.1.1.2 Partitions between hoistways and 

(a) machinery spaces outside the hoistway 

(b) machine rooms 

(c) control spaces outside the hoistway 

(d) control rooms 

that have a fire-resistance rating, shall be of noncombus- 
tible solid or openwork construction that meets the 
requirements of 2.1.1.2.2(d)(1), (2), and (3). Partitions of 
solid construction shall be permitted to have openings 
essential for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator 
equipment. 

Openwork construction shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) 
in diameter, except where there are openings essential 
for ropes, dnmis, sheaves, and other elevator equipment. 

2.1.1.1.3 Hoistway enclosure openings shall be 
protected with entrances or access doors having a fire- 
protection rating conforming to the requirements of the 
building code. 

2.1.1.2 Non-Fire-Resistive Construction 

2.1.1.2.1 Where fire-resistive construction is not 
required by the building code, hoistway construction 
shall conform to 2.1,1.2.2 or 2.1.1.3. 

(055) 2.1.1.2.2 The hoistway shall be fully enclosed 

conforming to 2.1.1.2.2(a), (b), (c), and (d); or 2.1.1.2.2(a), 
(b), and (e). 



(a) Enclosures and doors shall be imperforated to a 
height of 2 000 mm (79 in.) above each floor or landing 
and above the treads of adjacent stairways. The enclo- 
sure shall be unperforated, adjacent to, and for 150 mm 
(6 in.) on either side of any moving equipment that is 
within 100 mm (4 in.) of the enclosure. 

(b) Partitions between hoistways and 

(1) machinery spaces outside the hoistway 

(2) machine rooms 

(3) control spaces outside the hoistway 

(4) control rooms 

shall be of solid or openwork construction that meets 
the requirements of 2.1.1.2.2(d)(1), (2), and (3). Partitions 
of solid construction shall be permitted to haye openings 
essential for ropes, dnims, sheaves, and other elevator 
equipment. Openwork construction shall reject a ball 
25 mm (1 in.) in diameter, except where there are open- 
ings for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator 
equipment. 

(c) Openwork enclosures, where used above the 
2 000 mm (79 in.) level, shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) 
in diameter. 

(d) Openwork enclosures shall be 

(1) at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) thick wire, if of steel 
wire grille 

(2) at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) thick, if of 
expanded metal 

(3) so supported and braced as to deflect not over 
15 mm (0.6 in.) when subjected to a force of 450 N 
(100 Ibf) applied horizontally at any point 

(e) Enclosures shall be permitted to be glass, provided 
it is laminated glass conforming to ANSI 731 X, 16 CFR 
Part 1201, or CAN/CGSB-12.1, whichever is applicable 
(see Part 9). Markings as specified in the applicable stan- 
dard shall be on each separate piece of glass and shall 
remain visible after installation. 

2.1.1.2.3 Entrances shall be in conformance with 
2.11, except 2.11.14, 2.11.15, 2.11.16, and 2.11.18. 

2.1.1.3 Partially Enclosed Hoistways. For elevators 
that are not fully enclosed, protection at least 2 400 mm 
(94.5 in.) high shall be provided on the hoistway sides 
that are located 1 500 mm (59 in.) or less from elevator 
equipment to areas accessible to other than elevator per- 
sonnel. Such protection shaU comply with 2.1.1.2. 



17 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.1.1.4 Multiple Hoistways. The number of eleva- 
tors permissible in a hoistway shall be in conformance 
with the building code. 

2.1.1.5 Strength of Enclosure. The hoistway enclo- 
sure adjacent to a landing opening shall be of sufficient 
strength to maintain, in true lateral alignment, the 
hoistway entrances. Operating mechanisms and locking 
devices shall be supported by the building wall, if load- 
bearing, or by other building structure. Adequate con- 
sideration shall be given to pressure exerted on hoistway 
enclosures as a result of windage and elevator operation. 

2.1.2 Construction at Top and Bottom of the 
Hoistway 

2.1.2.1 Construction at Top of the Hoistway. The 

top of the hoistway shall be enclosed as required by the 
building code. 

2.1.2.2 Construction at Bottom of Hoistway. Pits 
extending to the ground shall have noncombustible 
floors, and shall be designed to prevent entry of ground 
water into the pit. The pit floor of any hoistway not 
extending to the ground shall be of construction having 
a fire-resistance rating at least equal to that required for 
the hoistway enclosure. (See also 2.2 and 2.6.) 

(055) 2.1.2.3 Strength of Pit Floor. The pit equipment, 
beams, floor, and their supports shall be designed and 
constructed to meet the applicable building code 
requirements and to withstand the following loads, 
without permanent deformation, in the manner in which 
they occur: 

(a) the impact load due to car or counterweight buffer 
engagement at 125% of the rated speed or 125% of the 
striking speed where reduced stroke buffers are used 
(see 8.2.3) 

(b) the part of the load transmitted due to the applica- 
tion of the car safety, or where applicable, the counter- 
weight safety 

(ED) (c) compensation up-pull load where compensation 
tie-down is applied (see 2.21.4.2) 

(d) the loads imposed by a driving machine where 
applicable (see 2.9) 

(e) any other elevator-related loads that are transmit- 
ted to the pit floor 

2.1.3 Floor Over Hoistways 

2.1.3.1 General Requirements 

(05S) 2.1.3.1.1 A metal or concrete floor shall be pro- 

vided at the top of the hoistway 

(a) where a machine room or control room is located 
above the hoistway 

(b) below overhead sheaves and other equipment that 
are located over the hoistway and means of access con- 
forming to 2.7.6.3.3 are not provided 



(c) below governors that are located over the hoistway 
and means of access conforming to 2.7.6.3.4 are not pro- 
vided 

2.1.3.1.2 Floors are not required below second- (055) 
ary and deflecting sheaves of traction-type machines 
located over the hoistway. 

2.1.3.2 Strength of Floor. Overhead floors shall be (055) 
capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 1 000 N 

(225 lb) on any 2 000 mm^ (3 in.^) area, and in addition, 
where it constitutes the floor of the main or secondary 
level machinery space, it shall be designed for a live 
load of not less than 6 kPa (125 Ib/ft^) in all open areas. 
Where the elevator driving machine is to be supported 
solely by the machine room floor slab, the floor slab 
shall be designed in accordance with 2.9.4 and 2.9.5. 

2.1.3.3 Construction of Floors. Floors shall be of 
concrete or metal construction with or without perfora- 
tions. Metal floors shall conform to the following: 

(a) If of bar-type grating, the operungs between bars 
shall reject a ball 20 mm (0.8 in.) in diameter. 

(b) If of perforated sheet metal or of fabricated open- 
work construction, the openings shall reject a ball 25 nmi 
(1 in.) in diameter. 

2.1.3.4 Area to Be Covered by Floor. Where a floor 
over a hoistway is required by 2.1.3.1, the floor shall 
extend over the entire area of the hoistway where the 
cross-sectional area is 10 m^ (108 ft^) or less. Where the 
cross-sectional area is greater, the floor shall extend not 
less than 600 mm (24 in.) beyond the general contour 
of the machine or sheaves or other equipment, and to 
the entrance to the machinery space at or above the level 
of that floor. Where the floor does not cover the entire 
horizontal area of the hoistway, the open or exposed 
sides shaU be provided with a standard railing conform- 
ing to 2.10.2. 

2.1.4 Control of Smoke and Hot Gases 

When required by the building code, hoistways shall 
be provided with means to prevent the accumulation of 
smoke and hot gases. 

Where air pressurization of the hoistway is utilized 
as a means of smoke and hot gas control, the air shall 
not be introduced into the hoistway in such a manner 
as to cause erratic operation by impingement of traveling 
cables, selector tapes, governor ropes, compensating 
ropes, and other components sensitive to excessive 
movement or deflection. 

2.1.5 Windows and Skylights (055) 

In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, windows in 
the walls of hoistway enclosures are prohibited. 

Windows and skylights and their frames and sashes 
in machine rooms and control rooms shall conform to 
the requirements of the building code (see 1.3). 



• 



18 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.1.6 Projections, Recesses, and Setbacks in 
Hoistway Enclosures 

Hoistway enclosures shall have flush surfaces on the 
hoistway side, subject to the requirements of 2.1.6.1 and 
2.1.6.2. 

2.1.6.1 On sides for loading and unloading, land- 
ing sills, hoistway doors, door tracks, and hangers shall 
be permitted to project inside the hoistway enclosure. 
Sills shall be guarded as required by 2.11.10.1. 

(07) 2.1.6.2 On sides not used for loading and 

unloading 

(a) beams, floor slabs, or other building construction 
making an angle less than 75 deg with the horizontal 
shall not project more than 100 mm (4 in.) inside the 
hoistway enclosure mUess the top surface of the projec- 
tion is beveled at an angle not less than 75 deg with the 
horizontal 

(b) separator beams between adjacent elevators are 
not required to have bevels 

(c) where recesses or setbacks exceeding 100 mm 
(4 in.) occur in the enclosure wall, the top of the recess 
or setback shall be beveled at an angle of not less than 
75 deg with the horizontal 

(d) bevels are not required if the projections, recesses, 
and setbacks are covered with material conforming to 
the following: 

(1) it shall be equal to or stronger than 1.110 mm 
(0.0437 in.) wire 

(2) it shall have openings not exceeding 25 mm 
(1 in.) 

(3) it shall be supported and braced such that it 
will not deflect more than 25 mm (1 in.) when subjected 
to a force of 4.79 kPa (100 Ibf/ft^) applied horizontaUy 
at any point 

SECTION 2.2 
PITS 

2.2.1 General 

A pit shall be provided for every elevator. 

2.2.2 Design and Construction of Pits 

2.2.2.1 The construction of the pit walls, the pit 
floor, and any pit access doors (see 2.2.4) shall conform 
to 2.1.1 and 2.1.2. 

2.2.2.2 The floor of the pit shall be approximately 
level, except that 

(a) trenches or depressions shall be permitted for the 
installation of buffers, compensating sheaves and 
frames,'^and vertically sliding biparting hoistway doors, 
where structural conditions make such trenches or 
depressions necessary 

(b) in existing buildings, where new elevators are 
installed or existing elevators are altered, existing foun- 
dation footings extending above the general level of the 



pit floor shaU be permitted to remain in place, provided 
that the maximum encroachment of such footings does 
not exceed 15% of the cubic content of the pit, and further 
provided that it is impracticable to remove the footing 

2.2.2.3 Permanent provisions shall be made to 
prevent accumulation of groimd water in the pit (see 
2.1.2.2). 

2.2.2.4 Drains and sump pumps, where provided, 
shall comply with the applicable plumbing code, and 
they shall be provided with a positive means to prevent 
water, gases, and odors from entering the hoistway. 

2.2.2.5 In elevators provided with Firefighters' 
Emergency Operation, a drain or sump pump shall be 
provided. The sump pump /drain shall have the capacity 
to remove a minimum of 11.4 m^/h (3,000 gal/h) per 
elevator. 

2.2.2.6 Sumps and sump pumps in pits, where 
provided, shall be covered. The cover shall be secured 
and level with the pit floor. 

2.2.2.7 In jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC, sump 
pumps and their control equipment shall not be installed 
in any elevator pit. 

2.2.3 Guards Between Adjacent Pits 

2.2.3.1 Where there is a difference in level between 
the floors of adjacent pits, a metal guard, unperforated, 
or perforated with openings that will reject a ball 50 mm 
(2 in.) in diameter, shall be installed for separating such 
pits. Guards shall extend not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.) 
above the level of the higher pit floor and a self-closing 
access door shall be permitted. 

2.2.3.2 Where the difference in level is 600 mm 
(24 in.) or less, a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 
shall be permitted to be installed in lieu of the guard. 

2.2.4 Pit Access 

Safe and convenient access shall be provided to all 
pits, and shall conform to 2.2.4.1 through 2.2.4.6. 

2.2.4.1 Access shall be by means of the lowest 
hoistway door or by means of a separate pit access door. 

2.2.4.2 There shall be installed in the pit of each 
elevator, where the pit extends more than 900 mm (35 in.) 
below the sill of the pit access door (lowest hoistway 
door or separate pit access door), a fixed vertical ladder 
of noncombustible material, located within reach of the 
access door. The ladder is permitted to be retractable or 
nonre tract able. Nonretractable ladders, where provided, 
shall conform to 2.2.4.2.1 through 2.2.4.2.6. Retractable 
ladders, where provided, shall conform to 2.2.4.2.1 
through 2.2.4.2.3 and 2.2.4.2.5 through 2.2.4.2.8. When 
in the extended position, retractable ladders shall con- 
form to 2.2.4.2.4. 



(07) 



(07) 



19 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.2.4.2.1 The ladder shall extend not less than 
1 200 mm (48 in.) above the sill of the access door or 
handgrips shall be provided to the same height. 

2.2.4.2.2 The ladder rungs, cleats, or steps shall 
be a minimum of 400 mm (16 in.) v^ide. When obstruc- 
tions are encountered, the width shall be permitted to 
be decreased to less than 400 mm (16 in.). The reduced 
width shall be as wide as the available space permits, 
but not less than 225 mm (9 in.). 

2.2.4.2.3 The ladder nmgs, cleats, or steps shaU 
be spaced 300 mm (12 in.) ± 13 mm (± 0.5 in.) on center, 
shall be provided to not less than the height of access 
door sill, and shall be designed to minimize slipping 
(e.g., knurling, dimpling, coating with skid-resistant 
material, etc.). 

2.2.4.2.4 A clear distance of not less than 115 mm 
(4.5 in,) from the centerline of the rungs, cleats, or steps 
to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder 
shall be provided. 

2.2.4.2.5 Side rails, if provided, shall have a clear 
distance of not less than 115 mm (4.5 in.) from their 
centerline to the nearest permanent object. 

2.2.4.2.6 The ladder and its attachments shall be 
capable of sustaining a load of 135 kg (300 lb). 

2.2.4.2.7 Retractable ladders that are in the line 
of movement of the car or counterweight when not fully 
retracted, shall operate a retractable ladder electrical 
device (see 2.26.2.38) that shall cause the power to be 
removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and 
brake imless the ladder is in its fully retracted position. 

2.2.4.2.8 Retractable ladders shall be capable of 
being extended, mechanically secured and unsecured, 
and retracted from the access door, and 

(a) the force(s) required to extend a retractable ladder 
from the fully retracted position to the extended and 
mechanically secured position shall not exceed 220 N 
(50 Ibf ) 

(h) after being extended and mechanically secured, a 
retractable ladder shall remain secured in the extended 
position when subjected to a horizontal force not to 
exceed 2 220 N (500 Ibf) 

(c) the force(s) required to retract a retractable ladder 
from its extended position to its fully retracted position, 
after being imsecured, shall not exceed 220 N (50 Ibf) 

(d) the ladder shall be mechanically secured when in 
the retracted position 

2.2.4.3 Pit access by a ladder shaU not be permitted 
when the pit floor is more than 3 000 mm (120 in.) below 
the sill of the access door, except where there is no 
building floor below the bottom terminal landing, this 
height shall be permitted to be greater but not more 
than 4 200 mm (165 in.). 



2.2.4.4 Pits shall be accessible only to elevator 
personnel. 

2.2.4.5 Separate pit access door, when provided, 
shall be subject to the following requirements: 

(a) If the door swings into the pit, it shall be located 
so that it does not interfere with moving equipment. 

(b) If the door swings out, and the lowest structural 
or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed 
beneath the car platform, except guide shoes or rollers 
or safety jaw assemblies, projects below the top of the 
separate pit access door opening when the car is level 
with the bottom terminal landing 

(1) an electric contact conforming to 2.26.2.26 shall 
be provided to prevent operation of the elevator when 
the door is open 

(2) the door shaU be provided with a vision panel(s) 
that is glazed with clear wired glass not less than 6 mm 
(0.25 in.) thick, will reject a ball 150 mm (6 in.) in diame- 
ter, and have an area of not more than 0.03 m^ (47 in.^) 

(c) The door shall provide a minimum opening of 
750 mm (29.5 in.) m width and 1 825 mm (72 in.) in 
height. 

(d) The door shall be equipped with a barrier con- 
forming to 2.11.1.2(1), where the door sill is located more 
than 300 mm (12 in.) above the pit floor. 

(e) The door shall be self-closing and provided with 
a spring-type lock arranged to permit the door to be 
opened from inside of the pit without a key. Such doors 
shall be kept closed and locked. A key shall be required 
to unlock the lock from outside the hoistway. The key 
shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 

2.2.4.6 Means to unlock the access door from 
inside the pit shall be provided. The means shall be 
located 

(a) when no pit ladder is provided, not more than 
1 825 mm (72 in.) vertically above the pit floor, or 

(b) when a pit ladder is provided, not more than 
1 825 mm (72 in.) vertically above a rung, cleat, or step. 
The minimum distance from the top rung, cleat, or step 
to the top of the pit ladder or handhold shall not be less 
than 1 200 mm (48 in.) (see 2.2.4.2.1 and Nonmandatory 
Appendix J, Fig. J-1), and 

(c) with the door in the closed position, in a plane 
not more than 1 000 mm (39 in.) horizontally from a 
rung, cleat, or step of the pit ladder (see Nonmandatory 
Appendix J, Fig. J-1). 

2.2.5 Illumination of Pits 

A permanent lighting fixture shall be provided and 
shall conform to 2.2.5.1 through 2.2.5.3. 

2.2.5.1 The lighting shall provide an illumination 
of not less than 100 Ix (10 fc) at the pit floor and at a 
pit platform, when provided. 

2.2.5.2 The light bulb(s) shall be externally 
guarded to prevent contact and accidental breakage. 



20 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.2.5.3 The light switch shall be so located as to 
be accessible from the pit access door. 

2.2.6 Stop Switch in Pits 

An enclosed stop switch(es), meeting the require- 
ments of 2.26.2.7 and 2.2.6.1 through 2.2.6.3, shall be 
installed in the pit of each elevator. 

2.2.6.1 The stop switch shall be so located as to 
be accessible from the pit access door. Where access to 
the pits of elevators in a multiple hoistway is by mearis 
of a single access door, the stop switch for each elevator 
shall be located adjacent to the nearest point of access 
to its pit from the access door. 

2.2.6.2 In elevators where access to the pit is 
through the lowest landing hoistway door, a stop switch 
shall be located approximately 450 mm (18 in.) above 
the floor level of the landing, within reach from this 
access floor and adjacent to the pit ladder, if provided. 
When the pit exceeds 1 700 mm (67 in.) in depth, an 
additional stop switch is required adjacent to the pit 
ladder and approximately 1 200 mm (47 in.) above the 
pit floor. 

2.2.6.3 Where more than one switch is provided, 
they shall be wired in series. 

2.2.7 Minimum Pit Depths Required 

The pit depth shall be not less than is required for the 
installation of the buffers, compensating sheaves, if any, 
and all other elevator equipment located therein and to 
provide the minimum bottom car clearance and ninby 
required by 2.4.1. 

(07) 2.2.8 Access to Underside of Car 

Where the distance from the pit floor to the underside 
of the plank channels or slings exceeds 2 100 mm (83 in.), 
with the car at the lowest landing, a means shall be 
permanently installed or permanently stored in the pit 
to provide access to the equipment on the underside of 
the car. When access is provided by means of a working 
platform it shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.5.3.2 
through 2.7.5.3.6. 

SECTION 2.3 
LOCATION AND GUARDING OF COUNTERWEIGHTS 

2.3.1 Location of Counterweights 

Counterweights shall be located in the hoistway of 
the elevator that they serve, or in a remote hoistway 
subject to the limitations and requirements of 2.3.3. 

2.3.2 Counterweight Guards 

(05S) 2.3.2.1 Metal guards shall be installed in the pit 
and /or a machine room or control room located under- 
neath the hoistway on all open sides of the counter- 
weight runway, except that 



(a) the guard, or portion thereof, is not required on 
the side facing the car where there is no space greater 
than 500 mm (20 in.) between compensating ropes 
(chains), or between compensating ropes (chains) and 
counterweight rails, or between compensating ropes 
(chains) and guards 

(b) where pit-mounted buffers are used, the guard is 
not required where the bottom of the coimterweight 
resting on its compressed buffer is 2 130 mm (84 in.) or 
more above the pit floor, or above the machine or control 
room floor if located underneath the hoistway 

2.3.2.2 Guards shall 

(a) extend from the lowest part of the counterweight 
assembly when the counterweight is resting on the fully 
compressed buffer to a point not less than 2 100 mm 
(83 in.) and not more than 2 450 mm (96 in.) above the 
pit floor 

(b) be the full width of the area being guarded 

(c) not prevent determination of the counterweight 
runby 

(d) be fastened to a metal frame reinforced and braced 
to be at least equal in strength and stiffness to 2 mm 
(0.074 in.) thick sheet steel 

(e) if perforated, reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter 

2.3.2.3 Guarding of Counterweights in a (oss) 
Multiple-Elevator Hoistway. Where a counterweight is 
located between elevators, the counterweight runway 
shall be guarded on the side next to the adjacent elevator. 
The guard shall be of noncombustible material. The 
guard, if of openwork material, shall reject a ball 25 mm 
(1 in.) in diameter and be made from material equal to 
or stronger than 1.110 mm (0.0437 in.) diameter wire. 
The guard shall be so supported that when subjected 
to a force of 450 N (100 Ibf) applied over an area of 
100 mm X 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.) at any location, the 
deflection shall not reduce the clearance between the 
guard and the coimterweight below 25 mm (1 in.). 

2.3.3 Remote Counterweight Hoistways 

Where elevators are not provided with either compen- 
sating means or counterweight safeties, the counter- 
weights shall be permitted to be located in a remote 
hoistway conforming to 2.3.3.1 through 2.3.3.6. 

2.3.3.1 The hoistway shall be fully enclosed and (07) 
shall have a fire-resistance rating, conforming to 2.1.1.1 

if it penetrates a fire barrier. 

2.3.3.2 Construction at the top and bottom of the 
hoistway shall conform to 2.1.2. 

2.3.3.3 Permanent means shall be provided for (055) 
inspection, repair, and maintenance of the counter- 
weight, deflecting and secondary sheaves, hoistway, 
ropes, counterweight guide rails, and counterweight 
buffers or bumpers. Entry doors into the separate coun- 
terweight hoistway shall be provided at top, bottom. 



21 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



and center of counterweight hoistway, but in no case 
shall the entry doors be more than 11 m (36 ft) from sill to 
sill. Doors shall be located and of such width to provide 
unobstructed access to the space between the coimter- 
weight guides. The height of the door shall be at least 
1 975 mm (78 in.). Doors shall conform to 2.11.1.2(b) 
through (e), inclusive. An enclosed stop switch, meeting 
the requirements of 2.26.2.5(a), (b), and (c), a permanent 
electric light switch, duplex receptacle, and light shall 
be provided in the hoistway immediately inside the 
entry door, 

2.3.3.4 Ropes and sheaves leading to the separate 
counterweight hoistways shall be protected against 
unauthorized access. 

2.3.3.5 Not more than four coimterweights shall 
be located in a single separate counterweight hoistway. 
Multiple counterweights located in a single hoistway 
shall be separated by means of an unperforated metal 
guard at the top, bottom, and center of the hoistway. 
Guards shall extend a minimum of 2 450 mm (96 in.) in 
length opposite the entry door. Doors and all other 
means described in 2.3.3.3 shall be provided for each 
counterweight. 

2.3.3.6 There shall be a clearance of not less than 
600 mm (24 in.) between the weight in the counterweight 
frame and the wall containing the entry door. 

2.3.4 Counterweight Runway Enclosures 

Where a counterweight is located in the same 
hoistway as the car, the runway for the counterweight 
shall be permitted to be separated from the runway for 
the car, provided it conforms to 2.3.4.1 and 2.3.4.2. 

2.3.4.1 The partition shall be noncombustible. 
Unperforated metal partitions shall be equal to or 
stronger than 1.2 mm (0.047 in.) thick sheet steel. Open- 
work partitions shall be either wire grille at least 2.2 mm 
(0.087 in.) in diameter or expanded metal at least 2.2 mm 
(0.087 in.) in thickness. 

2.3.4.2 The counterweight runway shall be permit- 
ted to be fully enclosed for the full height, provided that 
the partitions are removable in sections weighing not 
more than 25 kg (55 lb), that permit inspection and 
maintenance of the entire counterweight assembly and 
the inspection of the counterweight guide rails and 
guide-rail brackets. 

SECTION 2.4 

VERTICAL CLEARANCES AND RUNBYS FOR CARS 

AND COUNTERWEIGHTS 

2.4.1 Bottom Car Clearances 

2.4.1.1 When the car rests on its fully compressed 
buffers or bumpers, there shall be a vertical clearance 
of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the pit floor 



and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, 
or device installed beneath the car platform, except as 
specified in 2.4.1.2. 

2.4.1.2 The 600 mm (24 in.) clearance does not 
apply to 

(a) any equipment on the car within 300 mm (12 in.) 
horizontally from any side of the car platform 

(b) any equipment located on or traveling with the 
car located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from 
either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the 
plane of the guide rails 

(c) any equipment mounted in or on the pit floor 
located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either 
side of the car frame centerUne parallel to the guide rail 

2.4.1.3 In no case shall the available refuge space 
be less than either of the following: 

(a) a horizontal area of 600 mm x 1 200 mm (24 in. 
X 48 in.) with a height of 600 mm (24 in.) 

(b) a horizontal area of 450 nun x 900 mm (18 in. x 
35 in.) with a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.) 

2.4.1.4 Trenches and depressions or foundation 
encroachments permitted by 2.2.2.2 shall not be consid- 
ered in determiruiig these clearances. 

2.4.1.5 When the car is resting on its fuUy com- 
pressed buffers or bumpers, no part of the car, or any 
equipment attached thereto or equipment traveling with 
the car, shall strike any part of the pit or any equipment 
mounted therein. 

2.4.1.6 In any area in the pit, outside the refuge 
space, where the vertical clearance is less than 600 mm 
(24 in.), that area shall be clearly marked on the pit floor. 
Markings shall not be required in the area under the 
platform guard and guiding means if that is the only 
area in the pit where the vertical clearance is less than 
600 mm (24 in.). The marking shall consist of alternating 
100 mm (4 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addi- 
tion, a sign with the words ''DANGER LOW CLEAR- 
ANCE" shall be prominently posted on the hoistway 
enclosure and be visible from within the pit and the 
entrance to the pit. The sign shall conform to 
ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applica- 
ble (see Part 9). The sign shall be of such material and 
construction that the letters and figures stamped, etched, 
cast, or otherwise applied to the face shall remain perma- 
nently and readily legible. 

2.4.2 Minimum Bottom Runby for Counterweighted 
Elevators 

The bottom runby of cars and coimterweights shall 
be not less than the requirements stated in 2.4.2.1 and 
2.4.2.2. 

2.4.2.1 Where oil buffers are used, the bottom 
runby shall be not less than 150 mm (6 in.), except that 



• 



22 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.4.2.2 Minimum Bottom Runby for 
Counterweight Elevators With Spring Buffers or 
Solid Bumpers and Rheostatic Control or Single- 
Speed AC Control 



Rated Speed, 
m/s (ft/min) 



Runby, 
mm (in.) 



Not over 0.13 (not over 25) 75 (3) 

Over 0.13 to 0.25 (over 25 to 50) 150 (6) 

Over 0.25 to 0.50 (over 50 to 100) 225 (9) 

Over 0.50 to 1.0 (over 100 to 200) 300 (12) 



(a) where practical difficulties prevent a sufficient pit 
depth or where a top clearance cannot be provided to 
obtain the runby specified, it shall be permitted to be 
reduced 

(b) where spring-retum-type oil buffers are used, the 
runby shall be permitted to be eliminated so that the 
buffers are compressed by amounts not exceeding those 
permitted by 2.22.4.8, when the car floor is level with 
the terminal landings 

2.4.2.2 Where spring buffers or solid bumpers are 
used, the bottom runby shall be not less than 150 nun 
(6 in.), except for rheostatic and single-speed AC control, 
not less than shown in Table 2.4.2.2. 

2.4.3 Minimum Bottom Runby for 
Uncounterweighted Elevators 

The bottom runby of uncounterweighted elevators 
shall be not less than 

(a) 75 mm (3 in.) where the rated speed does not 
exceed 0.15 m./s (30 ft/min) 

(b) 150 mm (6 in.) where the rated speed exceeds 
0.15 m/s (30 ft/min) 

2.4.4 Maximum Bottom Runby 

In no case shall the maximum bottom runby exceed 

(a) 600 mm (24 in.) for cars 

(b) 900 mm (35 in.) for counterweights 

2.4.5 Counterweight Runby Data Plate 

A data plate permanently and securely attached shall 
be provided in the pit, in the vicinity of the counter- 
weight buffer, indicating the maximum designed coun- 
terweight runby. The data plate shall conform to 2.16.3.3, 
except that the letters shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.) 
in height. 

2.4.6 Top Car Clearances for Counterweighted 
Elevators 

2.4.6.1 General Requirements. The top car clear- 
ance shall be not less than the sum of either of the 
following: 

(a) the dimensions specified in 2.4.6.2(a) through (d) 



(b) the dimensions specified in 2. 4, 6. 2(a), (b), (c), 
and (e) 

2.4.6.2 Components of tiie Top Car Clearances. The 

following shall be considered when calculating the mini- 
mum top car clearances: 

(a) the designed maximum bottom counterweight 
runby [see 2.4.4(b)] 

(b) the stroke of the counterweight buffer, determined 
as follows: 

(1) for full-stroke buffers, the stroke of the buffer 
used, or the remaining stroke when the buffer is com- 
pressed with the car at the top terminal landing (see 
2,4.2 and 2.22.4.8); or 

(2) for reduced-stroke oil buffers (see 2.22.4.1.2), the 
full stroke required by 2.22.4.1.1. 

(c) 600 mm (24 in.) or the distance that any sheave or 
any other equipment mounted in or on the car crosshead 
projects above the top of the car crosshead, whichever 
is greater, but in no case shall there be less than 150 mm 
(6 in.) clearance above the equipment, exclusive of guide- 
shoe assemblies or gate posts for vertically sliding gates, 
mounted on the car top or in or on the car crosshead 
when the car has reached its maximum upward 
movement. 

NOTE: See also 2.4.12, requirements for refuge space on top of 
car enclosure. 

(d) V2 the gravity stopping distance, based on 

(1) 115% of the rated speed where oil buffers are 
used, or 115% of the reduced striking speed when emer- 
gency terminal speed-limiting devices meeting the 
requirements of 2.25.4 are used and no compensating 
rope tie-down device (see 2.21.4.2) is provided (see 8.2.5 
for gravity stopping distances); or 

(2) the governor tripping speed where spring buff- 
ers are used. 

(e) the distance to which the compensating rope tie- 
down device, if provided (see 2.21.4.2), limits the jump 
of the car when the counterweight strikes the buffers at 
speeds specified in 2.4.6.2(d). 

2.4.7 Top Car Clearance for Uncounterweighted 
Elevators 

The top car clearance shall be not less than the greater 
of the following: 

(a) 750 mm (29.5 in.); or 

(b) 150 mm (6 in.), plus the amount that any equip- 
ment mounted on the car crosshead, or above the car 
top when no crosshead is provided, projects vertically 
above the crosshead or top. 

NOTE (2.4.7): See also 2.4.12, requirements for refuge space on 
top of car enclosure. 



(ID) 



(ED) 



23 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.4.8 Vertical Clearances With Underslung Car 
Frames 

Where an imderslung car frame is used, the clearances 
between the overhead car rope dead-end hitch or over- 
head car sheave and the portions of the car structure 
vertically below them, when the car floor is level with the 
top terminal landing, shall be not less than the following: 

(a) where no coimterweight is used, 230 mm (9 in.) 

(b) where a counterweight is used, the sum of the 
following items: 

(1) the bottom counterweight runby (see 2.4.2) 

(2) the stroke of the coimterweight buffer used, or 
the remairung stroke when the buffer is compressed with 
the car at the top terminal landing (see 2.4.2 and 2.22.4.8) 

(3) 150 mm (6 in.) 

(4) \ the gravity stopping distance based on 115% 
of the rated speed where oil buffers are used, or 115% 
of the reduced striking speed when emergency terminal 
speed-limiting devices meeting the requirements of 
2.25.4 are used and no provision is made to prevent the 
jump of the car at counterweight buffer engagement, or 
on governor tripping speed where spring buffers are 
used (see 8.2.4 for gravity stopping distances) 

NOTE [2.4.8(b)(4)]: See also 2.4.12, requirements for refuge space 
on top of car enclosure. 

2.4.9 Top Counterweiglit Clearances 

The top counterweight clearance shall be not less than 
the sum of the following items: 

(a) the bottom car runby (see 2.4.2) 

(h) the stroke of the car buffer used, or the remaining 
stroke when the buffer is compressed with the car at 
the bottom terminal landing (see 2.4.2 and 2.22.4.8) 

(c) 150 mm (6 in.) 

(d) V-i the gravity stopping distance based on 

{!) 115% of the rated speed where oil buffers are 
used, or 115% of the reduced striking speed when emer- 
gency terminal speed-limiting devices meeting the 
requirements of 2.25.4 are used and no provision is made 
to prevent the jump of the counterweight at car buffer 
engagement; or 

(1) the governor tripping speed where spring buff- 
ers are used (see 8.2.4 for gravity stopping distances). 

2.4.10 Overhead Clearances Where Overhead Beams 
Are Not Over Car Crosshead 

Where overhead beams or other overhead hoistway 
construction, except sheaves, are located vertically over 
the car, but not over the crosshead, the requirements of 
2.4.10.1 and 2.4.10.2 shall be met. 

2.4.10.1 The clearance from the car top to such 
beams or construction, when the car is level with the 
top landing, shall be not less than the amount specified 
in 2.4.6 and 2.4.7. 



2.4.10.2 Such beams or construction shall be 
located not less than 600 mm (24 in.) horizontally from 
the crosshead. 

2.4.11 Equipment on Top of Car Not Permitted to 
Strike Overhead Structure 

When the car crosshead, or car top where no crosshead 
is provided, is at a distance equal to that specified in 
2.4.6.2(c) from the nearest obstruction above it, no equip- 
ment on top of the car shall strike any part of the over- 
head structure or the equipment located in the hoistway. 

2.4.12 Refuge Space on Top of Car Enclosure 

2.4.12.1 An unobstructed horizontal area of not 
less than 0.5 m^ (5.4 ft^) shall be provided on top of the 
car enclosure for refuge space. It shall measure not less 
than 600 mm (24 in.) on any side. This area shall be 
permitted to include the space utilized for the top emer- 
gency exit [see 2.14.1.5.1(f)]. The minimum vertical dis- 
tance in the refuge area between the top of the car 
enclosure and the overhead structure or other obstruc- 
tion shall be not less than 1 100 mm (43 in.) when the 
car has reached its maximum upward movement. 

2.4.1 2.2 In any area outside the refuge space where 
the vertical clearance between the top of the car enclo- 
sure and the overhead structure or other obstructions is 
less than specified in 2.4.12.1, the top of the car enclosure 
shall be clearly marked. The marking shall consist of 
alternating 100 mm (4 in.) diagonal red and white 
stripes. In addition, a sign with the words "DANGER 
LOW CLEARANCE" shall be prominently posted on 
the crosshead and be visible from the entrance. The 
sign shall conform to ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, 
whichever is applicable (see Part 9). The sign shall be 
of such material and construction that the letters and 
figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied to 
the face shall remain permanently and readily legible, 

SECTION 2.5 

HORIZONTAL CAR AND COUNTERWEIGHT 

CLEARANCES 

2.5.1 Clearances Between Cars, Counterweights* and 
Hoistway Enclosures 

2.5.1.1 Between Car and Hoistway Enclosures. The 

clearance between the car and the hoistway enclosure 
shall be not less than 20 mm (0.8 in.), except on the sides 
used for loading and unloading. 

2.5.1.2 Between Car and Counterweiglit and Counter- 
weight Guard. The clearance between the car and the 
counterweight shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.). The 
clearance between the car and the counterweight guard, 
counterweight and the counterweight guard, and 
between the counterweight and the hoistway enclosure 
shall be not less than 20 mm (0.8 in.). 



24 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.5.1.3 Between Cars in Multiple Hoistways. The 

running clearance between the cars and any equipment 
attached thereto, of elevators operating in a multiple 
hoistway, shall be not less than 50 mm (2 in.). 

(OSS) 2.5.1.4 Between Car and Landing Sills. The clear- 
ance between the car platform sill and the hoistway edge 
of any landing sill, or the hoistway side of any vertically 
sliding counterweighted or coimterbalanced hoistway 
door, or of any vertically sliding counterbalanced bipart- 
ing hoistway door, shall be not less than 

(a) where car side guides are used 

(1) 13 mm (0.5 in.) for all elevators except freight 
elevators 

(2) 20 mm (0.8 in.) for freight elevators 

(b) where car comer guides are used, 20 mm (0.8 in.) 
The maximum clearance shall be not more than 32 mm 

(1.25 in.). 

2.5.1.5 Clearance Between Loading Side of Car Plat- 
forms and Hoistway Enclosures 

2.5.1.5.1 The clearance between the edge of the 
car platform sill and the hoistway enclosure or fascia 
plate for the full width of the clear hoistway door open- 
ing shall be not more than 

(a) 190 mm (73 in.) for vertically sliding doors 

(b) 125 mm (5 in.) for other doors 

2.5.1.5.2 This clearance shall be maintained until 
the car is resting on its fully compressed buffer. 

2.5.1.5.3 The clearance is not limited on passen- 
ger elevators, provided that 

(a) a car door interlock conforming to l.UA.l is pro- 
vided to prevent a door from being opened unless the 
car is within the unlocking zone 

(b) the strength of the door complies with 2.11.11.2, 
2.11.11.4, 2.11.11.6, 2.11.11.7, and 2.11.11.8 

2.5.1.6 Clearance Between Car Platform Apron and 
Pit Enclosure. Where the lowest landing sill projects 
into the hoistway, the clearance between the car platform 
apron and the pit enclosure or fascia plate shall be not 
more than 32 mm (1.25 in.). This clearance shall be main- 
tained until the car is resting on its fully compressed 
buffer. 

2.5.1.7 Measurement of Clearances. The clearances 
specified in 2.5.1 shall be measured with no load on the 
car platform. 

SECTION 2.6 
PROTECTION OF SPACE BELOW HOISTWAYS 

Where a hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor 
of the building and there is space below the hoistway 
that is accessible, requirements of 2.6,1 and 2.6.2 shall 
be complied with. 



2.6.1 Wliere the Space Is Underneath the 
Counterweight and/or Its Guides 

Where the space is underneath the counterweight 
and /or its guides 

(a) the counterweight shall be provided with a coun- 
terweight safety conforming to 2.17.4 

(b) spring buffers, if used, shall conform to 2.22, 
except that they shall not be fully compressed when 
struck by the counterweight at the following speeds (see 
2.1.2.3): 

(1) at governor tripping speed where the counter- 
weight safety is governor operated, or 

(2) 125% of the rated speed where the counter- 
weight safety is not governor operated 

2.6.2 Where the Space Is Underneath the Car and/or 
Its Guides 

Where the space is underneath the car and /or its 
guides and if spring buffers are used, they shall be so 
designed and installed that they will not be fully com- 
pressed solid or to a fixed stop when struck by the car 
with its rated load at the governor tripping speed (see 
2.1.2.3). 

SECTION 2.7 (05S) 

MACHINERY SPACES, MACHINE ROOMS, CONTROL 
SPACES, AND CONTROL ROOMS 

A machinery space outside the hoistway containing 
an electric driving machine and a motor controller shall 
be a machine room. 

2.7.1 Enclosure of Rooms and Spaces 

Machinery space and control space enclosures located 
outside the hoistway and machine room and control 
room enclosures shall conform to the requirements of 
2.7.1.1 or 2.7.1.2, and shall also conform to 2.7.1.3, as 
applicable. 

2.7.1.1 Fire-Resistive Construction. Where the 
building code requires fire-resistive construction, the 
construction shall conform to the requirements of 
2.7.1.1.1 and 2.7.1.1.2. 

2.7.1.1.1 Spaces containing machines, motor 
controllers, sheaves, and other machinery shall be sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the building by a fire- 
resistive enclosure conforming to the requirements of 
the building code. 

2.7.1.1.2 Openings in room and space enclosures (ED) 
shall be protected with access doors having a 
fire-protection rating confornung to the requirements of 

the building code. 

NOTES (2.7.1.1): 

(1) See 2.1.3 for floors of machine rooms and control rooms over 
the hoistway. 



25 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B4A-07 



(2) See 2.8.1 for separating elevator machinery from building 
machinery. 

(3) See 2.1.1.1.2 for partitions between machine rooms and 
hoist ways. 

2.7.1.2 Non-Fire-Resistive Construction. Where the 
building code does not require fire-resistive construc- 
tion, the construction shall conform to the requirements 
of 2.7.1.2.1 and 2.7.1.2.2. 

2.7.1.2.1 Enclosure of the rooms or spaces shall 
comply with the following: 

(a) Machine rooms and control rooms shall be 
enclosed with noncombustible material to a height of 
not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.). 

(b) Machinery spaces shall be enclosed with noncom- 
bustible material to a height of not less than 2 000 mm 
(79 in.), or to the height of the machinery space if it is 
less than 2 000 mm (79 in.). 

(c) Control spaces shall be enclosed with noncombus- 
tible material to a height of not less than 2 000 mm 
(79 in.). 

2.7.1.2.2 The room and space enclosure, if of 
openwork material, shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in 
diameter. 

2.7.1.3 Floors 

(07) 2.7.1.3.1 Difference in Floor Levels. Where there 

is a difference in level exceeding 400 mm (16 in.), a 
standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided 
(see also 2.7.3.3.1 and 2.7.3.3.2). 

NOTE: Differences in levels of floors should be avoided where 
practicable. 

2.7.1.3.2 Where machine beams are provided, 
the floor shall be located above or level with the top of 
the machine beams. 

2.7.2 Maintenance Path and Clearance 

2.7.2.1 Maintenance Path in Machine Rooms and 
Control Rooms. A clear path of not less than 450 mm 
(18 in.) shall be provided to all components that require 
maintenance. 

2.7.2.2 Maintenance Path in Machinery Spaces and 
Control Spaces. All components requiring maintenance 
in machinery spaces and control spaces shall have safe 
and convenient access. 

2.7.2.3 Maintenance Clearance in Machine Rooms 
and Control Rooms. A clearance of not less than 450 mm 
(18 in.) shall be provided in the direction required for 
maintenance access. 

2.7.2.4 Maintenance Clearance in Machinery Spaces 
and Control Spaces 

2.7.2.4.1 Where a space is intended to be 
accessed with full bodily entry, then the requirements 
of 2.7.2.3 shall apply. 



2.7.2.4.2 Where a space is not intended to be 
accessed with full bodily entry, then all components 
requiring maintenance shall have safe and convenient 
access. 

NOTE (2.7.2): For electrical clearance requirements, see NFPA 70 
or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). 

2.7.3 Access to Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, 
Control Spaces, and Control Rooms 

2.7.3.1 General Requirements 

2.7.3.1.1 A permanent and unobstructed means 
of access shall be provided to 

(a) machine rooms and control rooms 

(b) machinery spaces and control spaces outside the 
hoistway 

(c) machinery spaces and control spaces inside the 
hoistway that do not have a means of access to the space 
as specified in 2.7.3.1.2. 

2.7.3.1.2 Access to machinery spaces and control 
spaces inside the hoistway 

(a) from the pit shall comply with 2.2.4 and 2.7.5.2.4 

(b) from the car top shall comply with 2.12.6 and 2.12.7 

(c) from a platform shall comply with 2.7.5.3.5 

(d) from inside the car shall comply with 2.7.5.1.4 

2.7.3.2 Passage Across Roofs. The requirements of 
2.7.3.2.1 and 2.7.3.2.2 shall be conformed to where pas- 
sage over roofs is necessary to reach the means of access 
to machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, 
and control rooms. 

2.7.3.2.1 A stairway with a swinging door and 
platform at the top level, conforming to 2.7.3.3, shall be 
provided from the top floor of the building to the roof 
level. Hatch covers, as a means of access to roofs, shall 
not be permitted. 

2.7.3.2.2 Where the passage is over a roof having 
a slope exceeding 15 deg from the horizontal, or over a 
roof where there is no parapet or guardrail at least 1 070 
mm (42 in.) high around the roof or passageway, a per- 
manent, unobstructed and substantial walkway not less 
than 600 mm (24 in.) wide, equipped on the side sloping 
away from the walk with a railing conforming to 2.10.2.1, 
2.10.2.2, and 2.10.2.3, shall be provided from the building 
exit door at the roof level to the means of access. 

2.7.3.3 Means of Access. The means of access to 
the following shall conform to 2.7.3.3.1 through 2.7.3.3.5: 

(a) machine rooms, control rooms, and machinery 
spaces and control spaces outside the hoistway, and 
machinery spaces and control spaces inside the hoistway 
that do not have a means of access to the space as speci- 
fied in 2.7.3.1.2 

(b) between different floor levels in machine rooms, 
in control rooms, and in machinery spaces or control 
spaces outside the hoistway 



26 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA BA4-07 



(c) from within machine rooms or control rooms to 
machinery spaces and control spaces 

2.7.3.3.1 A permanent, fixed, noncombustible 
ladder or stair shall be provided where the floor of the 
room or the space above or below the floor or roof from 
which the means of access leads, or where the distance 
between floor levels in the room or space, is more than 
200 mm (8 in.). 

2.7.3.3.2 A permanent, noncombustible stair 
shall be provided where the floor of the room or the 
space above or below the floor or roof from which the 
means of access leads, or where the distance between 
floor levels in the room or space, is 900 mm (35 in.) or 
more. Vertical ladders with handgrips shall be permitted 
to be used in lieu of stairs for access to overhead machin- 
ery spaces, except those containing controllers and 
motor generators. 

2.7.3.3.3 Permanent, fixed, noncombustible lad- 
ders shall conform to ANSI A14.3. 

2.7.3.3.4 Permanent, noncombustible stairs shall 
have a maximum angle of 60 deg from the horizontal, 
and shall be equipped with a noncombustible railing 
conforming to 2.10.2.1, 2.10.2.2, and 2.10.2.3. 

2.7.3.3.5 A permanent, noncombustible platform 
or floor shall be provided at the top of the stairs with 
noncombustible railings conforming to 2.10.2.1, 2.10.2.2, 
and 2.10.2.3 on each open side. In jurisdictions not 
enforcing the NBCC, the size of the platform shall be 
sufficient to permit the full swing of the door plus 
600 mm (24 in.) from the top of the riser to the swing 
line of the door. The floor of the platform shall be at the 
level of not more than 200 mm (8 in.) below the level 
of the access-door sill. Where the door swings inward, 
the width of the platform shall be not less than 750 mm 
(29.5 in.), and the length not less than the width of 
the door. 

2.7.3.4 Access Doors and Openings 

2.7.3.4.1 Access doors shall be 

(a) self-closing and self-locking 

(b) provided with a spring-type lock arranged to per- 
mit the doors to be opened from the inside without a key 

(c) kept closed and locked 

2.7.3.4.2 Access doors to machine rooms and 
control rooms shall be provided. They shall be of a mini- 
mum width of 750 mm (29.5 iii.) and a minimum height 
of 2 030 mm (80 in.). Keys to unlock the access doors 
shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1). 

2.7.3.4.3 Access doors for spaces specified in 
2.7.4.2, 2.7.4.3, and 2.7.4.4 other than those for machine 
rooms or control rooms shall be a minimum width and 
height of 750 mm (29.5 in.). Keys to unlock the access 
doors shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1). 



2.7.3.4.4 Access doors for control spaces outside 
the hoistway shall be a minimum width and height of 
750 mm (29.5 in.). Keys to imlock the access doors shall 
be Group 2 Security (see 8.1). 

2.7.3.4.5 Doors are not required at openings in 
machine room or control room floors for access to 
machinery spaces, provided the access opening is pro- 
vided on all four sides with a standard railing conform- 
ing to 2.10.2, one side of which is arranged to slide or 
swing to provide access to the ladder or stairs leading 
to the space. Trap doors, where provided, shall have a 
standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 or guard wings 
on all open nonaccess sides. 

2.7.3.4.6 Access openings in elevator hoistway 
enclosures where full bodily entry is not necessary for 
maintenance and inspection of components shall be 

(a) located to permit the required maintenance and 
inspection 

(b) of maximum width of 600 mm (24 in.) and a maxi- 
mum height of 600 mm (24 in.). These dimensions shall 
be permitted to be increased, provided that any resultant 
opening through the access opening into the hoistway 
shall reject a 300 mm (12 in.) diameter ball. 

(c) provided with doors that shall be kept closed and 
locked. Keys to unlock the access doors to the elevator 
hoist ways shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 

2.7.3.5 Stop Switch for Machinery Spaces or Control 
Spaces. A stop switch conforming to 2.26.2.24, or a 
disconnecting means where required by NFPA 70 or 
CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), accessi- 
ble and visible from the point of access to machinery 
spaces or control spaces shall be provided for each eleva- 
tor. Where access to machinery spaces is from the pit, 
from the top of the car, or from inside the car, the stop 
switch in the pit, the stop switch on top of the car, or, 
where provided, the emergency stop switch in the car, 
respectively, meet these requirements. 

2.7.4 Headroom in Machinery Spaces, Machine 
Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control Rooms 

2.7.4.1 Elevator machine rooms, control rooms, 
and machinery spaces containing an elevator driving 
machine not located in the hoistway shall have a clear 
headroom of not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.). (See also 
2.7.4.5.) 

2.7.4.2 Where a floor or platform is provided at 
the top of the hoistway (see 2.1.3), machinery spaces 
above such a floor or platform shall have a clear head- 
room of not less than the following: 

(a) spaces containing motor-generators, 2 130 mm 
(84 in.) 

(b) spaces containing only overhead, secondary, or 
deflecting sheaves, 1 070 mm (42 in.) 



27 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(c) spaces containing overhead, secondary, or 
deflecting sheaves, and governors, signal machines, or 
other equipment, 1 350 mm (53 in.) 

2.7.4.3 Where floors are provided under overhead, 
secondary, or deflecting sheaves [see 2.7.4.2(b) and (c)], 
the machine and supporting beams shall be permitted 
to encroach on the required headroom, provided there 
is a clearance of not less than 900 mm (35 in.) high and 
minimum width of 750 mm (29.5 in.) in the path of 
access to sheaves, governors, signal machines, or other 
equipment. 

2.7.4.4 Where a machinery space is located outside 
but not above the hoistv^ay, the headroom of the area 
from v^hich any work is performed on the equipment 
located inside such space shall be not less than 2 000 mm 
(78 in.), except 

(a) spaces containing motor-generators, the head- 
room shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) 

(h) spaces containing only overhead, secondary, or 
deflecting sheaves, the headroom shall be not less than 
1 070 mm (42 in.) 

(c) spaces containing overhead, secondary, or 
deflecting sheaves, and governors, signal machines, or 
other equipment, the headroom shall be not less than 
1 350 mm (53 in.) 

(d) as permitted in 2.7.4.3 

2.7.4.5 When working from inside the car, or from 
the top of the car in accordance with 2.7.5.1, or from the 
pit in accordance with 2.7.5.2, the headroom when the 
means required by 2.7.5.1 or 2.7.5.2 are engaged shall 

(a) comply with the height of working space require- 
ments of NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable 
(see Part 9) 

(b) in no case be less than 1 350 mm (53 in.) 

2.7.4.6 Control spaces outside the hoistway 
intended for full bodily entry shall have a clear head- 
room of not less than 2 000 mm (78 in.) or the height of 
the equipment, whichever is the greater. 

NOTE: For control spaces outside the hoistway not intended for 
full bodily entry, see NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applica- 
ble (see Part 9). 

2.7.5 Working Areas Inside tlie Hoistway and in tlie 
Pit 

2.7.5.1 Worthing Areas in tlie Car or on tlie Car Top. 

The requirements of 2.7.5.1.1 through 2.7.5.1.4 shall be 
complied with if maintenance or inspections of the ele- 
vator driving-machine brake, emergency brake, elevator 
motion controller, or motor controller are to be carried 
out from inside the car or from the car top. 

2.7.5.1.1 If maintenance or inspection of the ele- 
vator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake, or 
of elevator motion controllers or motor controllers from 



inside the car or from the car top could result in unex- 
pected vertical car movement, a means to prevent this 
movement shall be provided. 

2.7.5.1.2 The means shall 

(a) be independent of the elevator driving-machine 
brake, emergency brake, motion controller, and motor 
controller 

(h) support not less than the unbalanced weight of 
the system with no load and up to rated load (see also 
2.16.8) in the car and all suspension ropes in place. The 
minimum factor of safety shall be not less than 3.5, and 
the materials used shall not have an elongation of less 
than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 8. 

(c) when in the engaged position, actuate an electrical 
device conforming to 2.26.2.34, that shall cause the 
power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine 
motor and brake 

(d) not cause stresses and deflections that exceed the 
applicable requirements for the structure(s) to which 
the means transmits load based on 100% of the static 
unbalanced weight of the system (see also 2.16.8) 

(e) have a sign in conformance with the requirements 
of ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is appH- 
cable, that shall be prominently posted in the work area 
stating: "WARNING! Engage ' ' before main- 
taining or inspecting brake, emergency brake, or control- 
ler. Follow manufacturers instructions for use of 

' '" (see 8.6.11,6). Unless the means has been 

designed to support not less than the tmsuspended car 
with rated load (see also 2.16.8), it shall also contain the 
following wording: "Elevator suspension means must 
be in place during use." 



NOTE: Substitute name of actual means for 
above signage. 



in the 



(f) be so designed as to prevent accidental disen- 
gagement 

ig) when engaged, not require electrical power or the 
completion or maintenance of an electrical circuit to 
remain engaged. 

2.7.5.1.3 When the means required in 2.7.5.1.1 is 
engaged, egress from the working area shall be provided 
(see also 2.7.3.4.3). 

The use of the car top emergency exit for egress and 
re-entry is permitted subject to the following: 

(a) all edges of the exit opening are smooth and free 
of burrs 

(h) means shall be provided to descend safely to the 
floor of the car, and subsequently ascend safely to the 
car top 

(c) the means required in 2.7.5.1.1 shall not be 
arranged to be engaged at a position that would permit 
a vertical gap between the bottom of the vertical face 
of the platform guard and the elevator landing sill. 



(ED) 



28 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.7.5.1.4 If provided, equipment access panels 
in the car for access to equipment outside the car shall 
comply with 2.14.2.2(g)(1), (2), and (5) and shall be pro- 
vided with 

(a) a key-operated lock capable of being locked 
without a key 

(b) an electrical switch that shall cause the power to 
be removed from the driving machine motor and brake 
when the access panel is open (see 2.26.2.35) 

(c) a key that shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1) 
The access panels shall be kept closed and locked, 

shall not be self-closing, and shall be self-locking. 

2.7.5.2 Working Areas in the Pit. The requirements 
of 2.7.5.2.1 through 2.7.5.2.4 shall be complied with if 
maintenance or inspections of the elevator driving- 
machine brake or an emergency brake or of elevator 
motion controllers or motor controllers is to be carried 
out from the pit. 

(07) 2.7.5.2.1 The following shall be provided: 

(a) a means in compliance with 2.7.5.1.1, 2.7.5.1.2, and 
2.7.4.5 shall be provided; or 

(b) a mechanical device shall be provided to stop ver- 
tical car movement to create a vertical clearance as 
required by 2.7.4.5 between the floor of the working area 
and the lowest part of the car, and between the floor 
of the working area and the counterweight where a 
counterweight guard in conformance with 2.3.2 is not 
provided. 

(1) The mechanical device shall be able to stop ver- 
tical car movement at up to and including 115% of rated 
speed with rated load. The retardation shaU not exceed 
that required by 2.22.3 or 2.22.4, as applicable. 

(2) The mechanical device shall be permitted to be 
moved into the active position manually or automati- 
cally. 

(3) When the mechanical device is in the active 
position, it shall operate an electrical contact, which 
when in the open position, shall permit the car to move 
only on inspection operation [see 2.26.1.4.1 and 
2.26.9.3(d)]. The electrical contact shall be positively 
opened mechanically and its opening shall not depend 
solely on springs. 

(4) A sign in conformance with the requirements 
of ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is appli- 
cable, shall be prominently posted in the work area stat- 
ing: "WARNING! Position ' ' before maintaining 

or inspecting brake, emergency brake, or controller. Fol- 
low manufacturers instructions for use of ' '" (see 

8.6.11.6). 



NOTE: Substitute name of actual device for 
above signage. 



in the 



(5) The mechanical device shall be designed to pre- 
vent accidental movement from the active position. 



(6) The mechanical device shall not require electri- 
cal power or the completion or maintenance of an electri- 
cal circuit to be maintained in the active position. 

2.7.5.2.2 Pit inspection operation, in compliance 
with 2.26.1.4, shall be permitted to be provided in the 
pit (see 2.26.1.4.4). 

2.7.5.2.3 When the means required in 2.7.5.2.1 
is in the active position, safe and convenient egress from 
the working area shall be provided (see also 2.7.3.4.3). 

(a) Where the egress is through the landing door 

(1) the landing door shall be openable from the 
hoistway side 

(2) the means shall be arranged to provide vertical 
clearance of not less than 1 220 mm (48 in.) between the 
bottom edge of the platform guard and the elevator 
landing 

(b) Where the egress is through a separate pit access 
door, the door opening shall not be blocked by the car. 

2.7.5.2.4 Where maintenance or inspections of 
the elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency 
brake or of elevator motion controllers or motor control- 
lers is to be carried out from the pit, and the distance 
from the pit floor to this equipment is more than 
2 100 mm (83 in.), a means shall be permanently installed 
or permanently stored in the pit to provide access to the 
equipment. 

2.7.5.3 Working Platforms. A platform located in 
the car, on the car, or in the hoistway shall be permitted 
for access to and maintenance and inspection of equip- 
ment in machinery spaces or control spaces in the 
hoistway and shall comply with 2.7.5.3.1 through 
2.7.5.3.6 (see also 8.6.11,8). 

2.7.5.3.1 A working platform shall be perma- 
nently installed, and it shall be permitted to be retract- 
able. Retractable platforms, that are in the line of 
movement of the car or counterweight when in the 
operating position, shall operate a working platform 
electrical device(s) (see 2.26.2.36) that shall cause the 
power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine 
motor and brake unless the platform is in its fully 
retracted position. 

2.7.5.3.2 A working platfrom shall be able to 
support in any position at least 2 000 N (450 lb), with a 
load concentration of at least 1 000 N (225 lb) over an 
area of 40 000 mm^ (64 in.^) with a factor of safety of 
not less than 5. If the platform is to be used for handling 
heavy equipment, the dimensions and the strength of 
the platform shall be considered accordingly. 

2.7.5.3.3 A working platform shall be provided 
with a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 on the open 
or exposed sides where the perpendicular distance 
between the edges of the platform and the adjacent 
hoistway enclosure exceeds 300 mm (12 in.) horizontal 



(ED) 



29 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



clearance, and the difference in level between the plat- 
form and the surrounding surface exceeds 400 mm 
(16 in.). 

2.7.5.3.4 Where a car or counterweight passes 
within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from a working 
platform, a means of protection against shearing hazards 
shall be provided to a height as measured from the 
platform standing surface of not less than 2 130 mm 
(84 in.), or not less than the maximum upward move- 
ment of the car or counterweight. The means shall be 
at least equal in strength and stiffness to 2 mm (0.074 in.) 
thick sheet steel. If perforated, it shall reject a ball 25 mm 
(1 in.) in diameter. 

2.7.5.3.5 Where the access to a working platform 
that is in the line of movement of the car or counter- 
weight is not through the elevator landing doors, but 
through an access panel or door in the hoistway, it shall 
be equipped with a device conforming to the require- 
ments of 2.11.1.2(e) to prevent operation of the machine 
unless the access panel or door is closed and locked. 

2.7.5.3.6 Working platform inspection operation, 
in compliance with 2.26.1.4, shall be permitted to be 
provided at the location of a working platform. [See 
2.7.5.5(b) for additional requirements when the working 
platform is in the line of movement of the car.] 

2.7.5.4 Working Platforms in the Line of Movement 
of the Car or Counterweight. Working platforms in the 
line of movement of the car or counterweight shall be 
permitted 

(a) where retractable stops are provided and the car is 

(1) below the platform, the travel of the elevator 
shall be limited by a retractable stop(s) in such a manner 
that the car shall be stopped below the platform at least 
the distance required for car top refuge space (see 
2.4.12.1) 

(2) above the platform, the travel of the elevator 
shall be limited by a retractable stop(s) in such a manner 
that the car shall be stopped above the platform at least 
the distance required in 2.7.4.5; or 

(b) where the elevator is provided with a device con- 
forming to 2.7.5.1.1 and 2.7.5.1.2. 

2 J. 5.5 Retractable Stops. Retractable stops, where 
provided, shall 

(a) be equipped with a retractable stop electrical 
device(s) (see 2.26.2.37), that shall cause the power to 
be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor 
and brake, unless the stops are completely in the 
retracted position. 

(b) be permitted to be equipped with an electrical 
device(s) that permits operation of the car only on 
inspection operation when the platform is in the 
operating position and the stops are in the fully extended 
position. When provided with such an electrical device 
and the stop(s) is in the extended position, an additional 



stopping device conforming to 2.25.3.1 and 2.25.3.3 
through 2.25.3.5 shall cause the car to stop before it 
strikes the movable stop(s). This additional stopping 
device shall be rendered ineffective when the stop(s) is 
in the retracted position. Any electrical device(s) used 
to render the additional stopping device ineffective shall 
be in conformance with 2.26.4.3, 2.26.9.3(a), and 2.26.9.4. 

(c) be operable from outside the hoistway or from the 
platform. 

(d) be able to stop the car traveling at 115% of rated 
speed with rated load. The retardation shall not exceed 
that required by 2.22.3 or 2.22.4, as applicable. 

(e) be so designed as to prevent accidental disen- 
gagement. 

2.7.6 Location of Machinery Spaces, Machine 

Rooms, Control Spaces, Control Rooms, and 
Equipment 

2.7.6.1 Location of Machine Rooms and Control 
Rooms. Elevator machine rooms and control rooms, 
where provided, shall not be located in the hoistway. 

2.7.6.2 Location of Machinery Spaces and Control 
Spaces. Machinery spaces and control spaces shall be 
permitted to be located inside or outside the hoistway. 

NOTE: Inside the hoistway includes, but is not limited to, on or 
in the car, on the counterweight, or in the pit. 

2.7.6.3 Location of Equipment. The location of 
equipment used directly in connection with the elevator 
shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.6.3.1 through 
2.7.6.3.4. 

2.7.6.3.1 The electric driving machine shall be 
located in a machinery space or machine roonri. 

2.7.6.3.2 The motor controller shall be located 
in a machinery space, machine room, control space, or 
control room. 

A motor controller shall be permitted to be located 
outside the specified spaces, provided it is enclosed in 
a locked cabinet. The locked cabinet shall be 

(a) readily accessible for maintenance and inspection 
at all times. 

(b) provided with cabinet door(s) or panel(s) that are 
not self-closing, that are self-locking, and that shall be 
kept closed and locked. Keys shall be Group 1 Security 
(see 8.1). 

(c) lit by permanently installed electric lighting with a 
lighting intensity of at least 200 Ix (19 fc) at the floor level. 

(d) located in a space that is provided with natural 
or mechanical means to keep the ambient air tempera- 
ture and humidity in the range specified by the elevator 
equipment manufacturer to ensure safe and normal 
operation of the elevator. The temperature and humidity 
range shall be permanently posted on the cabinet. 

NOTE (2.7.6.3.2): For electrical clearance requirements, see 
NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). 



30 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.7,633 Where sheaves and other equipment 
(except governors) are located overhead inside the 
hoistway, they shall be provided with a means of access 
from outside the hoistway conforming to the require- 
ments of 2.7.3.3, unless they can be inspected and ser- 
viced from the top of the car. 

2,7.6.3.4 Where a governor is located inside the 
hoistway, means of access conforming to the require- 
ments of 2.7.3.3 and 2.7.3.4 for inspection and servicing 
the governor shall be provided from outside the 
hoistway. The access opening shall not be required where 
(ED) (a) the governor can be inspected and serviced from 
the top of the car or adjacent car, and the governor can 
be tripped for testing from the adjacent car or outside 
the hoistway; and means are furnished to prevent move- 
ment of the car when servicing the governor. A sign 
with the words "SECURE CAR AGAINST MOVEMENT 
BEFORE SERVICING THE GOVERNOR" shall be prom- 
inently posted and be visible from the governor. The 
sign shall conform to ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, 
whichever is applicable. The sign shall be of such mate- 
rial and construction that the letters and figures 
stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied to the face 
shall remain permanently and readily legible; and 

(b) for elevators in a single hoistway, the governor 
can be reset automatically when the car is moved in the 
up direction or the governor can be reset from outside 
the hoistway. 

2.7.6.4 Means Necessary for Tests. Where an eleva- 
tor driving-machine brake or an emergency brake, or 
an elevator motion controller or motor controller is 
located in the hoistway or pit, means necessary for tests 
that require movement of the car or release of the 
driving-machine brake or emergency brake, shall be pro- 
vided and arranged so that they can be operated from 
outside the hoistway and shall conform to 2.7.6.4.1 
through 2.7.6.4.3. These means are also permitted to be 
used by elevator personnel for passenger rescue. 

2.7.6.4.1 Where direct observation of the elevator 
drive sheave or ropes is not possible from the location 
of the means necessary for tests that require movement 
of the car or release of the driving-machine brake or 
emergency brake, display devices or the equivalent shall 
be provided. They shall be visible from the location of 
the means and shaU convey the following information 
about the elevator simultaneously 

(a) the direction of n\ovement 

(b) the reaching of a position within the door 
unlocking zone 

(c) an indication of the speed 

The display devices or the equivalent shall remain 
operable during a failure of the normal building power 
supply. The power source shall be capable of providing 
for the operation of the display devices or the equivalent 
for at least 4 h. Where batteries are used, a monitoring 



system shall be provided. In the event that during nor- 
mal operation of the car, the monitoring indicates insuffi- 
cient power to operate the display devices or the 
equivalent, the car shall not be permitted to restart after 
a normal stop at a landing. 

2.7.6.4.2 The means necessary for tests shall be 
permitted to be located within an inspection and test 
panel conforming to the requirements of 2.7.6.5.2. 

2.7.6.4.3 A means to move the car from outside 
the hoistway shall be provided and it shall conform to 
the following: 

(a) it shall not be dependent on the availability of 
normal power. 

(b) it shall be accessible for operation by elevator per- 
sonnel only with a key that is Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 

(c) it shall allow the car to move only with continuous 
effort. 

(d) if the car is moved manually, the effort required 
to move the car in the direction of load imbalance shall 
not exceed 400 N (90 Ibf ). If the means used is removable, 
it shall be stored outside the hoistway and access to the 
means shall be with a key that is Group 1 Security. It 
shall be suitably marked to indicate the machine for 
which it is intended. 

(e) Where the manual effort required to move the car 
exceeds 400 N (90 Ibf), a means of electrical operation 
shall be provided to allow the car to be moved. This 
means of electrical operation shall require constant pres- 
sure operating devices to move the car, and when acti- 
vated, operation of the car by all other operating means 
shall be prevented. A failure of a single constant pressure 
operating device shall not permit the elevator to move 
or continue to move. Where batteries are used for this 
electrical operation, a monitoring system shall be pro- 
vided. In the event that during normal operation of the 
car the monitoring system indicates insufficient power 
to move the car, the car shall not be permitted to restart 
after a normal stop at a landing. 

2.7.6.5 Inspection and Test Panel 

2.7.6.5.1 The inspection and test panel shall be 
required where any of the following are not accessible 
from outside the hoistway: 

(a) the "CAR DOOR BYPASS" and "HOISTWAY 
DOOR BYPASS" switches required by 2.26.1.5; or 

(b) the devices necessary for the manual reset of the 
detection means for ascending car overspeed protection 
[see 2.19.1.2(a)(4)], and protection against unintended 
car movement [see 2.19.2.2(a)(4)], or 

(c) the circuits of the following devices: 

(1) the car-safety mechanism switch (see 2.26.2.9) 

(2) the car buffer switch, where provided (see 
2.26.2.22) 

(3) the top and bottom final terminal stopping 
devices (see 2.26.2.11) 



31 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(4) the car and counterweight governor switches, 
where provided (see 2.26.2.10) 

2.7.6.5.2 The inspection and test panel, where 
provided shall 

(a) be readily accessible for maintenance and inspec- 
tion at all times. 

(h) have the required devices located behind a locked 
door or panel that does not open into the hoistway, that 
is not self-closing, that is self-locking, and that shall be 
kept closed and locked. Keys shall be of Group 1 Security 
(see 8.1). 

(c) be provided with a stop switch, conforming to 
2.26.2.24. 

(d) be lit by permanently installed electric lighting 
with a lighting intensity of at least 200 Ix (19 fc) at 
the floor level. A switch placed inside or close to the 
enclosure shall control lighting of the enclosure. 

(e) include the display devices as required by 2.7.6.4.1. 
(/) include the "CAR DOOR BYPASS" and 

"HOISTWAY DOOR BYPASS" switches where required 
by 2.26.1.5. 

(g) include the devices necessary for the manual reset 
of the detection means for ascending car overspeed pro- 
tection [see 2.19.1.2(a)(4)], and protection against Unin- 
tended Car Movement [see 2.19.2.2(a)(4)] where these 
devices are not accessible from outside the hoistway 

(h) where the circuits of the devices in 2.7.6.5.1(c)(1) 
through (4) are not accessible from outside the hoistway, 
include landing inspection operation in conformance 
with 2.26.1.4.4, and that shall be permitted to render 
ineffective the following electrical protective devices, 
individually or as a group or groups, in conformance 
with the requirements of 2.26.9.3(a) and 2.26.9.4: 

(1) the car-safety mechanism switch (see 2.26.2.9) 

(2) the car buffer switch, where provided (see 
2.26.2.22) 

(3) the top and' bottom final terminal stopping 
devices (see 2.26.2.11) 

(4) the car and counterweight governor switches, 
where provided (see 2.26.2.10) 

NOTE (2.7.6.5): For electrical clearance requirements, see 
NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). See 
also 2.8.3.3.2. 

2.7.6.6 Equipment Exposure to Weather. Machines, 
control equipment, sheaves, and other machinery shall 
not be exposed to the weather unless they are suitable 
for the application. 

2.7.7 Machine Rooms and Control Rooms 
Underneath the Hoistway 

When a machine room or control room is located 
underneath the hoistway, it shall conform to 2.7.7.1 
through 2.7.7.5. 



2.7.7.1 The machine or control room shall have a 
solid ceiling (pit floor, at the normal pit depth) of con- 
crete or steel above the machine room or control room, 
with a minimvim 2 130 mm (84 in.) clearance above the 
machine room or control room floor. 

2.7.7.2 The ceiling of the machine or control room 
shall be capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 
1 000 N (225 Ibf) on any 2 000 mm^ (3 in.^) area, and it 
shall be designed for a live load of 6 kPa (125 Ibf/ft^) 
and loads imposed by rails and /or buffers, if applicable. 

2.7.7.3 The car and counterweight guide rails and 
buffer supports shall be permitted to extend into the 
machine room and be supported by the machine room 
floor. If the counterweight buffer or buffer support 
extends to the machine room or control room floor, a 
counterweight safety is not required imless the space 
below the machine room is not permanently secured 
against access. If a counterweight buffer is supported 
at the machine room ceiHng (pit floor), a counterweight 
safety is required. (See 2.6.1 for additional requirements.) 

2.7.7.4 The solid ceiling (pit floor at normal pit 
depth) shall be permitted to be slotted for the penetra- 
tion of equipment (suspension ropes, selector drives, 
electrical conduit, rails, buffers, etc.). Passage and guards 
shall be provided in conformance with 2.3.2 and 2.10.1 
for both the machine or control room and pit. A counter- 
weight guard shall be installed at the pit floor as well 
as the machine or control room floor if the counterweight 
extends into the machine or control room and 2.3.2.1(a) 
does not apply. The guard in the machine or control 
room shall extend to the ceiling. 

2.7.7.5 Compensating ropes or chains and travel- 
ing cables shall not extend into the machine room located 
underneath the hoistway. 

2.7.8 Remote Machine Rooms and Control Rooms 

Elevators that are provided with remote machine 
rooms and /or control rooms shall conform to 2.7.8.1 
through 2.7.8.4. 

2.7.8.1 Ropes and sheaves leading to the remote 
machine room that penetrate fire barriers shall be fully 
enclosed, and the enclosures shall conform to 2.1.1.1. 

2.7.8.2 Rope and sheave enclosures leading to 
the remote machine room shall be protected against 
unauthorized access. 

2.7.8.3 Permanent means of access shall be pro- 
vided to the enclosures for inspection, repair, and main- 
tenance of hoist ropes passing over sheaves that are 
not located in the hoistway or remote machine rooms. 
Access doors to these enclosures shall be provided at 
each sheave location, conforming to 2.7.3.4. Access open- 
ings shall be provided for inspection and maintenance 
of hoist ropes passing over sheaves and shall conform 



(07) 



32 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



to 2.7.3.4. A stop switch meeting the requirements of 
2.26.2.23, a permanent electric duplex receptacle, a light 
switch, and light shall be provided in the enclosures 
immediately inside the access doors and openings. 

2.7.8.4 A permanent means of communication 
between the elevator car and remote machine room and 
or control room shall be provided. 

2.7.9 Lighting, Temperature, and Humidity in 

Machinery Spaces, JVlachine Rooms, Control 
Spaces, and Control Rooms 

2.7.9.1 Lighting. Permanently installed electric 
lighting shall be provided in all machinery spaces, 
machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms. The 
illumination shall be not less than 200 Ix (19 fc) at the 
floor level, at the standing surface of a working platform 
(see 2.7.5.3), or at the level of the standing surface when 
the car is in the blocked position (see 2.7.5.1). The light- 
ing control switch shall be located within easy reach of 
the access to such rooms or spaces. Where practicable, 
the light control switch shall be located on the lock-jamb 
side of the access door. 

2.7.9.2 Temperature and Humidity. Machinery 
spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control 
rooms shall be provided with natural or mechanical 
means to keep the ambient air temperature and humid- 
ity in the range specified by the elevator equipment 
manufacturer to ensure safe and normal operation of 
the elevator. The temperature and humidity range shall 
be permanently posted in the machine room, control 
roon\, control space, or where specified by the equip- 
ment manufacturer, in the machinery space. 

(055) SECTION 2.8 

EQUIPMENT IN HOISTWAYS» MACHINERY SPACES, 

MACHINE ROOMS, CONTROL SPACES, AND 

CONTROL ROOMS 

2.8.1 Equipment Allowed 

Only machinery and equipment used directly in con- 
nection with the elevator shall be permitted in elevator 
hoistways, machinery spaces, machine rooms, control 
spaces, and control rooms. 

2.8.2 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

2.8.2.1 Installation of electrical equipment and 
wiring shaU conform to NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, which- 
ever is applicable (see Part 9). 

(07) 2.8.2.2 Only such electrical wiring, raceways, 

cables, coaxial wiring, and antennas used directly in 
connection with the elevator, including wiring for sig- 
nals, for communication with the car, for lighting, heat- 
ing, air conditioning, and ventilating the car, for fire 
detecting systems, for pit sump pumps, and for heating 
and lighting the hoistway and /or the machinery space. 



machine room, control space, or control room shall be 
permitted to be installed inside the hoistway, machinery 
space, machine room, control space, or control room. 

2.8.2.3 Bonding conductors from the lightning pro- 
tection system grounding down conductor to long verti- 
cal metal bodies in the hoistway such as elevator rails 
and vertical wireways shall be permitted to be installed 
in the hoistway as required by NFPA 780, or 
CAN/CSA-B72, whichever is appUcable (see Part 9). The 
lightning protection system grounding down conductor 
shall not be permitted in the hoistway, and the elevator 
rails shall not be used as the lightning protection system 
grounding down conductor. Bonding conductors 
installed in the hoistway shall not interfere with the 
operation of the elevator. 

2.8.3 Pipes, Ducts, Tanlcs, and Sprinlclers 

2.8.3.1 Steam and hot-water pipes shall be permit- 
ted to be installed in hoistways, machinery spaces, 
machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms for the 
purpose of heating these areas only, subject to 2.83.1.1 
through 2.8.3.1.3. 

2.8.3.1.1 Heating pipes shall convey only 
low-pressure steam [100 kPa (15 psi) or less] or hot water 
[iOO°C (212°F) or less]. 

2.8.3.1.2 All risers and return pipes shall be 
located outside the hoistway. When the machinery 
space, machine room, control space, or control room is 
located above the roof of the building, heating pipes for 
the machinery space, machine room, control space, or 
control room shaU be permitted to be located in the 
hoistway between the top floor and the machinery space, 
machine room, control space, or control room. 

2.8.3.1.3 Traps and shutoff valves shall be pro- 
vided in accessible locations outside the hoistway 

2.8.3.2 Ducts shall be permitted to be installed in 
the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control 
space, or control room for the purpose of heating, cool- 
ing, ventilating, and venting these areas only and shall 
not encroach upon the required clearances. 

2.8.3.3 Sprinkler systems conforming to NFPA 13 
or the NBCC, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), shall 
be permitted to be installed in the hoistway, machinery 
space, machine room, control space, or control room 
subject to 2.8.3.3.1 through 2.8.3.3.4. 

2.8.3.3.1 All risers and returns shall be located 
outside these spaces. Branch Hnes in the hoistway shall 
supply sprinklers at not more than one floor level. When 
the machinery space, machine room, control space, or 
control room is located above the roof of the building, 
risers, return pipes, and branch lines for these sprinklers 
shall be permitted to be located in the hoistway between 



33 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



the top floor and the machinery space, machine room, 
control space, or control room. 

(07) 2.8.3.3.2 In jurisdictions not enforcing the 

NBCC, where elevator equipment is located or its enclo- 
sure is configured such that application of water from 
sprirJders could cause unsafe elevator operation, means 
shall be provided to automatically disconnect the main 
line power supply to the affected elevator and any other 
power supplies used to move the elevator upon or prior 
to the application of water. 

(a) This means shall be independent of the elevator 
control and shall not be self-resetting. 

(b) Heat detectors and sprinkler flow switches used to 
initiate main line elevator power shutdown shall comply 
with the requirements of NFPA 72. 

(c) The activation of sprinklers outside of such loca- 
tions shall not disconnect the main line elevator power 
supply See also 2.27.3.3.6. 

2.8.3.3.3 Smoke detectors shall not be used to 
activate sprinklers in these spaces or to disconnect the 
main line power supply. 

(07) 2.8.3.3.4 In jurisdictions not enforcing the 

NBCC, when sprinklers are installed not more than 
600 mm (24 in.) above the pit floor, 2.8.3.3.4(a) and (b) 
apply to elevator electrical equipment and wiring in the 
hoistway located less than 1 200 mm (48 in.) above the 
pit floor, except earthquake protective devices conform- 
ing to 8.4.10.1.2(d); and on the exterior of the car at the 
point where the car platform sill and the lowest landing 
hoistway door sill are in vertical alignment. 

(a) Elevator electrical equipment shall be weather- 
proof (Type 4 as specified in NEMA 250). 

(b) Elevator wiring, except traveling cables, shall be 
identified for use in wet locations in accordance with 
the requirements in NFPA 70. 

2.8.3.4 Other pipes or ducts conveying gases, 
vapors, or liquid and not used in connection with the 
operation of the elevator shall not be installed in any 
hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control 
space, or control room. Where a machinery space, 
machine room, control space, control room, or hoistway 
extend above the roof of a building, pipes shall be per- 
mitted from roof drains to the closest point where they 
can be diverted out of this space. Pipes shall be covered 
to prevent leakage or condensate from entering the 
machinery space, machine room, control space, control 
room, or hoistway. 

2.8.3.5 Where permitted and provided, pipes, 
drains, and tanks, or similar equipment that contains 
liquids, shall not be located directly above the elevator 
equipment and shall not encroach upon the required 
clearances in the hoistway, machinery space, machine 
room, control space, or control room. 



2.8.4 Electrical Heaters 

Listed /certified electrical heaters shall be permitted. 

2.8.5 Air Conditioning 

Air conditioning equipment is permitted to be 
installed in machinery spaces, machine rooms, control 
spaces, or control rooms for the purpose of cooling these 
areas only, subject to 2.8.5.1 through 2.8.5.5, 

2.8.5.1 Air conditioning equipment shall not be 
located directly above elevator equipment. 

2.8.5.2 The clear headroom below suspended air 
conditioning equipment shaU conform to 2.7.4. 

2.8.5.3 Means shall be provided to collect and 
drain condensation water from these spaces. Condensa- 
tion drains shall not be located directly above elevator 
equipment. Drains connected directly to sewers shall 
not be installed. 

2.8.5.4 Safe and convenient access within the ele- 
vator machinery space, machine room, control space, or 
control room shall be provided to the air-conditioning 
equipment for servicing and maintaining. 

NOTE: See also 2.7.3.1. 

2.8.5.5 There shall be no exposed gears, sprockets, 
belts, pulleys, or chains. 

NOTES (2.8.5): 

(1) See 2.8.3.2 for requirements for duct work. 

(2) These requirements do not pertain to air-conditioning equip- 
ment used to cool selective elevator equipment. 

2.8.6 Miscellaneous Equipment 

Enclosed moving, rotating, hanging machinery, 
equipment, stationary decorative lighting, stationary 
signage or other stationary special effects devices, 
securely attached to either one or more of the car, coun- 
terweight, or hoistway shall be permitted, provided that 
the elevator, including the equipment and devices, con- 
forms to 2.4, 2.5, 2.8.1, 2.14.2.1.1, 2.15.7, 8.2.2.1, and 
8.2.9.1. Any unenclosed moving, rotating, or hanging 
machinery or equipment, attached to the exterior of the 
car or counterweight, interior of the hoistway, exterior 
of the car, or any other elevator equipment in the 
hoistway is prohibited unless it is used in conjunction 
with the designed use of the elevator. 



SECTION 2.9 

MACHINERY AND SHEAVE BEAMS, SUPPORTS* AND 

FOUNDATIONS 

2.9.1 Supports Required 

Machines, machinery, sheaves, and hitches shall be 
supported by overhead beams, structural floors, struc- 
tural walls, or guide rails. 



(05S) 



34 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.9.1.1 Machines, machinery, and sheaves shall be 
so supported and maintained in place as to prevent 
any part from becoming loose or displaced under the 
conditions imposed in service. 

2.9.1 .2 Supporting beams, if used, shall be of steel 
or reinforced concrete. 

2.901.3 Beams are not required under machine(s), 
sheave(s), and machinery or control equipment that is 
supported on floors, provided such floors are designed 
and installed to support the load imposed thereon, or 
where supported by guide rails or structural walls 
designed to meet the requirements of 2.9.3.3. 

2.9.2 Loads on Machinery and Sheave Beams, 
Floors, or Foundations and Their Supports 

2.9.2.1 Overhead Beams, Floors, and Their Sup- 
ports. Overhead beams, floors, and their supports shall 
be designed for not less thar\ the sum of the following 
loads: 

(a) the load resting on the beams and supports, that 
shall include the complete weight of the machine, 
sheaves, controller, governor, and any other equipment, 
together with that portion, if any, of the machinery space, 
machine room, control space, or control room floor sup- 
ported thereon 

(b) two times the sum of the tensions in all wire ropes 
supported by the beams, floors, and their supports with 
rated load in the car 

NOTE [2.9.2.1(b)]: These tensions are doubled to take care of 
accelerations and decelerations, 

2.9.2.2 Foundations, Beams, and Floors for Machin- 
ery and Sheaves Not Located Directly Over the 
Hoistway. The supports for machines and sheaves 
located below or at the sides of the hoistway shall meet 
the requirements of 2.9.2.2.1 through 2.9.2.2.4. 

2.9.2.2.1 The foundation shall support the total 
weight of the machine, sheaves, and other equipment, 
and the floor, if any. 

2.9.2.2.2 The sheave beams and the foundation 
bolts shall withstand two times the vertical force compo- 
nent acting thereon as a result of the tension in all the 
suspension ropes, less the weight of the machine or 
sheaves. 

2.9.2.2.3 The sheave beams and the foundation 
bolts shall withstand two times the horizontal force com- 
ponent, if any, acting thereon as a result of the tension 
in all the suspension ropes. 

2.9.2.2.4 The foundation shall withstand two 
times the overturning moment, if any, acting thereon as 
a result of the tension in all the suspension ropes. 



2.9.3 Securing of IVlachinery and Equipment to 
Beams, Foundations, Guide Rails, Structural 
Walls, or Floors 

2.9.3.1 Overhead Beams and Floors 

2.9.3.1.1 Where overhead beams and floors are 
used to support machinery or equipment, the machinery 
or equipment shall be secured to and supported on or 
from the top of overhead beams or floors, except for the 
following equipment: 

(a) secondary or deflecting sheaves of traction ele- 
vators 

(b) devices and their accessories for limiting or 
retarding car speed 

2.9.3.1.2 Securing bolts or fastenings are not 
required where sound isolation in compression is used 
between bases of machinery or equipment and support- 
ing beams or floors. 

2.9.3.2 Beams or Foundations Supporting Machinery 
and Sheaves Not Located Directly Over the Hoistway 

2.9.3.2.1 Machines and sheaves located below 
or at one side of a hoistway shall be anchored to beams, 
foimdations, or floors with bolts, cor\forming to ASTM 
A 307, of sufficient size and number to withstand the 
applicable load conditions specified in 2.9.2.2. Based on 
these initial loads, total tension in anchor bolts shall not 
exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi) of net section, and the total 
shear shall not exceed 60 MPa (9,000 psi) of actual area 
in the shear plane. (See also 2.9.3.5.) 

2.9.3.2.2 Where bolts are used through greater 
than 5 deg sloping flanges of structural shapes, the bolt 
heads shall be of the tipped or beveled head type or 
shall be fitted with beveled steel washers, and nuts on 
greater than 5 deg sloping flanges shall seat on beveled 
steel washers. 

2.9.3.3 Securing of Machines, Sheaves, Equipment, 
and Hitches to Guide Rails or Structural Walls 

2.9.3.3.1 Machines, sheaves, equipment, and 
hitches shall be permitted to be secured to and sup- 
ported by the guide rails or structural walls, provided 
that the tension in the hoisting ropes and the weight of 
the equipment will not develop direct tensions in the 
bolts or rivets. 

2.9.3.3.2 Securing bolts or fastenings are not 
required where sound isolation in compression is used 
between bases of machinery or equipment and their 
supports. 

2.9.3.3.3 Bolts used to secure equipment to the 
guide rails or structural walls shall conform to ASTM 
A 307, and be of sufficient size and number to withstand 
the applicable load conditions specified in 2.9.2.2. Based 
on these initial loads, total tension in support bolts shall 
not exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi) of net section, and the 



35 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



total shear in bolts and rivets shall not exceed 60 MPa 
(9,000 psi) of actual area in the shear plane. The require- 
ments of 2.9.3.2.2 for bolts and 2.9.3.4.3 and 2.9.3.4.4 for 
hitch plates shall also apply. The stresses in welds due 
to tensions in the hoisting ropes shall not exceed 55 MPa 
(8,000 psi) on the throat area of the welds. (See also 
2.9.3.5.) 

2.9.3,3.4 Guide rails used to support machines, 
equipment sheaves, and hitches shall meet the require- 
ments of 2.23.4. 

2.9.3.4 Overhead Hoisting-Rope Hitches 

2.9.3.4.1 Where hoisting ropes are secured to the 
structure above a hoist way, the hitch plates and hitch- 
plate blocking beams, where used, shall be secured to 
and moimted on top of overhead beams, machine beams, 
or on top of auxiliary beams connected to the webs of 
overhead beams. 

2.9.3.4.2 Hitch plates, blocking, or auxiliary 
beams shall be secured by bolts conforming to ASTM 
A 307, rivets conforming to ASTM A 502, or welding 
conforming to 8.8, and shall be so located that the tension 
in the hoisting ropes will not develop direct tensions in 
the bolts or rivets. Where bolts and rivets are subjected 
to shearing stresses due to tension in the hoisting ropes, 
the total shear shall not exceed 60 MPa (9,000 psi) of 
actual area in the shear plane. The stresses in welds due 
to tensions in the hoisting ropes shall not exceed 55 MPa 
(8,000 psi) on the throat area of the welds. (See also 
2.9.3.5.) 

2.9.3.4.3 The hitch plate supporting structure 
shall be designed to withstand two times the sum of 
the tensions in all hoisting ropes attached to the hitch 
plates. (See also 2.15.13.) 

2.9.3.4.4 Total stresses in hitch plates and hitch- 
plate shapes shall not exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi), 

2.9.3.5 Bolts Made of Steel. Bolts made of steel 
used to comply with the requirements of 2.9.3.2.1, 
2.9.3.3.3, and 2.9.3.4.2 having a greater strength than 
specified by ASTM A 307 shall be permitted, provided 
that the maximum allowable stresses increased propor- 
tionally based on the ratio of the ultimate strengths. 
Elongation shall conform to the requirements of the cor- 
responding ASTM specification. 

2.9.3.6 Cast Metals in Tension or Bending. Cast 
metals having an elongation of less than 20% in a length 
of 50 mm (2 in.), when measured in accordance with 
ASTM E 8, that are subject to tension or bending, shall 
not be used to support machinery or equipment from 
the underside of overhead beams or floors. 



2.9.4 Allowable Stresses for Machinery and Sheave 
Beams or Floors, Their Supports, and Any 
Support Members That Transmit Load to the 
Guide Rails or Structural Walls 

2.9.4.1 The imit stresses for all machinery and 
sheave beams and floors and their supports, based on 
the loads computed as specified in 2.9.2 or 2.9.6, which- 
ever is greater, shall not exceed 80% of those permitted 
for static loads by the following standards: 

(a) Structural Steel. AISC Book No. S326 or 
CAN/CSA-S16.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). 

(b) Reinforced . Concrete. ANSI/ACI 318 or 
CAN3-A23.3, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). 

2.9.4.2 Where stresses due to loads, other than 
elevator loads supported on the beams or floor, exceed 
those due to the elevator loads, 100% of the permitted 
stresses are permitted. 

2.9.4.3 Cast Metals in Tension or Bending. Cast 
metals having an elongation of less than 20% in a length 
of 50 mm (2 in.), when measured in accordance with 
ASTM E 8, that are subject to tension or bending, shall 
not be used to support machinery or equipment from 
guide rails or structural walls. 

2.9.5 Allowable Deflections of Machinery and 
Sheave Beams, Their Supports, and Any 
Support Meiiibers Loaded in Bending That 
Transmit Load to Guide Rails or Structural 
Walls 

The allowable deflections of machinery and sheave 
beams, their immediate supports, and any support 
members loaded in bending that transmit load to guide 
rails or structural walls imder static load shall not exceed 
1^666 of the span, r 

2.9.6 Allowable Stresses Due to Emergency Bralcing 

i 

Machinery and sheave beams, supports, any support 
members that transmit load to guide rails or structural 
walls and any fastenings subject to forces due to the 
application of the emergency brake (see 2.19.4) shall be 
designed to withstand the maximum forces developed 
during the retardation phase of the emergency braking 
so that the resulting stresses due to the emergency brak- 
ing and all other loading acting simultaneously, if appli- 
cable, shall not exceed those specified in 2.9.4. 

SECTION 2.10 

GUARDING OF EQUIPMENT AND STANDARD 

RAILING 

2.10.1 Guarding of Equipment (05S) 

In machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, 
and control rooms> the following shall be guarded to 
protect against accidental contact: 



36 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(a) driving-machine sheaves and ropes whose vertical 
projection upon a horizontal plane extends beyond the 
base of the machine, unless the driving-machine sheave 
is so located as to minimize the possibility of contact 

(b) sheaves 

(c) exposed gears, sprockets, tape or rope sheaves, or 
drums of selectors, floor controllers, or signal machines, 
and their driving ropes, chains, or tapes 

(d) keys, keyways, and screw^s in projecting shafts 
Handwinding wheels and flywheels that are not 

guarded shall have yellow markings. 

(055) 2.10.2 standard Railing 

A standard railing shall be substantially constructed 
of metal and shall consist of a top rail, intermediate rail 
or equivalent structural member or solid panel, and toe- 
board. 

2.10.2.1 Top Rail. The top rail shall have a smooth 
surface, and the upper surface shall be located at a verti- 
cal height of 1 070 mm (42 in.) from the working surface. 

2.10.2.2 Intermediate Rail, Member, or Panel. The 

intermediate rail or equivalent structural member or 
solid panel shall be located approximately centered 
between the top rail and the working surface. 

2.10.2.3 Toe-Board. The toe-board shall be securely 
fastened and have a height not less than 100 mm (4 in.) 
above the working surface. 

2.10.2.4 Strength of Standard Railing. A standard 
railing shall be capable of resisting anywhere along its 
length the following forces when applied separately, 
without deflecting more than 75 mm (3 in.) and without 
permanent deformation: 

(a) a force of at least 890 N (200 Ibf ) applied in any 
lateral or downward vertical direction, at any point 
along the top rail. 

(b) a force of at least 666 N (150 Ibf) applied in any 
lateral or downward vertical direction at any point along 
the center of the intermediate rail, member, or panel. If 
the standard railing is a solid panel extending from the 
top rail to the toe-board, the application of the force 
specified in 2.10.2.4(a) shall be considered to meet the 
requirements of 2.10.2.4(b). 

(c) a force of 225 N (50 Ibf) applied in a lateral direc- 
tion to the toe-board. 

SECTION 2.11 
PROTECTION OF HOISTWAY OPENINGS 

2.11.1 Entrances and Emergency Doors Required 

2.11.1.1 Hoistway Landing Entrances. All elevator 
hoistway landing openings shall be provided with 
entrances that shall guard the full height and width of 
the openings. Entrances shall be at least 2 030 mm (80 in.) 
in height and 800 mm (31.5 in.) in width. 



2.11.1.2 Emergency Doors in Blind Hoistways. 

Where an elevator is installed in a single blind hoistway, 
there shall be installed in the blind portion of the 
hoistway an emergency door at every third floor, but 
not more than 11 m (36 ft) from sill to sill, conforming 
to the following: 

(a) The clear opening shall be at least 700 mm (28 in.) 
wide and 2 030 mm (80 in.) high. 

(b) It shall be easily accessible and free from fixed 
obstructions. 

(c) It shall be either of the horizontally sliding or 
swinging single-section type, irrespective of the type of 
door installed at other landings. 

(d) It shall be self-closing and self-locking and shall 
be marked, in letters not less than 50 mm (2 in.) high, 
"DANGER, ELEVATOR HOISTWAY." 

(e) It shall be provided with an electromechanical 
device that will prevent the operation of the driving 
machine unless the door is closed and locked (see 
2.26.2.25). 

(f) It shall be imlocked from the landing side only 
through the use of a cylinder-type lock, having not less 
than five pins or five discs. The cylinder lock shall 

(1) not be unlocked by any key that will open any 
other lock or device used for any purpose in the building 

(2) be so designed that the key shall be removable 
only in the locked position 

(g) It shall be openable from the hoistway side with- 
out the use of a key. 

(h) The key shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1). This 
key shall also be made available to emergency personnel 
during an emergency. 

(i) A hinged self-closing barrier independent of the 
door shall be installed horizontally across the entrance 
on the hoistway side at a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.). 
The barrier shall not open into the hoistway. 

2.11.1.3 Telephone as Alternative to Emergency (ED) 
Doors. Where an elevator is installed in a single blind 
hoistway, and there are no landings from which to gain 
access through an emergency door, a means of two-way 
conversation conforming to 2.27.1.1.4 shall be provided. 

NOTE: Examples are pulp mills, grain elevators, dams, or similar 
locations. 

2.11.1.4 Access Openings for Cleaning of Car and (07) 
Hoistway Enclosures. Nonremovable sliding or swing 
panels or doors in the hoistway conforming to 
2.11.1.2(d), (f), (g), and (i) shall be permitted for access 

to car or hoistway transparent enclosures for cleaning 
purposes. An electromechanical device shall be pro- 
vided that will prevent the operation of the driving 
machine unless the access panels or doors are closed 
and locked (see 2.26.2.32). Keys used to unlock the access 
panels or doors shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1). 



37 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.11.2 Types of Entrances 

2.11.2.1 Passenger Elevators. For passenger eleva- 
tors, entrances shall be one of the following types: 

(a) horizontally sliding 

(b) horizontally swinging, single-section 

(c) combination horizontally sliding and swinging 

(d) hand- or power-operated vertically sliding that 
slide up to open 

2.11.2.2 Freight Elevators. For freight elevators, 
entrances shall be one of the following types: 

(a) horizontally sliding 

(b) swinging, single-section 

(c) combination horizontally sliding and swinging 

(d) center-opening, two-section horizontally swing- 
ing, subject to restrictions of 2.11.2.3 

(e) vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced (see 
2.16.4) 

(f) vertically sliding counterweighted, single- or 
multisection 

2.1 1 .2.3 Limitations of Use of Center-Opening Swing- 
ing Entrances. Center-opening swinging entrances 
shall be permitted only 

(a) for freight elevators that can be operated only from 
the car; or 

(b) for freight elevators not accessible to the general 
public that can be operated from outside the hoistway 
and that are located in factories, warehouses, garages, 
and similar industrial buildings. 

2.11.3 Closing of Hoistway Doors 

2.11.3.1 Horizontally sliding or single-section 
swinging doors of automatic-operation elevators shall 
be provided with door closers arranged to close an open 
door automatically if the car, for any reason, leaves the 
landing zone. 

2.1 1 .3.2 Horizontally sliding doors shall be closed 
when the car is at a landing, except when 

(a) the car is operated by a designated attendant in 
the car; 

(b) loading or vinloading; 

(c) the elevator conforms to 2.27.3.2.1 and 2.27.3.2.3 
through 2.27.3.2.6, Phase I Emergency Recall Operation 
by fire alarm initiating device; or 

(d) the car is at the recall level when Phase I is in 
effect [see 2.27.3.1.6(a)]. 

2.11.3.3 On center-opening doors, if there is an 
interlock on only one panel, the door closer required 
by 2.11.3.1 shall be provided on the leading panel that 
operates in the opposite direction (see 2.11.11.7). 

2.11.4 Location of Horizontally Sliding or Swinging 
Hoistway Doors 

Horizontally sliding or swinging doors shall be so 
located that the distance from the hoistway face of the 



doors to the edge of the hoistway landing sill, measured 
from the face of the door section nearest to the car, shall 
be not more than the requirements specified in 2.11.4.1 
and 2.11.4.2. 

2.11.4.1 For elevators that can be operated only 
from the car, 100 mm (4 in.), except that where new 
elevators are installed in existing multiple hoistways or 
where alterations involving replacement of the doors 
are made to existing elevators in multiple hoistways, 
and the location o^ the door openings is such that the 
100 mm (4 in.) dimension specified cannot be main- 
tained, the distance specified is permitted to be increased 
to not more than 125 mm (5 in.) where horizontally 
sliding doors are used. 

2.11.4.2 For elevators with automatic or continu- 
ous-pressure operation, 19 mm (0.75 in.) for swinging 
doors and 57 mm (2.25 in.) for sliding doors, except that 

(a) freight elevators not accessible to the general pub- 
lic, and that are located in factories, warehouses, garages, 
and similar industrial buildings are permitted to have 
single-section or center-opening two-section horizon- 
tally swinging doors conforming to 2.11.4.1; or 

(b) for swinging doors used on elevators with auto- 
matic and continuous-pressure operation, the distance 
shall be permitted to be increased from 19 mm to 57 mm 
(0.75 in. to 2.25 in.) if such doors are emergency doors 
conforming to 2.11.1. (See also 2.14.4.5.) 

2.11.5 Projection of Entrances and Other Equipment 
Beyond the Landing Sills 

Entrances and equipment shall not project into an 
elevator hoistway beyond the line of the landing sill, 
except for 

(a) equipment required for interlocking, indicator and 
signal devices, and door operating devices 

(b) vertical slide entrances 

2.11.6 Opening of Hoistway Doors 

2.11.6.1 When the car is within the unlocking 
zone, the hoistway doors shall be openable by hand 
from within the car without the use of tools. 

2.11.6.2 Means shall not be provided for locking 
out of service the doors at 

(a) the top terminal landing 

(b) the bottom terminal landing 

(c) the designated and alternate landings for elevators 
equipped with Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, 
when Phase 1 is effective 

(d) no landing for elevators equipped with Phase 11 
Emergency In-Car Operation when Phase n is effective 

2.11.6.3 Egress from the interior of the car to any (OSS) 
elevator landing by means of the car and hoistway doors 
shall be unrestricted once the car and hoistway doors 

are open. 



38 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.11.6.4 Handles or other means provided for 
operation of manually operated doors shall be so located 
that it is not necessary to reach the back of any panel, 
jamb, or sash to operate them. 

2.11.7 Glass in Hoistway Doors 

Glass in hoistway doors shall conform to 2.11.7.1 and 
2.11.7.2. 

2.11.7.1 Vision Panels. Manually operated or self- 
closing hoistway doors of the vertically or horizontally 
sliding type, for elevators with automatic or continuous- 
pressure operation, shall be provided with a vision 
panel. Vision panels shall not be required at landings 
of automatic operation elevators where a hall position 
indicator is provided. In multisection doors, the vision 
panel is required in one section only, but is permitted 
to be placed in all sections. All horizontally swinging 
elevator doors shall be provided with vision panels. 
Vision panels are permitted for any type of hoistway 
door. 

Where required or used, vision panels shall conform 
to 2.11.7.1.1 through 2.11,7.1.7. 

2.11.7.1.1 The area of any single vision panel 
shall be not less than 0.015 m^ (24 in. ), and the total 
area of one or more vision panels in any hoistway door 
shall be not more than 0.055 m^ (85 in.^). 

2.11.7.1.2 Each clear panel opening shall reject 
a ball 150 mm (6 in.) in diameter. 

2.1 1.7.1.3 Muntins used between panel sections 
shall be of noncombustible material and of substantial 
construction. 

2.11.7.1.4 Panel opening shall be glazed with 
either of the following: 

(a) clear wire glass not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) 

(b) other transparent glazing material not less than 
6 mm (0.25 in.) thick that meets the impact safety stan- 
dard 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/ 
CGSB-12.11, or CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is applica- 
ble (see Part 9) 

2.1 1 .7.1 .5 The center of the panel shall be located 
not less than 1 300 mm (51 in.) and not more than 
1 700 mm (67 in.) above the landing, except that for 
vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, it 
shall be located to conform to the dimensions specified 
insofar as the door design will permit. 

2.11.7.1.6 Vision panels in power-operated 
doors shall be substantially flush with the surface of the 
landing side of the door. 

2.11.7.1.7 Vision panels shall be protected by 
protective grilles made of steel not less than 1.4 mm 
(0.055 in.) thick, in accordance with the following specifi- 
cations: 



(a) Grilles shall be sized to fit within or over the vision 
panel frame and completely cover the vision panel open- 
ing in the hoistway door. 

(b) Grilles shall be secured by means that deter 
removal by common tools. 

(c) Grilles shall contain openings that shaU be not 
larger than 19 mm x 19 mm (0.75 in. x 0.75 in.) in 
diameter. Such openings shall be spaced at 25 mm (1 in.) 
center-to-center. 

(d) Grille edges shall be free of burrs and beveled. 

(e) Grilles shall be installed on the hoistway side of 
the door. 

2.11.7.2 Glass Doors. Where provided, glass 
hoistway doors shall conform to 2.11.7.2.1 through 
2.11.7.2.5. 

2.11.7.2.1 The glass shall be laminated glass con- 
forming to 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/CGSB-12.1. Mark- 
ings as specified in the applicable standard shall be on 
each separate piece of glass and shall remain visible 
after installation. 

2.11.7.2.2 The glass shall be not less than 60% 
of the total visible door panel surface area as seen from 
the landing side of the doors. Door lap shall not be used 
in calculating glass size. 

2.11.7.2.3 In power-operated doors, the glass 
panel shall be substantially flush with the surface of the 
landing side of the door. 

2.11.7.2.4 A nonglass edge shall be provided on 
the leading edge of the door panel. 

2.11.7.2.5 The glass door shall conform to 
2.11.11.5.7 for horizontally sliding type entrances, 
2.11.12.4 for vertically sliding type entrances, or 2.11.13.3 
for swinging entrances. 

2.11.8 Weights for Closing or Balancing Doors 

Hoistway door weights, where used for closing or 
balancing doors, shall be guided or restrained to prevent 
them from corrdng out of their runway. The bottom of 
the guides or other restraining means shall be so con- 
structed as to retain the weights if the weight suspension 
means breaks. 

2.11.9 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Power 
Operation 

2.11.9.1 Loclcing Devices. Doors shall be provided 
with door locking devices conforming to 2.12. 

2.11.9.2 Power Operation. Where hoistway doors 
are power operated or are opened or closed by power, 
their operation shall conform to 2.13. 



39 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.11.10 Landing-Sill Guards, Landing-Sill 
Illumination, Hinged Landing Sills, and 
Tracl^ on Landings 

2.11.10.1 Landing-Sill Guards 

2.11.10.1.1 Landing sills shall be guarded on the 
underside with guard plates of smooth metal not less 
than 1.4 mm (0.055 in.) thick, extending the full width of 
the car sill exposed to the landing entrance, and securely 
fastened in place. Landing sill guards are not required 
for 

(a) vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors 

(b) vertically sliding counterweighted doors that slide 
down to open 

(c) elevators where the landing sills do not project 
into the hoistway 

2.11.10.1.2 Where a car leveling device is pro- 
vided and the hoistway edge of the sill is either flush 
with or projects into the hoistway, the guard shall have 
a straight vertical face extending below the sill not less 
than the depth of the leveling zone plus 75 mm (3 in.). 
Where the sill projects inward from the hoistway enclo- 
sure, the bottom of the guard shall also be beveled at 
an angle of not less than 60 deg and not more than 75 deg 
from the horizontal, or the guard shall be extended from 
the hoistway edge of the landing sill to the top of door 
hanger pocket of the entrance next below. 

2.11.10.1.3 Where no car leveling device is pro- 
vided and the sill projects inward from the general line 
of the hoistway, the guard shall be either beveled at an 
angle of not less than 60 deg and not more than 75 deg 
from the horizontal, or have a straight vertical face 
extending from the hoistway edge of the landing sill to 
the top of door hanger pocket of the entrance below. 

2.11.10.2 Illumination at Landing Sills. The build- 
ing corridors shall be so lighted that the illumination at 
the landing sills, when an elevator is in service, shall be 
not less than 100 be (10 fc). 

2.11.10.3 Hinged Hoistway Landing Sills. Hinged 
hoistway landing sills provided in connection with verti- 
cally sliding, biparting, counterbalanced doors of freight 
elevators shall be hinged on the landing side so that 
they can be lowered only when the landing doors are 
in the fully opened position. 

2.11.11 Entrances, Horizontal Slide Type 

2.11.11.1 Landing Sills. Landing sills shall 

(a) be of metal and of sufficient strength to support 
the loads to be carried by the sills when loading and 
unloading the car, and be secured in place 

(b) be substantially flush with the floor surface of the 
elevator landings 

(c) be so designed and maintained as to provide a 
secure foothold over the entire width of the door opening 



2.11.11.2 Hangers, Tracl^, and Track Supports. 

Hangers, tracks, and their supports and fastenings for 
doors shall be constructed to withstand, without dam- 
age or appreciable deflection, an imposed static load 
equal to four times the weight of each panel as applied 
successively downward and upward at the vertical cen- 
terline of the panel (See 2.11.11.5.7 and 2.11.11.5.8.) 

2.11.11.3 Entrance Frames 

2.11.11.3.1 Where used, entrance frames shall 
be anchored to the sills and to the building structure or 
the track supports. The head of the entrance frame shall 
not be used to support the weight of the wall over the 
frame. 

2.1 1.1 1.3.2 Where decorative material is applied 
to listed /certified frames, it shall conform to the require- 
ments of the certifying organization. 

2.11.11.4 Hangers. Hangers shall conform to 
2.11.11.4.1 and 2.11.11.4.2. 

2.11.11.4.1 Means shall be provided to prevent 
the hangers from jumping the track. 

2.11.11.4.2 Stops shall be provided in the 
entrance assembly to prevent hangers from overrunning 
the end of the track. 

2.11.11.5 Panels. Panels shall conform to 

2.11.11.5.1 through 2.11.11.5.8. 

2.11.11.5.1 The panels shall overlap the top and 
sides of the opening, and each other, in the case of 
multispeed entrances, by not less than 13 mm (0.5 in.). 

Where entrances without frames are used, the overlap 
shall extend the thickness of the facing used to finish 
the opening plus 13 mm (0.5 in.) or more. 

2.11.11.5.2 The clearance shall not exceed 10 mm 
(0.375 in.) between 

(a) the panel and the frame 

(b) the panel and the wall, where entrances without 
frames are used in masonry or concrete 

(c) related panels of multispeed entrances 

(d) the panel arid the sill measured vertically 

2.11.11.5.3 The leading panel edge of side-open- 
ing entrances shall not close into pockets in the strike 
jamb and shall be smooth and free of sharp projections. 

2.11.11.5.4 The meeting panel edges of center- 
opening entrances shall be smooth and free of sharp 
projection. 

The meeting panel edges of center-opening entrances 
shall be protected with not less than one resilient male 
member extending the full height of the panel. The resil- 
ient members shall be permitted to interlock by not more 
than 10 mm (0.375 in.). 

When in the closed position, the distance between the 
metal parts of the meeting panels shall not exceed 13 mm 
(0.5 in.). 



40 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



• 



2.11.11.5.5 No areas shall be depressed or raised 
more than 3 mm (0.125 in.) from the adjacent area and 
edges shall be beveled at not more than 30 deg to the 
panel surface. 

2.11.11.5.6 Where decorative material is applied 
to listed /certified panels, it shall conform to the require- 
ments of the certifying organization. 

2.11.11.5.7 The entrance assembly shall be capa- 
ble of withstanding a force of 2 500 N (560 Ibf ) appUed 
on the landing side at right angles to and approximately 
at the center of a panel. This force shall be distributed 
over an area of approximately 100 nmi x 100 mm (4 in. 
X 4 in.). There shall be no appreciable permanent dis- 
placement or deformation of any parts of the entrance 
assembly resulting from this test. 

2.11.11.5.8 Means shall be provided to prevent 
opening of locked doors more than 20 mm (0.8 in.) per 
panel at the farthest point from the interlock when a 
force of 135 N (30 Ibf) is applied in the opening direction 
at the leading edge of the door at the farthest point from 
the interlock. 

2.11.11.6 Bottom Guides. Bottom guides shall con- 
form to the following: 

(a) The bottom of each panel shall be guided by one 
or more members. 

(b) Guide members shall be securely fastened. 

(c) The guide members and any reinforcements or 
guards shall engage the corresponding member by not 
less than 6 mm (0.25 in.). (See 2.11.11.5.7.) 

2.11.11.7 Multipanel Entrances. Panels of 
multipanel doors shall conform to either 2.11.11.7.1 or 
2.11.11.7.2. Multiple-speed and center-opening multi- 
ple-speed doors shall also conform to 2.11.11.7.3. 

2.11.11.7.1 Panels shall be interconnected 
directly or through their hangers so as to assure simulta- 
neous movement of all panels. The factor of safety of 
the interconnecting means shall not be less than 10 for 
cast iron or 5 for other materials. 

2.11.11.7.2 Panels shall be equipped with 
hoistway door interlocks on each driven panel and pro- 
vided with a door closer(s) installed to comply with 
2.11.3.1. All panels shall move simultaneously when the 
car is at the landing. 

2.11.11.7.3 Multiple-speed and center-opening 
multiple-speed panels shall be provided with secondary 
mechanical interconnecting means to ensure that indi- 
vidual panels of multiple panel doors moving in the 
same direction cannot become separated from the panel 
that is locked by the interlock in the event that the normal 
interconnecting means fails. 

2.11.11.7.4 Where cable and pulleys are used to 
connect panels of multisection sliding doors, each pulley 



shall be equipped with a guard to prevent the cable 
from leaving the pulley. 

2.11.11.8 Hoistway Door Safety Retainers. The top 

and bottom of horizontally sliding doors shall be pro- 
vided with a means of retaining the closed door panel 
in position if the primary guiding means fail, and pre- 
venting displacement of the door panel top and bottom 
by more than 20 mm (0.8 in.) when the door panel is 
subjected to a force of 5 000 N (1,125 Ibf) in the direction 
of the hoistway applied at right angles to the panel over 
an area of 300 mm x 300 mm (12 in. x 12 in.) at the 
approximate center of the panel. 

The retaining means shall also withstand, without 
detachment or permanent deformation, a force of 
1 000 N (225 Ibf) applied upward at any point along 
the width of the door panel and, while this force is 
maintained, an additional force of 1 100 N (250 Ibf) 
applied at right angles to the door at the center of the 
panel. This force shall be distributed over an area of 
300 mm x 300 mm (12 in. x 12 in.). 

The retaining means shall not be subjected to wear 
or stress during normal door operation or maintenance. 

2.11.11.9 Beams, Walls, Floors, and Supports. The 

building structural supports of the entrance, such as 
building beams, walls, and floors, shall be designed to 
withstand the horizontal forces stipulated in 2.11.11.8. 

2.11.11.10 Hoistway Door to Sill Clearance. The 

horizontal distance from the hoistway side of the leading 
edge of the hoistway door, or sight guard, if provided, 
to the edge of the landing siU, shall not exceed 13 mm 
(0.5 in.). The vertical clearance between the sight guard, 
if provided, and the landing sill shall not exceed 13 mm 
(0.5 in.). 

2.11.12 Entrances, Vertical Slide Type 

2.11.12.1 Landing Sills 

2.11.12.1.1 Landing sills shall be of metal and 
of sufficient strength to support the loads to be carried 
by the sills when loading and unloading the car, and be 
secured in place (see 2.16.2.2 for classes of loading); the 
load on the sill during loading and imloading shall be 
considered to be the same as that on the platform mem- 
bers specified in 8.2.2.6. 

2.11.12.1.2 Landing sills shall be secured to the 
building structure in substantially the same plane as the 
elevator landing floor. 

2.11.12.2 Entrance Frames. Where used, frames (055) 
shall conform to 2.11.12.2.1 through 2.11.12.2.4. 

2.1 1 .12.2.1 Entrance frames shall be anchored to 
the sills and to the building structure or track supports, 

2.11.12.2.2 The weight of the wall above the 
frame shall be supported by either of the following: 

(a) lintel 

(b) the head of the frames when designed to support 
the load 



41 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.11.12.2.3 In gypsum board (dry wall) construc- 
tion, the frame side jambs shall be extended and securely 
fastened to the building structure above the frame. 

2.1 1 .1 2.2.4 Where decorative material is applied 
to listed /certified frames, it shall conform to the require- 
ments of the certifying organization. 

2.11.12.3 Ralls. The panel guide rails shall be 
securely fastened to the building structure and the 
entrance frame, at intervals, throughout their entire 
length. 

Rails and their supports shall withstand the forces 
specified in 2.11.12.4.6. Where truckable sills are pro- 
vided as specified in 2.11.12.4.2, the rails shall withstand 
any reactions that could be transmitted to the rails as a 
result of loading and unloading operations. 

2.11.12.4 Panels. Panels shall conform to 
2.11.12.4.1 through 2.11.12.4.8. 

2.11.12.4.1 The panels shall be constructed of 
noncombustible material, or of a structural core made 
of combustible material if covered with not less than 
0.45 mm (0.0175 in.) sheet metal. 

2.11.12.4.2 The lower panel of biparting 
entrances and the top of the panel of vertical slide 
entrances that slide down to open shall be provided 
with a truckable sill designed for the loads specified in 
2.11.12.1.1. Provisions shall be made to transmit the 
panel sill load to the building structure. 

2.11.12.4.3 Panels of biparting counterbalanced 
entrances shall conform to the following: 

(a) They shall be provided with means to stop the 
closing panels when the distance between the closing 
rigid members of the panel is not less than 20 mm (0.8 in.) 
and not more than 50 mm (2 in.). 

(b) A fire-resistive, nonshearing, and noncrushing 
member of either the meeting or overlapping type shall 
be provided on the upper panel to close the distance 
between the rigid door sections when in contact with the 
stops. This member shaU allow a minimum compressible 
clearance of 20 mm (0.8 in.). 

(c) Rigid members that overlap the meeting edge, and 
center-latching devices, are prohibited. 

2.11.12.4.4 The panels, with their attachments 
for doors that slide up to open, shall overlap the sides 
and top of the entrance opening by at least 50 mm (2 in.) 
when in the closed position. Other vertically sliding 
panels and their attachments shall overlap their entrance 
openings and sills by at least 50 mm (2 in.) when in the 
closed position. The overlap shall extend at least 50 mm 
(2 in.) beyond the thickness of any facing used to finish 
the opening. 

2.11.12.4.5 The clearance between a panel and 
the frame lintel, between a panel and the sill, and 



between related panels of multispeed entrances, shall 
not exceed 25 mm (1 in.). 

2.11.12.4.6 Panels, rails, and door guides shall 
conform to the strength requirements of 2.11.11.5.7. 
Hangers, guides, and guide shoes shall not be perma- 
nently displaced or deformed by more than 20 mm 
(0.8 in.) when their panel is subjected to a force of 5 000 N 
(1,125 Ibf) in the direction of the hoistway applied at 
right angles to the panel over an area of 300 mm x 
300 mm (12 in. X 12 in.) at the approximate center of 
the panel. 

2.11.12.4.7 Means shall be provided to close the 
opening between the upper panel of pass-type entrances 
and the entrance frame lintel. The sum of the clearance 
between the panel, the device used to close the opening, 
and the entrance lintel shall not exceed 25 mm (1 in.). 

2.11.12.4.8 Means shall be provided to prevent 
the opening of locked doors more than 25 mm (1 in.) 
per panel at the farthest point from the interlock when 
a force of 135 N (30 Ibf) is applied in the opening direc- 
tion at the leading edge of the door at the farthest point 
from the interlock. 

2.11.12.5 Guides. Panel guides shall conform to 
2.11.12.5,1 through 2.11.12.5.3. 

2.11.12.5.1 Each panel shall be equipped with 
not less than four guide members or with continuous 
guides. 

2.11.12.5.2 Guide members shall be securely fas- 
tened to the panels. 

2.1 1.12.5.3 Guide members shall be designed to 
withstand the forces specified in 2.11.12.4.6. 

2.11.12.6 Counterweighting or Counterbalancing. 

Single or multisection vertically sliding panels shall be 
so counterweighted, and vertically sliding biparting 
panels shall be so counterbalanced, that they will not 
open or close by gravity. 

Fastenings shall be provided to prevent the fall of a 
counterweight, and the detachment or dislodgment of 
counterweight parts or of balancing weights. Suspension 
means and their connections, for vertically sliding 
biparting counterbalanced doors and for the counter- 
weights of vertically sliding counterweighted doors, 
shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5. 

2.11.12.7 Sill Guards. Where the panel sill or other 
structural member projects more than 13 mm (0.5 in.) 
into the hoistway or beyond the panel surface below it, 
the projection shaU be provided with a metal guard not 
less than 1.4 mm (0.055 in.) thick and beveled at an angle 
of not less than 50 deg and not more than 75 deg from 
the horizontal. 

2.1 1.12.8 Pull Straps. Manually operated vertically 
sliding biparting entrances shall be provided with pull 
straps on the inside and outside of the door. 



42 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



The length of the pull straps shall conform to 
2.11.12.8.1 and 2.11.12.8.2. 

2.11.12.8.1 The bottom of the strap shall be not 
more than 2 000 mm (79 in.) above the landing when 
the panel is in the fully opened position. 

2.11.12.8.2 The length of the strap shall not be 
extended by means of ropes or other materials. 

2.11.13 Entrances, Swinging Type 

2.11.13.1 Landing Sills. Landing sills shall 

(a) be of metal and of sufficient strength to support 
the loads to be carried by the sills when loading and 
unloading the car, and be secured in place 

(b) be substantially flush with the floor surface of the 
elevator landings 

(c) be so designed and maintained as to provide a 
secure foothold over the entire width of the door opening 



2.11.13.2 Entrance Frames. 

to 2.11.13.2.1 and 2.11.13.2.2. 



Frames shall conform 



2.11.13.2.1 They shall be designed to support in 
place the panels with their hinges or pivots, closer if 
attached to the frame and interlock. They shall with- 
stand the forces referred to in 2.11.13.3.5, and the forces 
resulting from the normal opening of the door or normal 
attempts to open it when locked in the closed position. 

2.11.13.2.2 Where decorative material is applied 
to listed /certified panels, it shall conform to the require- 
ments of the certifying organization. 

2.11.13.3 Panels. Panels shall conform to 
2.11.13.3.1 through 2.11.13.3.7. 

2.11.13.3.1 The panels shall overlap the part of 
the frame against which they close by not less than 
13 mm (0.5 in.). 

2.11.13.3.2 The clearance between a panel and 
its sill shall not exceed 10 mm (0.375 in.). 

(OSS) 2.11.13.3.3 Handles or knobs on the hoistway 

side of door panels are not permitted. Unlatching 
devices that do not project beyond the face of the door 
panel on the hoistway side shall be permitted. 

2.11.13.3.4 Where decorative material is applied 
to listed /certified panels, it shall conform to the require- 
ments of the certifying organization. 

2.11.13.3.5 Panels and their assembled accesso- 
ries shall 

(a) be capable of withstanding a force on the handle 
of not less than 450 N (100 Ibf ) in the opening direction 
of a closed and locked door. There shall be no permanent 
displacement or deformation of the handle or the door 
panel resulting from this force. 

(b) conform to 2.11.11.5.7. 



(c) not be permanently displaced or deformed by 
more than 20 mm (0.75 in.) when the panel is subjected 
to a force of 5 000 N (1,125 Ibf) in the direction of the 
hoistway, applied at right angles to the panel over an 
area of 300 mm x 300 mm (12 in. x 12 in.) at the approxi- 
mate center of the panel. 

2.11.13.3.6 Center-opening horizontally swing- 
ing doors shall have one door section provided with an 
overlapping astragal on its vertical edge, except where 
each door section is provided with a landing door inter- 
lock [see 2.12.2.4.4(c)]. 

2.11.13.3.7 Center-opening horizontally swing- 
ing doors shall have door stops provided at the top 
entrances that will stop each door panel when closed and 
that will meet the requirements specified in 2.11.13.3.5. 

2.11.13.4 Hinges. Hinges of the mortise and surface 
type shall conform to the requirements of NFPA 80, Table 
2-4.3.1. 

2.11.13.5 Entrances Witli Combination Horizontally 
Sliding and Swinging Panels. Where both the sliding 
and swinging panels are not equipped with hoistway 
door interlocks or locks and contacts conforming to 2.12, 
the horizontally sliding and swinging panels forming a 
part of the entrance shall be so interconnected that 

(a) the swinging panel can be opened only when the 
sliding panel is in the open position 

(b) both panels swing as a unit 

2.11.14 Fire Tests 

2.11.14.1 In jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC 

(a) the fire-protection rating of entrances and doors (ED) 
shall be determined in accordance with the requirements 
specified in the NBCC (CAN4-S104) 

(b) where required, the hoistway door interlock mech- 
anism and associated wiring shall remain operational 
for a period of 1 h when subjected to the standard fire 
exposure test described in CAN4-S104 

NOTE (2.11.14.1): Requirements 2.11.14.2 through 2.11.18 do not 
apply in jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC. 

2.1 1.14.2 In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, 

2.11.15 through 2.11.18, and 2.11.14.2.1 through 
2.11.14.2.3 apply where fire-resistive construction is 
required by 2.1.1.1.3. 

2.11.14.2.1 Entrances shall be subjected to the 
type tests specified in 8.3.4. 

2.11.14.2.2 The following basic types of 
entrances shaU be tested: 

(a) Horizontally Sliding Type. Test a side-sliding and a 
center-opening assembly. 

(b) Swinging Type. Test a single swinging assembly. 

(c) Vertically Sliding Type. Test a biparting assembly. 

2.1 1.14.2.3 When an entrance assembly has been 
tested for one type of wall construction, i.e., masonry 



43 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



or drywall, only the frame-to-wall interface shall be 
acceptable to the certifying organization for other types 
of construction. 

2.11.15 Marking 

(07) 2.11.15.1 Labeling of Tested Entrance Assembly. 

In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, a single label 
listing covered components included per 2.11.15.1.1, or 
separate labels on all individual components per 
2.11.15.1.2 shall be provided. 

2.11.15.1.1 Each entrance shall be labeled. Each 
label shall be permanently attached to the equipment 
cind shall be readily visible after installation. The follow- 
ing data shall be on the label: 

(a) certifying organization's name or identifying 
symbol 

(b) the name, trademark, or file number by which 
the organization that manufactured the product can be 
identified 

(c) statement of compliance with 8.3.4 

(07) (d) a list of the component items found in the defini- 
tion of Entrance Assembly that are covered by the label 

(07) 2.11.15.1.2 Labels, conforming to 2.11.15.1.1(a) 

and (b), shall be provided for each entrance as follows: 

(a) One label shall be provided for each door panel. 

(b) Each frame shall be labeled, except where frames 
are installed in masonry or concrete and the panel over- 
laps the wall in conformance with 2.11.11.5.1 and 
2.11.11.5.2, or 2.11.12.4.4. 

(1) One label shall be provided for each section of 
a frame, or for each piece of a knockdown frame; or 

(2) A single label shall be provided for the entire 
frame where the label states that it includes both the 
fixed side panels and the transom 

(c) One label shall be provided for the frame, except 
that no label is required where frames are installed in 
masonry or concrete and the panel overlaps the wall in 
conformance with 2.11.11.5.1 and 2.11.11.5.2, or 
2.11.12.4.4. 

(d) A single label may be provided for the entire 
entrance assembly where components are equivalent to 
those tested as a complete assembly. 

(07) 2.11.15.1.3 Where the entrance hardware assem- 

bly has been tested in a complete entrance assembly, a 
single label, conforming to 2.11.15.1.1, shall be provided 
for the entrance hardware assembly 

(07) 2.11.15.1.4 Where a component of the entrance 

hardware assembly has not been tested as part of the 
complete assembly, a label conforming to 2.11.15.1.1 
shall be applied to the component. 

(07) 2.11.15.2 Other Entrance Assemblies. In jurisdic- 

tions not enforcing the NBCC, the following shall apply 
Other entrance assemblies of the three basic types (see 
2.11.14) shall qualify for labeling or Hsting/ certification: 



(a) when composed of panel(s), frame, and hardware 
of the same type as tested and not exceeding the overall 
height and width of any panel and frame of the largest 
size tested; or 

(h) when such panel(s), frame, and hardware are mod- 
ified, and test or technical data demonstrates that the 
modifications will meet the performance requirements 
of the test procedure in 8.3.3. 

All other elements of the assembly shall conform to 
all other applicable requirements of this Code. 

2.11.15.3 Entrances Larger Than Tested Assem- 
blies. In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the fol- 
lowing shall apply. When the entrance is too large for 
the regularly available test facilities, the certifying orga- 
ruzation shall be permitted to issue oversize certificates 
or oversize labels, or such entrances shall be permitted 
to be used subject to approval by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

2.11.16 Factory Inspections 

In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the following 
shall apply. The manufacturing facilities for the produc- 
tion of entrances or components thereof shall be 
inspected by the certifying organization at random at 
least quarterly, or if they are not manufactured on a 
continuous basis, at the time they are being produced, 
to assure that production methods are such that 
entrances or components thereof similar to those tested 
are being produced. 

2.11.17 Transoms and Fixed Side Panels 

In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the following 
shall apply. Transoms and fixed side panels shall be 
permitted to close openings above and beside the hori- 
zontally sliding or horizontally swinging type entrances, 
provided that 

(a) the opening closed by the transom and fixed side 
panel does not exceed in width or height the dimensions 
of the entrance in which it is installed 

(b) the transom panels and fixed side panels are 

(1) constructed in a manner equivalent to the con- 
struction of the entrance panels 

(2) secured 

2.11.18 Installation Instructions 

In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the following 
shall apply: 

(a) Instructions detailing the application and installa- 
tion of door listed /certified panels and entrance hard- 
ware shall be provided. 

(b) Where frames are used, instructions detailing the 
listed/certified frame-to-wall interface shall be 
provided. 



44 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) 2.11.19 Gasketing of Hoistway Entrances 

Where gasketing material is applied to entrances with 
a fire-protection rating, it shall conform to 2.11.19.1 
through 2.11.19.4. 

2.11.19.1 The gasketing material shall be subjected 
to the tests specified in UL lOB, NFPA 252, or 
CAN4-S104, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). 

(ED) 2.11.19.2 The gasketing material shall withstand 

the maximum elevated temperature tests as defined by 
ANSI/UL 1784 standard without deterioration. 

2.11.19.3 Each section of the gasketing material 
shall be labeled. Each label shall bear the name of the 
manufacturer and a statement indicating conformance 
with 2,11.19.1 and 2.11.19.2. The label shall be visible 
after installation. 

2.11.19.4 Labeled gasketing material shall con- 
form to 2.11.16 or the NBCC, whichever is applicable. 

NOTES (2.11.19): 

(1) See also 2.1.1.5, 2.11.3, and 2.13.4 for additional requirements to 
be considered when gasketing material is appHed to a hoistway 
entrance. 

(2) These requirements do not evaluate the air and /or smoke leak- 
age performance of the gasketing material. 

SECTION 2.12 

HOISTWAY DOOR LOCKING DEVICES AND ELECTRIC 

CONTACTS. AND HOISTWAY ACCESS SWITCHES 

2.12.1 General 

2.12.1.1 When the car is stopped within the 
lonlocking zone, the hoistway doors shall be unlocked, 
or locked but openable from the landing side either 
manually or by power. 

2.12.1.2 When the car is outside the unlocking 
zone, the hoistway doors shaU be openable from the 
landing side only by a hoistway door unlocking device 
(see 2.12.6, 2.12.7, and Nonmandatory Appendix B). 

2.12.1.3 For security purposes, hoistway doors 
shall be permitted to be locked out of service, subject 
to the requirements of 2.11.6. 

2.12.1.4 Passenger elevator hoistway doors shall 
be equipped with interlocks conforming to 2.12.2. 

2.12.1.5 Freight elevator hoistway doors shall be 
equipped with interlocks conforming to 2.12.2 or combi- 
nation mechanical locks and electric contacts coriform- 
ing to, and where permitted by 2.12.3. 

2.12.2 Interlocks 

2.12.2.1 GeneraL Each entrance at a landing to an 
elevator used for passengers or freight and not conform- 
ing to 2.12.3.1 shall be equipped with one or more inter- 
locks meeting the design requirements of 2.12.2.4. 



2.12.2.2 Closed Position of Hoistway Doors. 

Hoistway doors shall be considered to be in the closed 
position under the following conditions. These dimen- 
sions apply to the doors in their normal operating condi- 
tion (see 2.14.4.11): 

(a) for horizontally sUding or swinging doors, when 
the leading edge of the door is within 10 mm (0.375 in.) 
of the nearest face of the jamb or when the panels of 
center-opening doors are within 10 mm (0,375 in.) of 
contact with each other 

(b) for vertically sliding counterweighted doors, 
when the leading edge of the door is within 10 mm 
(0.375 in.) of the sill for doors that slide up to open, or 
10 mm (0.375 in.) of the lintel for doors that sHde down 
to open 

(c) for vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced 
doors, when the astragal on the upper panel is within 
19 mm (0.75 in.) of the lower panel 

2.12.2.3 Operation of the Driving Machine With a 
Hoistway Door Unlocked or Not in the Closed Position. 

Operation of the driving machine when a hoistway door 
is unlocked or not in the closed position (see 2.12.2.2) 
shall be permitted under one of the following conditions: 

(a) by a car leveling or truck zoning device (see 
2.26.1.6) 

(b) when a hoistway access switch is operated (see 
2.12.7) 

(c) when a bypass switch is activated (see 2.26.1.5) 

2.12.2.4 General Design Requirements. Interlocks 
shall conform to 2.12.2.4.1 through 2.12.2.4.7. 

2.12.2.4.1 Interlock contacts shall be positively (ED) 
opened by the locking member or by a member con- 
nected to and mechanically operated by the locking 
member, and the contacts shall be maintained in the 
open position by the action of gravity, or by a restrained 
compression spring, or by both, or by means of the 
opening member (see 2.26.2.14). Contacts shall be open 
when the hoistway door interlock is unlocked. If the 
contacts are maintained in the open position by other 
than the locking member, the interlock shall be located 
such that the contacts cannot be closed by hand from 

the car or landing when the doors are open. 

The electrical contact bridging means shall withstand 
a separating force of 200 N (45 Ibf ) in any direction from 
the locking member. 

2.12.2.4.2 The locking member of the interlock 
shall hold the door in the locked position by means of 
gravity, or by a restrained compression spring, or by 
both, or by means of a positive linkage. 

2.1 2.2.4.3 The interlock shall lock the door in the 
closed position with a minimum engagement of 7 nun 
(0.28 in.) of the locking members before the interlock 
contacts are closed and before the driving machine can 
be operated, except as permitted in 2.12.2.3. 



45 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Devices that permit operation of the driving machine 
by the normal operating device when the door is closed 
but before it is locked are not interlocks and are not 
permitted where interlocks are required by this Code. 

2.12.2.4.4 Interlocks, used with multisection 
doors, shall conform to the following requirements: 

(a) They shall lock all sections of the door, but shall 
be permitted to be applied to only one section of the 
door, provided the device used to interconnect the door 
sections is so arranged that locking one section will 
prevent the opening of all sections. 

(h) Where used with vertically sliding biparting coun- 
terbalanced doors, they shall be so arranged that the 
interlock contacts are mechanically held in the open 
position by the door or devices attached thereto, unless 
the door is in the closed position. 

(c) Where used with center-opening horizontally 
swinging doors, either 

(1) both door panels shall be equipped with inter- 
locks; or 

(2) where the door panels are so arranged that one 
panel can be opened only after the other panel has been 
opened, the interlock is not required on the section that 
opens last, if that door panel is provided with a door 
electric contact conforming to 2.14.4.2.3, 2.14.4.2.5, and 
2.26.2.15, except that terms "door or gate" and "car door 
or gate" shall be replaced with the term "hoistway door" 
or "hoistway door section" and the term "accessible 
from inside the car panel" with the term "accessible from 
the landing side when the hoistway doors are closed." 

(d) Where used with combination horizontally sliding 
and swinging doors, either 

(1) the sliding and swinging panels shall both be 
equipped with interlocks; or 

(2) where the sliding and swinging panels are inter- 
connected in conformity with the requirements of 
2.11.13.5, the interlock is not required on the swinging 
panel, provided that the interlock on the sliding panel is 
so designed and installed that the car cannot be operated 
unless the sliding and swinging panels are both locked 
in the closed position, as defined in 2.12.2.2. 

(e) Where a door closer, used with a combination slid- 
ing and swinging door, is arranged to be disconnected 
to allow the sliding panel to swing, it shall be so designed 
and installed that it shall not make the interlock contact 
when disconnected and released. 

2.12.2.4.5 Interlock systems employing a single 
master switch for more than one door are prohibited. 



(07) 2.12.2.4.6 

used. 



Mercury tube switches shall not be 



2.12.2.5 Interlock Retiring Cam Device. Retiring 
cams used to actuate an interlock shall exert a force at 
least double the average force required to operate the 
interlock and shall have a movement at least 13 mm 



(0.5 in.) more than the average movement required to 
operate the interlock. 

An interlock retiring cam device shall be permanently 
marked by the manufacturer with its rated horizontal 
force and rated horizontal movement. 

The rated horizontal force shall be the static force 
exerted by a retiring cam device in the horizontal direc- 
tion when extended a distance equal to 75% of its rated 
horizontal movement. The rated horizontal movement 
shall be the horizontal distance traveled by the retiring 
cam device from the fully retired position to the fully 
extended position. 

2.12.2.6 Location. Interlocks shall be so located that 
they are not accessible from the landing side when the 
hoistway doors are' closed. 

2.12.3 Hoistway Door Combination Mechanical Loclcs 
and Electric Contacts 

2.12.3.1 Where Permitted. Hoistway door combina- 
tion mechanical locks and electric contacts shall be per- 
mitted only on freight elevators equipped with manually 
operated vertically sliding doors and only at the follow- 
ing landings: 

(a) the top terminal landing and the landing whose (ED) 
sill is located not more than 1 225 mm (48 in.) below 

the top terminal landing sill, provided that the elevator 
rise does not exceed 4 570 mm (15 ft) 

(b) any landing whose sill is within 1 525 mm (60 in.) (ED) 
of the pit floor, regardless of the elevator rise 

2.12.3.2 Closed Position of Hoistway Doors. 

Hoistway doors shall be considered to be in the closed 
position under the following conditions. These dimen- 
sions apply to the doors in their normal operating condi- 
tion (see also 2.14.4.11): 

(a) for vertically sliding counterweighted doors, 
when the leading edge of the door is within 10 mm 
(0.375 in.) of the sill for doors that slide up to open, or 
10 mm (0.375 in.) of the lintel for doors that slide down 
to open 

(h) for vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced 
doors, when the astragal on the upper panel is within 
19 mm (0.75 in.) of the lower panel 

2.12.3.3 Operation of the Driving Machine With a 
Hoistway Door Not in the Closed Position. Operation 
of the driving machine when a hoistway door is not in 
the closed position shall be permitted imder one of the 
following conditions: 

(a) by a car leveling or truck zoning device (see 
2.12.2.2 and 2.26.1.6) 

(b) when a hoistway access switch is operated (see 
2.12.7) 

(c) when bypass switch is activated (see 2.26.1.5) 

2.123 A General Design Requirements. Combina- 
tion mechanical locks and electric contacts shall conform 
to 2.12.3.4.1 through 2.12.3.4.6. 



46 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) 



2.12.3.4.1 They shall be so designed that the 
locking member and the electric contact are moimted 
on and attached to a common base, in such a manner 
that there is a fixed relation between the location of the 
contact and the location of the locking member. 

They shall be so installed and adjusted that the electric 
contact cannot close until the door is in the closed posi- 
tion as specified in 2.12.3.2, and so that the locking mem- 
ber is in a position to lock the door when or before the 
contact closes. In order to prevent motion of the door 
from opening the electric contact while the door is locked 
in the closed position, multiple-locking points shall, 
where necessary, be provided on the locking mechanism. 

2.12.3.4.2 The electric contact shall be positively 
opened by the locking bar of the mecharucal lock or by 
a lever or other device attached to and operated by the 
door, and the electric contact shall be maintained in the 
open position by the action of gravity or by a restrained 
compression spring, or by both, or by positive mechani- 
cal means. (See 2.26.2.14.) 

2.12.3.4.3 The mechanical lock shall hold the 
door in the locked position by means of gravity or by 
a restrained compression spring, or by both. 

2.12.3.4.4 Combination mechanical locks and 
electric contacts used with vertical-slide multiple-panel 
doors shall conform to the following requirements: 

(a) They shall lock all panels of the door, but shall be 
permitted to be applied to only one section of the door, 
provided the device used to interconnect the door sec- 
tions is so arranged that locking one panel will prevent 
the opening of all panels. 

(b) Where used with vertically sliding biparting coun- 
terbalanced doors, the electric contact shall be so 
arranged that it is mechanically held in the open position 
by the door or a device attached thereto, unless the door 
is in the closed position. 



2.12.3.4.5 

used. 



Mercury tube switches shall not be 



2.12.3.5 Location. Combination mechanical locks 
and electric contacts shall be so located that they are 
not accessible from the landing side when the hoistway 
doors are closed. 

2.12.4 Listing/Certification Door Locking Devices and 
Door or Gate Electric Contacts 

2.12.4.1 Type Tests. Each type and make of 
hoistway door interlock, hoistway door combination 
mechanical lock and electric contact, and door or gate 
electric contact, shall conform to the type tests specified 
in 8.3.3, imless tested prior to 

(a) August 1, 1996, and shall have been subjected to 
the tests specified in A17.1a-1994, Section 1101; or 



(b) March 23, 2002 in jurisdictions enforcing CSA B44 (OSS) 
and shall have been subjected to the tests specified in 
CSA B44S1-97, Clause 11.5. 

The tests shall be done by or under the supervision 
of a certifying organization. 

2.12.4.2 Listing/Certification. Each type and make 
of hoistway door interlock, hoistway door combination 
mechanical lock and electric contact, and door or gate 
electric contact shall conform to the general require- 
ments for tests and certification specified in 8.3.1. 

2.12.4.3 Identification Marlcing. Each listed/certi- 
fied device shall be labeled. It shall be permanently 
attached to the device, and shall be so located as to be 
readily visible when the device is installed in its 
operating position. 

The labels shall include the following data: 

(a) the name, trademark, or certifying organization 
file number by which the organization that manufac- 
tured the product can be identified 

(b) the certifying organization name or identifying 
symbol 

(c) statement of compliance with ASME A17.1 or 
CSA B44 

(dl a distinctive type, model, or style letter or number 

(e) rated voltage and current, and whether AC or DC 

(f) rated test force and rated test movement when the 
device is of a type released by an interlock retiring cam 
(see 8.3.3.4.7) 

(g) date (month and year) devices subjected to type 
test specified in 2.12.4.1 

(h) if the device has only been type tested and listed/ 
certified for use on a private residence elevator, the label 
shall indicate the restricted use 

2.12.5 Restricted Opening of Hoistway or Car Doors 

Hoistway and car doors of passenger elevators shall 
conform to 2.12.5.1 through 2.12.5.3. 

2.12.5.1 When a car is outside the unlocking zone, 
the hoistway doors or car doors shall be so arranged 
that the hoistway doors or car doors cannot be opened 
more than 100 mm (4 in.) from inside the car. 

2.12.5.2 When the car doors are so arranged that 
they cannot be opened when the car is outside the 
unlocking zone, the car doors shall be openable from 
outside the car without the use of a special tool(s). 

2.12.5.3 The doors shall be openable from within 
the car (see 2.14.5.7) when the car is within the 
unlocking zone. 

NOTE (2.12.5): See also 2.12.1 and Nonmandatory Appendix B, 
Unlocking Zone. 

2.12.6 Hoistway Door Unloclcing Devices 

2.12.6.1 General. Except in jurisdictions that limit 
the use of hoistway door imlocking devices, they shall 



47 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



be provided for use by elevator and emergency person- 
nel for each elevator at every landing where there is an 
entrance. 

2.12.6.2 Location and Design. Hoistway door 
unlocking devices shall conform to 2.12.6.2.1 through 

2.12.6.2.5. 

2.12.6.2.1 The device shall unlock and permit 
the opening of a hoistway door from a landing irrespec- 
tive of the position of the car. 

2.12.6.2.2 The device shall be designed to pre- 
vent unlocking the door with common tools. 

2.12.6.2.3 Where a hoistway imlocking device 
consists of an arrangement whereby a releasing chain, 
permanently attached to a door locking mechanism, is 
kept under a locked panel adjacent to the landing door, 
such a panel shall be self-closing and self-locking and 
shaU not have identifying markings on its face. 

(07) 2.12.6.2.4 The hoistway door imlocking device 

shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1). The operating means 
shaU also be made available to emergency personnel 
during an emergency. 

2.12.6.2.5 The unlocking device keyway^and 
locked panel (see 2.12.6.2.3), if provided, shall be located 
at a height not greater than 2 100 mm (83 in.) above the 
landing. 

2.12.7 Hoistway Access Switches 

2.12.7.1 General 

2.1 2.7.1.1 Hoistway access switches shall be pro- 
vided when the rated speed is greater than 0.75 m/s 
(150 ft/min) at 

(a) the lowest landing for access to the pit, when a 
separate pit access door is not provided 

(b) the top landing for access to the top of the car 

2.12.7.1.2 For elevators with a speed of 0.75 m/s 
(150 ft/min) or less, hoistway access switches shall be 
provided at the top landing when the distance from the 
top of the car to the landing sill exceeds 900 mm (35 in.) 
when the car platform is level with the landing immedi- 
ately below the top landing. 

2.12.7.2 Location and Design. Hoistway access 
switches shall conform to 2.12.7.2.1 through 2.12.7.2.3. 

2.12.7.2.1 The switch shall be installed adjacent 
to the hoistway entrance at the landing with which it is 
identified. 

2.12.7.2.2 The switch shall be of the continuous- 
pressure spring-return type, and shall be operated by a 
cylinder-type lock having not less than a five-pin or five- 
disk combination, with the key removable only when 
the switch is in the ''OFF" position. The key shall be 
Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 



2.12.7.2.3 The electric contacts in the switch shall 
be positively opened mechanically; their openings shall 
not be solely dependent on springs. 

2.12.7.3 Operating Requirements. The operation of 
the switch shall permit movement of the car with the 
hoistway door at this landing unlocked or not in the 
closed position, and with the car door or gate not in the 
closed position, subject to the requirements of 2.12.7.3.1 
through 2.12.7.3.8. 

2.12.7.3.1 The operation of the switch shall not 
render ineffective the hoistway-door interlock or electric 
contact at any other landing, nor shall the car move if 
any other hoistway door is unlocked. 

2.12.7.3.2 The car cannot be operated at a speed (07) 
greater than 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min). 

For elevators with static control, an independent 
means shall be provided to limit the speed of the car on 
hoistway access to a maximum of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min), 
should the normal means to control this speed (mechani- 
cal, electrical, or solid-state devices) fail to do so. 

2.12.7.3.3 For automatic and continuous-pres- 
sure operation elevators, provided that 

(a) car and landing operating devices are first made 
inoperative by means within the car. This means shall 
enable the hoistway access switches and shall be key 
operated or behind a locked cover. The key shall be 
Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 

(b) power operation of the hoistway door and /or car 
door or gate is inoperative. 

2.12.7.3.4 Automatic operation by a car-leveling 
device is inoperative. 

2.12.7.3.5 Both top-of-car inspection operation 
(see 2.26.1.4.2) and in-car inspection operation (see 
2.26.1.4.3) are not in effect. 

2.12.7.3.6 The movement of the car irutiated and 
maintained by the access switch at the lowest landing, 
if this landing is the normal means of access to the pit, 
shall be limited in the up direction to the point where 
the bottom of the platform guard is even with hoistway 
entrance header. 

2.12.7.3.7 The movement of the car initiated and 
maintained by the upper access switch shall be limited 
in the down direction to a travel not greater than the 
height of the car crosshead above the car platform, and 
limited in the up direction to the distance the platform 
guard extends below the car platform. 

2.12.7.3.8 The access switch shall only control 
the movement of the car within the zone specified in 
2.12.7.3.6 or 2.12.7.3.7. Control circuits related to, or oper- 
ated by, the hoistway access switches shall comply with 
2.26.9.3(c), (d), and (e) and 2.26.9.4. 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



• 



SECTION 2.13 

POWER OPERATION OF HOISTWAY DOORS AND 

CAR DOORS 

2.13.1 Types of Doors and Gates Permitted 

Where both a hoistway door and a car door or gate 
are opened and /or closed by power, the hoistway door 
and the car door or gate shall both be either of the 
horizontally sliding type or vertically sliding type, 

2.13.2 Power Opening 

2.13.2.1 Power Opening of Car Doors or Gates. 

Power opening of a car door or gate shall be subject to 
the requirements of 2.13.2.1.1 and 2.13.2.1.2. 

2.13.2.1.1 Power opening shall occur only at the 
landing where the car is stopping, or is leveling, or at 
rest, and shall start only when the car is within the 
landing zone where an automatic car-leveling device is 
provided, except that on elevators with static control, 
power shall not be applied to open car doors until the 
car is within 300 nm\ (12 in.) of the landing. 

2.13.2.1.2 Collapsible car gates shall not be 
power opened to a distance exceeding one-third of the 
clear gate opening, and in no case more than 250 mm 
(10 in.). 

2.13.2.2 Power Opening of Hoistway Doors. Power 
opening of a hoistway door shall conform to 2.13.2.2.1 
through 2.13.2.2.3. 

2.13.2.2.1 Power opening shall occur only at the 
landing where the car is stopping, leveling, or at rest, 
and shall start only when the car is within the landing 
zone where an automatic car-leveling device is provided, 
except that on elevators with static control, opening shall 
not start imtil the car is within 300 mm (12 in.) of the 
landing. 

2.13.2.2.2 Power opening shall be permitted to 
be initiated automatically through control circuits, pro- 
vided that the car is being automatically stopped or 
leveled, and that, when stopping under normal 
operating conditions, the car shall be at rest or substan- 
tially level with the landing before the hoistway door 
is fully opened. 

2.13.2.2.3 Sequence opening of vertically sliding 
hoistway doors and adjacent car doors or gates shall 
comply with 2.13.6. 

2.13.3 Power Closing 

2.13.3.1 Power Closing or Automatic Self-Closing of 
Car Doors or Gates Where Used With Manually Operated 
or Self-Closing Hoistway Doors 

2.13.3.1.1 Where a car door or gate of an auto- 
matic or continuous-pressure operation passenger ele- 
vator is closed by power, or is of the automatically 



released self-closing type, and faces a manually operated 
or self-closing hoistway door, the closing of the car door 
or gate shall not be initiated imless the hoistway door 
is in the closed position, and the closing mecharusm 
shall be so designed that the force necessary to prevent 
closing of a horizontally sliding car door or gate from 
rest is not more than 135 N (30 Ibf). 

2.13.3.1.2 Requirement 2.13.3.1.1 does not apply 
where a car door or gate is closed by power through 
continuous pressure of a door closing switch, or of the 
car operating device, and where the release of the closing 
switch or operating device will cause the car door or 
gate to stop or to stop and reopen. 

2.13.3.2 Power Closing of Hoistway Doors and Car 
Doors or Gates by Continuous-Pressure Means. Hori- 
zontally or vertically sliding hoistway doors with manu- 
ally closed, or power-operated, or power-closed car 
doors or gates shall be permitted to be closed by continu- 
ous-pressure means, subject to the requirements of 
2.13.3.2.1 through 2.13.3.2.5. 

2.13.3.2.1 The release of the closing means shall 
cause the hoistway door, and a power-operated or 
power-closed car door or gate, to stop or to stop and 
reopen. 

2.13.3.2.2 The operation of the closing means at 
any landing shall not close the hoistway door at any 
other landing, nor the car door or gate when the elevator 
car is at any other landing. 

2.13.3.2.3 Any closing means at a landing shall 
close only that hoistway door and the car door or gate 
at the side where such means is located. 

2.13.3.2.4 For elevators having more than one 
hoistway opening at any landing level, a separate closing 
means shall be provided in the car for each car door or 
gate and its adjacent hoistway door, except that a sepa- 
rate closing means need not be furnished for a horizon- 
tally sliding hoistway door and adjacent car door or gate 
that conform to 2.13.4. 

2.13.3.2.5 For sequence closing of vertically slid- 
ing hoistway doors and adjacent car doors or gates, see 
2.13.6. 

2.13.3.3 Power Closing of Horizontally Sliding 
Hoistway Doors and Horizontally Sliding Car Doors or 
Gates by Momentary Pressure or by Automatic Means. 

Power closing by momentary pressure or by automatic 
means shall be permitted only for automatic or continu- 
ous-pressure operation elevators. The closing of the 
doors shall be subject to the requirements of 2.13.3.3.1 
and 2.13.3.3.2. 



2.13.3.3,1 

to 2.13.4. 



The closing of the doors shall conform 



49 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.13.3.3.2 A momentary pressure switch or but- 
ton shall be provided in the car, the operation of which 
shall cause the doors to stop or to stop and reopen. 
The switch or button shall be identified as required by 

2.26.12. 

2.13.3.4 Power Closing of Vertically Sliding Hoistway 
Doors and Vertically Sliding Car Doors or Gates by 
Momentary Pressure or by Automatic Means. Power 
closing by momentary pressure or by automatic means 
shall be permitted only for automatic or continuous- 
pressure operation elevators. 

Vertically sliding hoistway doors used with vertically 
sliding power-operated car doors or gates closed by 
momentary pressure or automatic means, shall conform 
to the requirements of 2.13.3.4.1 through 2.13.3.4.5. 

2.13.3.4.1 A warning bell or other audible signal 
shall be provided on the car, that shall start to sound at 
least 5 s prior to the time the car door or gate starts to 
close and shall continue to sound until the hoistway 
door is substantially closed. When the doors are closed 
by a closing switch in the car, the 5 s time interval shall 
be permitted to be omitted. 

2.13.3.4.2 Sequence closing of the hoistway door 
and adjacent car door or gate shall be provided and 
shall conform to 2.13.6. Sequence closing is not required 
when a biparting vertically sliding hoistway door faces 
a biparting vertically sliding car door or gate. 

2.13.3.4.3 The car door or gate shall be equipped 
with a reopening device conforming to 2.13.5. 

2.13.3.4.4 A momentary pressure switch or but- 
ton shall be provided in the car and at each landing, 
that, when operated, shall cause the car door or gate 
and the hoistway door at the landing to stop or to stop 
and reopen. 

2.13.3.4.5 The average closing speed shall not 
exceed 0.3 m/s (1 ft/s) for a vertically sliding counter- 
weighted hoistway door or for each panel of a biparting 
counterbalanced hoistway door or car gate, and shall 
not exceed 0.6 m/s (2 ft/s) for a vertically sliding coun- 
terweighted car door or gate. 

2.13.4 Closing Limitations for Power-Operated 
Horizontally Sliding Hoistway Doors and 
Horizontally Sliding Car Doors or Gates 

2.13.4.1 Where Required. Where a power-operated 
horizontally sliding hoistway door or car door /gate or 
both is closed by momentary pressure or by automatic 
means (see 2.13.3.3), or is closed simultaneously with 
another door or car door /gate or both from one continu- 
ous-pressure means (see 2.13.3.2.3 and 2.13.3.2.4), the 
closing mechanism shall be designed and installed to 
conform to 2.13.4.2 and the reopening device shall be 
designed and installed to conform to 2.13.5. 



2.13.4.2 Closing Mechanism 

2.13.4.2.1 Kinetic Energy 

(a) Where the hoistway door and the car door /gate 
are closed in such a manner that stopping either one 
manually will stop both, the kinetic energy of the closing 
door system shall be based upon the sum of the hoistway 
and the car door weights, as well as all parts rigidly 
connected thereto, including the rotational inertia effects 
of the door operator and the connecting transmission 
to the door panels. 

(b) Where a reopening device conforming to 2.13.5 
is used, the closing door system shall conform to the 
following requirements: 

(1) The kinetic energy computed for the actual clos- 
ing speed at any point in the Code zone distance defined 
by 2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 23 J (17 ft-lbf). 

(2) The kinetic energy computed for the average 
closing speed as determined in accordance with 
2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 10 J (7.37 ft-lbf). 

(c) Where a reopening device is not used, or has been 
rendered inoperative (see 2.13.5), the closing door sys- 
tem shall conform to the following requirements: 

(1) The kinetic energy computed for the actual clos- 
ing speed at any point in the Code zone distance defined 
by 2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 8 J (6 ft-lbf). 

(2) The kinetic energy computed for the average 
closing speed within the Code zone distance (see 
2.13.4.2.2), or in any exposed opening width, including 
the last increment of door travel, shall not exceed 3.5 J 
(2.5 ft-lbf). 

2.13.4.2.2 Door Travel in the Code Zone Distance 

(a) For all side sliding doors using single or multiple 
speed panels, the Code zone distance shall be taken as 
the horizontal distance from a point 50 nun (2 in.) away 
from the open jamb to a point 50 mm (2 in.) away from 
the opposite jamb. 

(b) For all center-opening sliding doors using single 
or multiple speed panels, the Code zone distance shall 
be taken as the horizontal distance from a point 25 mm 
(1 in.) away from the open jamb to a point 25 mm (1 in.) 
from the center meeting point of the doors. 

(c) The average closing speed shall be determined by 
measuring the time required for the leading edge of the 
door to travel the Code zone distance. 

2.13.4.2.3 Door Force. The force necessary to pre- 
vent closing of the hoistway door (or the car door or 
gate if power operated) from rest shall not exceed 135 N 
(30 Ibf) (see 2.13.3.1). This force shall be measured on 
the leading edge of the door with the door at any point 
between one-third and two-thirds of its travel. 

2.13.4.2.4 Data Plate. A data plate conforming to 
2.16.3.3 shaU be attached to the power door operator or 
to the car crosshead and shall contain the following 
information: 



# 



50 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(a) minimum door closing time in seconds for the 
doors to travel the Code zone distance as specified in 
2.13.4.2.2 corresponding to the kinetic energy limits 
specified in 2.13.4.2.1(b)(2) 

(b) minimum door closing time in seconds for the 
doors to travel the Code zone distance as specified in 
2.13.4.2.2 corresponding to the kinetic energy limits 
specified in 2.13.4.2.1(c)(2), if applicable [see 
2.27.3.1.6(e)] 

(c) where heavier hoistway doors are used at certain 
floors, the minimum door closing time in seconds corres- 
ponding to the kinetic energy limits specified in 
2.13.4.2.1(b)(2) and 2,13.4.2.1(c)(2), if applicable, for the 
corresponding floors shall be included on the data plate 

2.13.5 Reopening Device for Power-Operated Car 
Doors or Gates 

2.13.5.1 Where required by 2.13.3.4 or 2.13.4, a 
power-operated car door shall be provided with a 
reopening device that will function to stop and reopen 
a car door and the adjacent landing door sufficiently to 
permit passenger transfer in the event that the car door 
or gate is obstructed while closing. If the closing kinetic 
energy is reduced to 3.5 J (2.5 ft-lbf ) or less, the reopening 
device shall be permitted to be rendered inoperative. 
The reopening device used shall be effective for substan- 
tially the full vertical opening of the door (see 2.13.4.2). 

2.13.5.2 For center-opening doors, the reopening 
device shall be so designed and installed that the 
obstruction of either door panel when closing will cause 
the reopening device to function. 

2.13.5.3 For vertically sliding doors or gates, 
reopening devices shall respond to any obstruction 
within the width of the opening to a point 125 mm (5 in.) 
maximum from each side of the opening. 

2.13.5.4 Where Phase I Emergency Recall Opera- 
tion by a fire alarm initiating device (see 2.27.3.2.3) is not 
provided, door reopening devices that can be affected by 
smoke or flame shall be rendered inoperative after the 
doors have been held open for 20 s. Door closing for 
power-operated doors shall conform to 2.13.5. 

2.13.6 Sequence Operation for Power-Operated 
Hoistway Doors With Car Doors or Gates 

2.13.6.1 Where Required 

2.13.6.1.1 Sequence opening and closing shall 
be provided between hoistway doors and car doors or 
gates on passenger elevators and freight elevators per- 
mitted to carry passengers (see 2.16.4) when the elevator 
is equipped with power-operated vertically sliding 
slide-up-to-open type car doors or gates and 

(a) power-operated vertically sliding biparting coun- 
terbalanced hoistway doors; or 



(h) power-operated vertically sliding counter- 
weighted hoistway doors that slide down to open. 

2.13.6.1.2 Sequence opening and/or closing 
shall be permitted for vertically sliding power-operated 
hoistway doors and car doors or gates that are closed 
by continuous pressure means. 

2.13.6.2 Operating Requirements. The sequence 
operation of a hoistway door and adjacent power-oper- 
ated vertically sliding car door or gate shall conform to 
2.13.6.2.1 and 2.13.6.2.2. 

2.13.6.2.1 In opening, the hoistway door shall 
be opened at least two-thirds of its travel before the car 
door or gate can start to open. 

2.13.6.2.2 In closing, the car door or gate shall be 
closed at least two-thirds of its travel before the hoistway 
door can start to close. 

SECTION 2.14 

CAR ENCLOSURES, CAR DOORS AND GATES, AND 

CAR ILLUMINATION 

2.14.1 Passenger and Freight Enclosures, General 

2.14.1.1 Enclosure Required. Elevators shall be 
equipped with a car enclosure. 

2.14.1.2 Securing of Enclosures 

2.14.1.2.1 The enclosure shall be securely fas- 
tened to the car platform and so supported that it cannot 
loosen or become displaced in ordinary service, on the 
application of the car safety, on buffer engagement, or 
the application of the emergency brake (see 2.19). 

2.14.1.2.2 The car enclosure shall be so con- 
structed that removable portions cannot be dismantled 
from within the car. 

2.14.1.2.3 Enclosure linings, decorative panels, 
light fixtures, suspended ceilings, and other apparatus 
or equipment attached within the car enclosure shall be 
securely fastened and so supported that they will not 
loosen or become displaced in ordinary service, on car 
safety application, or on buffer engagement. 

2.14.1.2.4 Panels attached to the car enclosiare 
for decorative or other purposes shall either 

(a) not be unfastened from inside the car by the use 
of common tools; or 

(h) be permitted to be removed from inside the car 
when perforations, exceeding that which would reject 
a ball 13 mrn (0.5 in.) in diameter, in the enclosure used 
for panel hanging or support have permanent means to 
prevent straight through passage beyond the running 
clearance. 

2.14.1.3 Strength and Deflection of Enclosure 
Walls. The enclosure walls shall be designed and 



51 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



installed to withstand a force of 330 N (75 Ibf ) applied 
horizontally at any point on the walls of the enclosure 
without permanent deformation and so that the deflec- 
tion will not reduce the rimning clearance below the 
minimum specified in 2.5.1, nor cause the deflection to 
exceed 25 mm (1 in.). 

2.14.1.4 Number of Compartments in Passenger and 
Freight Elevator Cars. Cars shall not have more than 
two compartments. Where elevators have two compart- 
ments, one shall be located above the other, and the 
elevator shall conform to 2.14.1.4.1 through 2.14.1.4.6. 

2.14.1.4.1 The elevator shall be used exclusively 
for passengers or exclusively for freight at any one time. 
If freight is to be carried in only one compartment, means 
shall be provided to lock the other compartment out of 
service. 

2.14.1.4.2 Each compartment shall conform to 
the requirements of this Section, except that a trap door 
in the floor of the upper compartment shall provide 
access to the top emergency exit for the lower com- 
partment. 

2.14.1.4.3 Where either or both compartments 
are intended for passenger service, the minimum rated 
load for each compartment shall conform to 2.16.1. 

Where one compartment is intended for freight use, 
its minimum rated load shall conform to 2.16.1 or shall 
be based on the freight loads to be handled, if greater 
than the minimum rated load required by 2.16.1. 

Where both compartments are used exclusively for 
freight, the minimum rated load of each compartment 
shall conform to 2.16.2. 

The rated load of the elevator shall be the sum of the 
rated loads of the individual compartments. 

2.14.1.4.4 An emergency stop switch, where 
required by 2.26.2.5, shall be provided in each compart- 
ment, and these emergency stop switches shall be so 
connected that the car cannot run unless both are in the 
run position. 

2.14.1.4.5 An in-car stop switch, where required 
by 2.26.2.21, shall be provided in each compartment, 
and these switches shall be so connected that the car 
cannot run imless both are in the run position. 

2.14.1.4.6 All hoistway doors shall be closed and 
locked and the car doors for each compartment closed 
before the car can be operated. 

2.14.1.5 Top Emergency Exits. An emergency exit 
with a cover shall be provided in the top of all elevator 
cars, except cars in partially enclosed hoistways (see 
2.14.1.5.2). 

2.14.1.5.1 Top emergency exits shall conform to 
the following requirements: 



(a) The top emergency exit opening shall have an area 
of not less than 0.26 m^ (400 in.^) and shall measure not 
less than 400 mm (16 in.) on any side. 

(b) The top emergency exit and suspended ceiling 
opening, if any, shall be so located as to provide a clear 
passageway, unobstructed by fixed equipment located 
in or on top of the car. Equipment is permitted directly 
above the exit opening, provided that 

(1) it is not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) above the 
top of the car; or 

(2) the exit is located to allow unobstructed passage 
of a parallelepiped volume measuring 300 mm x 
500 mm by 1 500 mm (12 in. x 20 in. by 59 in.) at 
an angle not less than 60 deg from the horizontal (see 
Nonmandatory Appendix C). 

(c) The top emergency exit cover shall open outward. 
It shall be hinged or securely attached with a chain when 
in both the open and closed positions. If a chain is used, 
it shall be not more than 300 mm (12 in.) in length and 
have a factor of safety of not less than 5. The exit cover 
shall only be openable from the top of the car, where it 
shall be openable without the use of special tools. The 
exit cover of the lower compartment of a multideck 
elevator shall be openable from both compartments. On 
elevators with two compartments, if the emergency exit 
of the lower compartment does not open directly into 
the upper compartment, a guarded passageway shall be 
provided between the lower compartment roof and the 
upper compartment floor. 

(d) The movable portion (exit panel) of the suspended 
ceiling that is below the top exit opening shall be 
restrained from falling. It shall be permitted to be hinged 
upward or downward, provided that the exit permits a 
clear opening with the top exit opening. 

(DA minimum clear headroom of 2 030 mm (80 in.) 
above the car floor shall be maintained when down- 
ward-swinging suspended ceiling exit panels are used. 

(2) Upward-opening suspended ceiling exit panels 
shall be restrained from closing when in use and shall 
not diminish the clear opening area of the corresponding 
top exit opening. 

(3) The movable portion and the fixed portion of 
a suspended ceiling shall not contain lamps that could 
be shattered by the rescue operation using the top emer- 
gency exit. The movable portion of the suspended ceiling 
shall be permitted to contain light fixtures connected to 
the stationary portion of the suspended ceiling wiring 
by means of a plug and socket or by flexible armored 
wiring. Flexible wiring shall not be used to support or 
restrain the exit opening in the suspended ceiling in the 
open position. 

(e) Where elevators installed in enclosed hoistways 
are provided with special car top treatments such as 
domed or shrouded canopies, the exit shall be made 
accessible, including the car top refuge space as specified 
in 2.4.12. 



52 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(f) Immediately adjacent to the top emergency exit 
there shall be a space available for standing when the 
emergency exit cover is open. This space shall be permit- 
ted to include a portion of the refuge area (see 2.4.12). 
All exit covers shall be provided with a car top emer- 
gency exit electrical device (see 2.26.2.18) that will pre- 
vent operation of the elevator car if the exit cover is 
open more than 50 mm (2 in.), and the device shaU be 
so designed that it 

(1) is positively opened 

(2) cannot be closed accidentally when the cover is 
removed 

(3) must be manually reset from the top of the car 
and only after the cover is within 50 mm (2 in.) of the 
jfully closed position 

(4:) shall be protected against mechanical damage 

2.14.1.5.2 On elevators in partially enclosed 
hoistways, means shall be provided to facilitate emer- 
gency evacuation of passengers. Such means shall not 
require a top emergency exit. A top emergency exit shall 
be permitted. 

2.14.1.6 Car Enclosure Tops. Tops of car enclosures 
shall be so designed and installed as to be capable of 
sustairung a load of 135 kg (300 lb) on any area 600 mm 
X 600 mm (24 in. x 24 in.), or 45 kg (100 lb) applied to any 
point, without permcinent deformation. The resulting 
deflection under these loads shall be limited to prevent 
damage to any equipment, devices, or lighting assem- 
blies fastened to or adjacent to the car enclosure top. 

2.14.1.7 Railing and Equipment on Top of Cars 

(05S) 2.14.1.7.1 A standard railing conforming to 

2.10.2 shall be provided on the outside perimeter of the 
car top on all sides where tlie perpendicular distance 
between the edges of the car top and the adjacent 
hoistway enclosure exceeds 300 mm (12 in.) horizontal 
clearance. The forces specified in 2.10.2.4 shall not deflect 
the railing beyond the perimeter of the car top. 

The top-of-car enclosure, or other surface specified 
by the elevator installer, shall be the working surface 
referred to in 2.10.2. 

2.14.1 .7.2 A working platform or equipment that 
is not required for the operation of the elevator or its 
appliances, except where specifically provided herein, 
shall not be located above the top of an elevator car. 

2.14.1.7.3 Devices that detect unauthorized 
access to the top of the car shall be permitted. These 
devices shall orUy be permitted to initiate an alarm. 
Audible alarms shall not exceed 90 dBA measured 1 m 
from the source. 

2.14.1.8 Glass in Elevator Cars 

2.14.1.8.1 Where enclosures include panels of 
glass, or transparent or translucent plastic, the panels 
shall 



(a) be coxistructed of laminated glass that complies 
with the requirements of 16 CFR Part 1201, Sectioris 
1201.1 and 1201.2; or be cor\structed of laminated glass, 
safety glass, or safety plastic that comply with CAN/ 
CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, or CAN/CGSB-12.12, 
whichever is applicable (see Part 9) 

(h) be provided with a handrail or framing designed 
to guard the opening should the panel become detached, 
where wall panels are wider than 300 mm (12 in.) 

(c) be moimted in the structure so that the assembly 
shall withstand the required elevator tests without dam- 
age (see 2.14.1.2) 

2.14.1.8.2 Glass used for lining walls or ceilings 
shall conform to 2.14.1.8.1(a) and (c), except that tem- 
pered glass shall be permitted, provided that 

(a) it conforms to ANSI Z97.1, 16 CFR Part 1201, Sec- 
tions 1201.1 and 1201.2, or CAN /CGSB-12.1, whichever 
is applicable (see Part 9) 

(h) the glass is not subjected to further treatment such 
as sandblasting, etching, heat treatment, painting, etc., 
that could alter the original properties of the glass 

(c) the glass is bonded to a nonpolymeric coating, 
sheeting, or film backing having a physical integrity to 
hold the fragments when the glass breaks 

id) the glass is tested and conforms to the acceptance 
criteria for laminated glass as specified in ANSI Z97.1, or 
16 CFR Part 1201, Section 1201.4, or CAN/CGSB-12.11, 
whichever is applicable (see Part 9) 

2.14.1.8.3 In jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC, 
type 3C film reinforced silvered mirror glass that con- 
forms to CAN/CGSB-12.5 shall be permitted for lining 
walls or ceilings. 

2.14.1.8.4 Markings as specified in the applicable 
glazing standard shall be on each separate piece, and 
shall remain visible after installation. 

2.14.1.9 Equipment Inside Cars 

2.14.1.9.1 Apparatus or equipment not used in 
connection with the function or use of the elevator shall 
not be installed inside of any elevator car, except as 
follows: 

(a) Support rails (handrails) are permitted. 

(h) Fastening devices for padded protective linings 
are permitted. 

(c) Lift hooks, conveyor tracks, and support beams 
for freight handling, moimted in the ceiling of passenger 
elevator, shall clear the car floor to a height of 2 450 mm 
(96 in.) (see 2.16.9). 

(d) Picture frames, graphic display boards, plaques, 
and other similar visual displays shall be mounted to 
withstand the required elevator tests without damage. 
All edges shall be beveled or rounded. The material 
shaU conform to 2.14.1.2 and 2.14.2.1. When attached to 
the car wall less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) above the floor. 



53 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



projections from the car wall, excluding support rails, 
shall not be greater than 38 mm (1.5 in.). 

(e) Conveyor tracks shall be permitted in freight ele- 
vators cars. 

(f) Heating equipment, ventilating fans, and air-con- 
ditioning equipment, if used, shall be securely fastened 
in place and located above the car ceiling or outside the 
enclosure. 

2.14.1.9.2 Passenger car floors shall have no pro- 
jections or depressions greater than 6 mm (0.25 in.). 

2.14.1.10 Side Emergency Exits. Side emergency 
exits are prohibited. 

2.14.2 Passenger-Car Enclosures 

2.14.2.1 Material for Car Enclosures, Enclosure Lin- 
ings, and Floor Coverings. All materials exposed to the 
car interior and the hoistway shall be metal, glass, or 
shall conform to 2.14.2.1.1 through 2.14.2.1.6. 

(ED) 2.14.2.1.1 Materials in their end-use configura- 

tion, other than those covered by 2.14.2.1.2 through 
2.14.2.1.6 shall conform to the following requirements, 
based on the tests conducted in accordance with the 
requirements of ASTM E 84, ANSI/UL 723, NFPA 252, 
or CAN/ULC-S102.2, whichever is applicable: 

(a) flame spread rating of to 75 

(b) smoke development of to 450 

(07) 2.14.2.1.2 In jursidictions enforcing the NBCC, 

where the building is designated by the building code as 
a high building, materials in their end-use configuration 
shall have 

(a) a flame spread rating for walls and ceiling of to 
25 with smoke development of to 100 based on the 
test conducted in accordance with the requirements of 
CAN/ULC-S102 

(b) a flame spread rating for floor surfaces of to 300 
with smoke development of to 300, based on the test 
conducted in accordance with the requirements of 
CAN/ULC-S102.2 

(ED) 2.14.2.1.3 Napped, tufted, woven, looped, and 

similar materials in their end-use configuration on car 
enclosure walls shall conform to 8.3.7 or the NBCC and 
NFCC, whichever is applicable. The enclosure walls to 
which this material is attached shall conform to 
2.14.2.1.1. 

2.14.2.1.4 Padded protective lirungs, for tempo- 
rary use in passenger cars during the handling of freight, 
shall be of materials conforming to either 2.14.2.1.1 or 
2.14.2.1.3, whichever is applicable. The protective lining 
shall clear the floor by not less than 100 mm (4 in.). 

2.14.2.1.5 Floor covering, under layment, and its 
adhesive shall have a critical radiant flux of not less than 
0.45 W/cm^, as measured by ASTM E 648 or conform 
to the requirements of the NBCC and ULC standard 
CAN/ULC-S102.2, whichever is appHcable. 



2.14.2.1.6 Handrails, operating devices, ventilat- 
ing devices, signal fixtures, audio and visual commtmi- 
cation devices, and their housings are not required to 
conform to 2.14.2.1.1 through 2.14.2.1.4. 

2.14.2.2 Openings Prohibited. Openings or hinged 
or removable panels in an enclosure are prohibited, other 
than as required for the following: 

(a) signal, operating, and communication equipment 

(b) entrances 

(c) vision panels 

(d) top emergency exit 

(e) ventilation 

(/) access panels for cleaning of glass on observation (055) 
elevators (see 2.14.2.6) 

(g) equipment access panels for maintenance and (OSS) 
inspection of equipment shall conform to the following 
requirements (see also 2.7.5.1.4): 

(1) be of hinged type. 

(2) open only into the car. 

(3) be provided with a lock so arranged that the 
door shall be openable from inside the car only by a 
specially shaped removable key. Locks shall be so 
designed that they cannot be opened from the inside by 
the use of ordinary tools or instruments. Keys shall be 
Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 

(4) be provided with electric contacts that conform 
to 2.14.4.2.3(b) through (e) and 2.26.2.35, and are located 
so as to be inaccessible from the inside of the car. When 
opened, the contact shall cause power to be removed 
from the driving-machine motor and brake. 

(5) be of the same material and construction as 
required for the enclosure. 

2.14.2.3 Ventilation 

2.14.2.3.1 Natural ventilation openings con- 
forming to the following shall be provided in car enclo- 
sures: 

(a) Openings exposed to the inside of the car shall 
not be located in the portion of the enclosure walls 
extending from a point 300 mm (12 in.) above the floor 
to a point 1 825 mm (72 in.) above the floor. 

(b) Openings less than 300 mm (12 in.) above the floor 
shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter and be 
guarded to prevent straight- through passage. 

(c) Openings above the 1 825 mm (72 in.) level shall 
reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter and be guarded 
to prevent straight-through passage. 

(d) Openings in the car ceiling shall be protected and 
shall conform to 2.14.1.6. 

(e) The total area of natural ventilation openings shall 
be not less than 3,5% of the inside car floor area divided 
equally between the bottom and top of the car enclosure. 

(f) The total unrestricted opening in or around the 
car doors or gates shall be permitted to be included as 
part of the total natural ventilation required. 



54 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(g) The unrestricted opening provided by forced ven- 
tilation systems shall be permitted to be part of the 
natural ventilation area on the part of the car in which 
it is located. 

2.14.2.3.2 Ventilating fans or blowers, if used, 
shall be located above the car ceiling or outside the 
enclosure and shall be securely fastened in place. 

2.14.2.3.3 Forced ventilation conforming to the 
following shall be provided on observation elevators 
with glass walls exposed to direct sunlight: 

(a) There shall be a minimum air handling capacity 
to provide one air change per minute based on net inside 
car volume. 

(b) An auxiliary power source capable of providing 
the miiumum air handling capacity for a continuous 
period of at least 1 h shall be provided on each eleva- 
tor car. 

NOTE (2.14.2.3.3): Special consideration should be given to eleva- 
tors such as observation and parking garage elevators, when they 
are exposed to the elements. In extreme cases, emergency power 
may be required for this purpose. 

2.14.2.4 Headroom in Elevator Cars. A minimum 
clear headroom of 2 025 mm (80 in.) above the car floor 
shall be provided. 

2.14.2.5 Vision Panels. Vision panels are not 
required, but where used, shall 

(a) be of a total area of not more than 0.1 m^ (155 in.^) 
and contain no single glass panel having a width 
exceeding 150 mm (6 in.) 

(b) be provided with wire-glass panels or laminated- 
glass panels conforming to 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/ 
CGSB-12.11, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). Mark- 
ings as specified in the applicable standard shall be on 
each separate piece of laminated glass, and shall remain 
visible after installation. 

(c) be located in the car door or in the front return 
panel of the car enclosure 

(d) have the inside face of a car door vision panel, 
grille, or cover located substantially flush with the inside 
surface of the car door 

(e) have fasteners that are located on the hoistway 
side. It shall not be possible to remove the fasteners with 
common tools. 

2.14.2.6 Access Panels. Nonremovable sliding or 
swing panels shall be permitted for access to the car or 
hoistway transparent enclosures for cleaning purposes. 
Such panels or doors shall 

(a) if hinged, open only into the car 

(b) be provided with cylinder-type locks, having not 
less than a five-pin or a five-disc combination, or a lock 
that provides equivalent security, arranged so that they 
can be unlocked with a key ilrom the car side, and the 
key shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1) 

(c) be openable by hand from the hoistway side 



(d) be self-locking 

(e) be provided with a device arranged so that the 
panel must be in the closed and locked position (see 
2.26.2.31) before the elevator can operate 

(f) have a bottom edge a minimum of 1 070 mm 
(42 in.) from the floor in cases where the adjacent 
hoistway wall is more than 140 mm {53 in.) from the 
car enclosure or where there is no adjacent hoistway wall 

2.14.3 Freight-Car Enclosure 

2.14.3.1 Enclosure Material. Enclosures shall be of 
metal without perforations to a height of not less than 
1 825 mm (72 in.) above the floor. 

Above the 1 825 mm (72 in.) level, the walls and top 
of the enclosure shall be metal with or without perfora- 
tions, except that portion of the enclosure waU in front 
of and extending 150 mm (6 in.) on each side of the 
counterweight, that shall be without perforations. 

Perforated portions of enclosures shall reject a ball 
25 mm (1 in.) in diameter. 

Freight elevators that are permitted to carry passen- 
gers (see 2.16.4) shall conform to 2.14,2.2. 

2.14.3.2 Openings in Car Tops. Hinged or remov- (055) 
able panels shall not be provided in car tops, except 
those required for emergency exit, and for equipment 
access (see 2.7.5.1.4). 

2.14.3.3 Ventilation. If ventilating grilles or louvers 
are provided in the enclosure below the 1 825 mm (72 in.) 
level, they shall be located not more than 300 nun (12 in.) 
above the floor and shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in 
diameter. 

2.14.4 Passenger and Freight Car Doors and Gates, 
General Requirements 

2.14.4.1 Where Required. A door shall be provided 
at each entrance to a passenger car and a door or gate 
shall be provided at each entrance to a freight car. 

2.14.4.2 Door and Gate Electric Contacts and Door 
lnterlocl<s 

2.14.4.2.1 Each car door or gate shall be provided 
with a door or gate electric contact conforming to 
2.26.2.15, 2.14.4.2.3, and 2.14.4.2.5, or a car door interlock 
conforming to 2.26.2.28, 2.14.4.2.4, and 2.14.4.2.5. 

2.14.4.2.2 A car door interlock shall be 
required for 

(a) car doors of elevators where the clearance between 
the loading side of the car platform and hoistway enclo- 
sure exceeds the maximum specified in 2.5.1.5 

(b) car doors of elevators that face an imenclosed por- 
tion of the hoistway during the travel of the car 



55 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.14.4.2.3 Car door and gate electric contacts 
shall 

(a) prevent operation of the driving machine when 
the car door or gate is not in the closed position, except 
under one of the following conditions: 

(1) when a hoistway access switch is operated (see 
2.12.7) 

(2) when a car-leveling or truck-zoning device is 
operated (see 2,26.1.6) 

(3) when a bypass switch is activated (see 2.26.1.5) 

(b) be positively opened by a lever or other device 
attached to and operated by the door or gate 

(c) be maintained in the open position by the action 
of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by 
both, or by positive mechanical means 

(d) be so designed or located that they shall not be 
accessible from within the car 

(e) not utilize mercury tube switches 

2.14.4.2.4 Car door interlocks shall 

(a) prevent operation of the driving machine when 
the car door is not in the closed and locked position, 
except 

(1) when the car is within the unlocking zone for 
that entrance 

(2) under the conditions specified in 2.14.4.2.3(a) 

(b) prevent opening of the car door from within the 
car, except when the car is in the unlocking zone for 
that entrance 

(c) hold the car door in the locked position by means 
of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by 
both, or by means of a positive linkage 

(d) be so located that they are not accessible from 
within the car when the car doors are closed 

(e) be designed in accordance with 2.12.2.4 

2.14.4.2.5 Each type and make of car door elec- 
tric contact, car gate electric contact, and car door inter- 
lock shall 

(a) be type tested in conformance with 2.12.4.1 

(b) be listed /certified in conformance with 2.12.4.2 

(c) be marked in conformance with 2.12.4.3 

2.14.4.3 Type and Material for Doors. Doors shall 
be of the horizontally or vertically sliding type and of 
material conforming to 2.14.2.1. 

2.14.4.4 Type of Gates. Gates, where permitted, 
shall be of the horizontally sliding or vertically sliding 
type, conforming to 2.14.4.7, 2.14.5, and 2.14.6. 

2.14.4.5 Location 

2.14.4.5.1 Doors or gates for automatic or contin- 
uous-pressure operation elevators, except freight eleva- 
tors equipped with horizontally swinging doors and 
not accessible to the general public, located in factories, 
warehouses, garages, and similar buildings, shall be so 
located that the distance from the face of the car door 



or gate to the face of the hoistway door shall be not 
more than the following: 

(a) where a swinging-type hoistway door and a car 
gate are used, 100 mm (4 in.) 

(b) where a swinging-type hoistway door and a car 
door are used, 140 mm {5.5 in.) 

(c) where a sliding-type hoistway door and a car door 
or gate are used, 140 mm {5.5 in.) 

(d) on freight elevators that are equipped with hori- 
zontally swinging doors and that are not accessible to 
the general public (i.e., located in factories, warehouses, 
garages, and similar buildings), the distance specified 
in 2.14.4.5.1(a), (b), and (c) shall be not more than 165 mm 
(6.5 in.) 

2.14.4.5.2 The distances specified shall be mea- 
sured as follows: 

(a) where a multisection car door and multisection 
hoistway door are used, or where one of these doors is 
multisection and the other is single section, between the 
sections of the car door and the hoistway door nearest 
to each other 

(b) where a multisection car door and a swinging- 
type hoistway door are used, between the hoistway door 
and the section of the car door farthest from it 

(c) where a car gate is used, between the car gate and 
that section of the hoistway door nearest to the car gate 

2.14.4.6 Stren^h of Doors, Gates, and Their Guides, 
Guide Shoes, Tracks, and Hangers. Doors and gates 
and their guides, guide shoes, tracks, and hangers shall 
be so designed, constructed, and installed that when the 
fully closed door or gate is subjected to a force of 335 N 
{75 Ibf), applied on an area 300 mm (12 in.) square at 
right angles to and approximately at the center of the 
door or gate, it will not deflect beyond the line of the 
car sill. 

When subjected to a force of 1 100 N (250 Ibf) similarly 
applied, doors and vertically sliding gates shall not 
break or be permanently deformed and shall not be 
displaced from their guides or tracks. 

Where multisection doors or gates are used, each 
panel shall withstand the forces specified. 

2.14.4.7 Vertically Sliding Doors and Gates. Verti- 
cally sliding doors or gates shall conform to 2.14.4.7.1 
through 2.14.4.7.5. 

2.14.4.7.1 They shall be of the balanced coimter- 
weighted type or the biparting counterbalanced type. 

2.14.4.7.2 Gates shall be constructed of wood or 
metal, and shall be of a design that will reject a ball 
50 mm (2 in.) in diameter, except that if multisection 
vertical lift gates are used, the panel shall be designed 
to reject a ball 10 mm (0.375 in.) in diameter. 

2.14.4.7.3 Doors shall be constructed of material 
conforming to 2.14.2.1. 



56 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B4A-07 



• 



2.14.4.7.4 Doors or gates shall guard the full 
width of the car entrance openings, and their height 
shall conform to 2.14.5.4 or 2.14.6.2.3. 

2.14.4.7.5 Balanced counterweighted doors or 
gates shall be either single or multiple section, and shall 
slide either up or down to open, conforming to 2.14.5.3 
and 2.14.6.2. 

2.14.4.8 Weights for Closing or Balancing Doors or 
Gates. Weights used to close or balance doors or gates 
shall be located outside the car enclosure and shall be 
guided or restrained to prevent them from coming out 
of their runway. 

The bottom of the guides or other restraining means 
shall be so constructed as to retain the weights if the 
weight suspension means breaks. 

Weights that extend beyond the hoistway side of the 
car door or gate guide rail shall be guarded to prevent 
accidental contact. 

2.14.4.9 Factor of Safety for Suspension Members. 

Suspension members of vertically sliding car doors or 
gates, and of weights used with car doors or gates, shall 
have a factor of safety of not less than 5. At least two 
independent suspension means shall be provided so that 
the failure of one suspension means shall not permit the 
car doors or gates to fall; or a safety device shall be 
provided to prevent the doors or gates from falling, if 
the suspension means fails. 

2.14.4.10 Power-Operated and Power-Opened or 
Power-Closed Doors or Gates. The operation of power- 
operated and power-opened or power-closed doors or 
gates shall conform to 2.13. 

2.14.4.11 Closed Position of Car Doors or Gates. 

Car doors or gates shall be considered to be in the closed 
position under the following conditions: 

(a) for horizontally sliding doors or gates, when the 
clear open space between the leading edge of the door 
or gate and the nearest face of the jamb does not exceed 
50 mm (2 in.) except where car doors are provided with 
a car door interlock(s), 10 mm (0.375 in.) 

(b) for vertically sliding counterweighted doors or 
gates, when the clear open space between the leading 
edge of the door or gate and the car platform sill does 
not exceed 50 mm (2 in.) 

(c) for horizontally sliding center-opening doors, or 
vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, 
when the door panels are within 50 mm (2 in.) of contact 
with each other, except where horizontally sliding cen- 
ter-opening car doors are provided with a car door inter- 
locks), 10 mm (0.375 in.) 

2.14.5 Passenger Car Doors 

2.14.5.1 Number of Entrances Permitted. Thereshall 
be not more than two entrances to the car, except in 



existing buildings where structural conditions make 
additional entrances necessary. 

2.14.5.2 Type Required. Horizontally or vertically 
sliding doors subject to the restrictions of 2.14.5.3 shall 
be provided at each car entrance. 

2.14.5.3 Vertically Sliding Doors. Vertically sliding 
doors shall be 

(a) of the balanced counterweighted type that slide 
in the up direction to open 

(b) power operated where facing a pow^er-operated 
vertically sliding coimterbalanced or a vertically sliding- 
down-to-open hoistway door 

2.14.5.4 Dimensions of Doors. Doors, when in the 
fully closed position, shall protect the full width and 
height of the car entrance opening. 

2.14.5.5 Openings in Doors. There shall be no open- 
ings in doors, except where vision panels are used. 

2.14.5.6 Door Panels 

2.14.5.6.1 Door panels shall have a flush surface 
on the side exposed to the car interior. The panels shall 
have no area or molding depressed or raised more than 
3 mm (0.125 in.) and areas raised or depressed shall be 
beveled at not more than 30 deg to the panel surface. 

2.14.5.6.2 Panels shall overlap the top and sides 
of the car entrance opening by not less than 13 mm 
(0.5 in.) when in the closed position. 

2.14.5.6.3 The vertical clearance between a panel 
and the sill, or in the case of a vertically sliding door 
the vertical clearance between the leading edge and the 
sill, shall not exceed 10 mm (0.375 in.) when in the fully 
closed position. 

2.14.5.6.4 The horizontal clearance shall not 
exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.) for horizontally sliding panels 
and 25 mm (1 in.) for vertically sliding panels between 

(a) the car side of a panel and the related car 
entrance jamb 

(b) related panels of multispeed entrances 

(c) the car side of the panel and the related car 
head jamb 

2.14.5.6.5 The leading edges of doors shall be 
free of sharp projections, 

2.14.5.6.6 The meeting panel edges of center- 
operung entrances shall be protected with not less than 
one resilient male member extending the full height 
of the panel. The meeting edges shall be permitted to 
interlock by not more than 10 mm (0.375 in.). When in 
the closed position, the distance between the metal parts 
of the meeting panels shall not exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.). 

2.14.5.6.7 The clearance between the leading 
edge of the trailing panel of multiple-speed panels and 
the jamb shall not exceed 



57 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(a) 13 mm (0.5 in.) for horizontal slide 

(b) 15 mm (1 in.) for vertical slide 

2.14.5.7 Manual Opening of Car Doors. Car doors 
shall be so arranged that when the car is stopped within 
the unlocking zone (see 2.12.5.3) and power to the door 
operator is cut off, they and the mechanically related 
hoistway door, if any, shall be movable by hand from 
inside the car. The force required at the edge of sliding 
doors to move them shall not exceed 330 N {^5 Ibf). 

2.14.5.8 Glass in Car Doors 

2.14.5.8.1 Vision panels, where provided, shall 
conform to 2.14.2.5. 

2.14.5.8.2 Glass doors, where provided, shall 
conform to the following requirements: 

(05S) (a) The glass shaU be laminated glass conforming to 
the requirements of 16 CFR Part 1201, or be laminated 
glass, safety glass, or safety plastic conforming to the 
requirements of CAN/CGSB-12.1, whichever is applica- 
ble (see Part 9). Markings as specified shall be on each 
separate piece, and shaU remain visible after installation. 
(h) The glass shall be not less than 60% of the total 
visible door panel surface area as seen from the car side 
of the doors. Door lap shall not be used in calculating 
glass size. 

(c) In power-operated doors, the glass panel shall be 
substantially flush with the surface of the car side of 
the door. 

(d) The glass shall conform to the applicable strength 
requirements of 2.14.4.6. 

(e) The glass shall be so mounted that it, and its 
moimting structure, will withstand the required elevator 
tests without becoming damaged or dislodged. 

(f) A nonglass edge shall be provided on the leading 
edge of the door panel. 

2.14.6 Freight Elevator Car Doors and Gates 

2.14.6.1 Type of Gates 

2.14.6.1.1 For elevators designed for Class A 
loading (see 2.16.2.2), car gates shall be either of the 
vertically sliding type (see 2.14.6.2) or the horizontally 
sliding collapsible type (see 2.14.6.3). 

2.14.6.1.2 For elevators designed for Class B or 
Class C loading (see 2.16.2.2), car gates shall be of the 
vertically sliding type (see 2.14.6.2). 

2.14.6.2 Vertically Sliding Doors and Gates 

2.14.6.2.1 On elevators used exclusively for 
freight, car doors and gates shall be either of the balanced 
counterweighted type that slide up or down to open, 
or of the biparting counterbalanced type. They shall be 
manually operated or power operated. 



2.14.6.2.2 Where used on freight elevators per- 
mitted to carry passengers (see 2.16.4), car doors shall 
conform to 2.14.5. 

2.14.6.2.3 Car doors and gates shall protect the 
full width of the car entrance opening, and their height 
shall be determined as follows: 

(a) car doors and gates shall extend from a point not 
more than 25 mm (1 in.) above the car floor to a point 
not less than 1 825 mm (72 in.) above the car floor 

(h) where a vertically sliding car gate with a door 
reopening device is provided, the 25 mm (1 in.) maxi- 
mum dimension specified shall be measured from the 
car floor to the bottom of the leading member 

2.14.6.2.4 The horizontal clearance between the 
car side of a panel and the related car entrance jamb or 
between related panels of multispeed doors or gates 
shall not exceed 25 mm (1 in.). 

2.14.6.3 Collapsible-Type Gates 

2.14.6.3.1 Collapsible-type gates shall protect 
the full width of the car entrance opening, and they shall 
extend from the car floor to a height of not less than 
1 825 mm (72 in.) when fully closed. 

2.14.6.3.2 When in the fully closed (extended) 
position, the opening between vertical members shall 
not be more than 115 mm (4.5 in.). 

2.14.6.3.3 Every vertical member shall be 
restricted from moving perpendicular to the direction 
of travel more than 13 mm (0.5 in.). 

2.14.6.3.4 They shall not be power opened, 
except as permitted by 2.13.2.1.2. 

2.14.6.3.5 When in the fully opened (collapsed) 
position, collapsible gates shall be permitted to be 
arranged to swing inward. 

2.14.6.3.6 Handles of manually operated col- 
lapsible gates nearest the car operating device on eleva- 
tors operated from the car only shall be so located that 
the nearest handle is not more than 1 225 mm (48 in.) 
from the car operating device when the gate is closed 
(extended position), and not more than 1 225 mm (48 in.) 
above the car floor. Gate handles shall be provided with 
finger guards. 

2.14.7 Illumination of Cars and Lighting Fixtures 

2.14.7.1 Illumination and Outlets Required. Cars 
shall be provided with an electric light or lights conform- 
ing to 2.14.7.1.1 through 2.14.7.1.4. 

2.14.7.1.1 Not less than two lamps shall be pro- 
vided. 

2.14.7.1.2 The mmimum illumination at the car 
threshold, with the door closed, shall be not less than 

(a) 50 Ix (5 fc) for passenger elevators 



5S 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(b) 25 Ix (2.5 fc) for freight elevators 

(055) 2.14.7.1.3 Each elevator shall be provided with 

auxiliary lighting having its power source located on 
the car. It shall conform to the following: 

(07) (a) The intensity of auxiliary lighting illumination 
shall be not less than 2 Ix (0.2 fc), measured at any point 
between 1 225 mm (48 in.) and 890 mm (35 in.) above 
the car floor and approximately 300 mm (12 in.) centered 
horizontally in front of a car operating panel containing 
any of the following: 

(1) car operating device(s) 

(2) door open button 

(3) rear or side door open button 

(4) door close button 

(5) rear or side door close button 

(6) "HELP" button and operating instructions, or 

(7) "ALARM" switch 

(b) Illumination is not required in front of additional 
car operating panels where the devices listed in 
2.14.7.1.3(a) are duplicated. 

(c) Auxiliary lights shall be automatically turned on 
in all elevators in service after normal car lighting 
power fails. 

(d) The power system shall be capable of maintaining 
the Hght intensity specified in 2.14.7.1.3(a) for a period 
of at least 4 h. 

(e) Not less than two lamps of approximately equal 
wattage shall be used. 

(f) Battery-operated units, where provided, shall 

(1) comply with CSA C22.2 No. 141 (see Section 4) 

(2) have a 4 h rating minimum 

(3) be permanently connected to the car light 
branch circuit 

(4) have an output rating that includes the auxiliary 
lights and if connected, the emergency signaling device 
(see 2.27.1.1.3) 

(07) 2.14.7.1.4 Each elevator shall be provided with 

lighting and a duplex receptacle fixture on the car top. 
The lighting shall be permanently connected, fixed, or 
portable, or a combination thereof, to provide an illumi- 
nation level of not less than 100 Ix (10 fc) measured 
at the point of any elevator part or equipment, where 
maintenance or inspection is to be performed from the 
car top. All Lighting shall be eqiuipped with guards. The 
light switch shall be accessible from the landing when 
accessing the car top. 

2.14.7.2 Light Control Switches 

2.14.7.2.1 Light control switches for in-car light- 
ing shall be permitted. When provided, they shall 

(a) be located in or adjacent to the operating device 
in the car. 

(b) in elevators having automatic operation, be of the 
key-operated type or located in a fixture with a locked 
cover. The key shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1). 



2.14.7.2.2 Automatic operation of the car lights 
shall be permitted. When provided, the operating circuit 
shall be arranged to turn off the lights only when the 
following conditions exist for not less than 5 min: 

(a) the car is at a floor 

(b) the doors are closed 

(c) there is no demand for service 

(d) the car is on automatic operation 
Momentary interruption of any of the above condi- 
tions shall cause the car lights to turn on. 

2.14.7.3 Car Lighting Devices 

2.14.7.3.1 Glass used for lighting fixtures shall 
conform to 2.14.1.8. 

2.14.7.3.2 Suspended glass used in lighting fix- 
tures shaU be supported by a metal frame secured at 
not less than three points. 

2.14.7.3.3 Fastening devices shall not be remov- 
able from the fixture. 



2.14.7.3.4 

attachment. 



Glass shall not be drilled for 



2.14.7.3.5 Light troughs supporting wiring race- 
ways and other auxiliary lighting equipment, where 
used, shaU be of metal, except where lined with noncom- 
bustible materials. 

2.14.7.3.6 Materials for light diffusion or trans- 
mission shall be of metal, glass, or materials conforming 
to 2.14.2.1.1 and shall not come in contact with light 
bulbs and tubes. 

2.14.7.4 Protection of Light Bulbs and Tubes. Light 
bulbs and tubes within the car shall 

(a) be equipped with guards, be recessed, or be 
mounted above a drop ceiling to prevent accidental 
breakage. Cars that operate with the drop ceiling 
removed shall have a permanent separate guard for the 
light bulb or tube. 

(b) be so mounted in the structure that the structure 
and the bulb or tube will withstand the required elevator 
tests without being damaged or becoming dislodged. 

SECTION 2.15 
CAR FRAMES AND PLATFORMS 

2.15.1 Car Frames Required 

Every elevator shall have a car frame (see 1.3). 

2.15.2 Guiding Members 

Car frames shall be guided on each guide rail by upper 
and lower guiding members attached to the frame. 

Retention means shall be provided to prevent the car 
from being displaced by more than 13 mm (0.5 in.) from 
its normal running position should any part of the guid- 
ing means fail, excluding the guiding member base and 



59 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



its attachment to the frame. The retention means shall 
be permitted to be integral with the base. 

2.15.3 Design of Car Frames and Guiding Members 

The frame and its guiding members shall be designed 
to withstand the forces resulting under the loading con- 
ditions for which the elevator is designed and installed 
(see 2.16). 

2.15.4 Underslung or Sub-Post Frames 

The vertical distance between the centerlines of the 
top and bottom guide shoes of an elevator car having 
a sub-post car frame or having an underslung car frame 
located entirely below the car platform shall be not less 
than 40% of the distance between guide rails. 

2.15.5 Car Platforms 

2.15.5.1 Every elevator car shall have a platform 
consisting of a nonperforated floor attached to a plat- 
form frame supported by the car frame, and extending 
over the entire area within the car enclosure. 

2.15.5.2 The platform frame members and the 
floor shall be designed to withstand the forces developed 
under the loading conditions for which the elevator is 
designed and installed. 

2.15.5.3 Platform frames are not required where 
laminated platforms are provided. 

2.15.5.4 Laminated platforms shall be permitted 
to be used for passenger elevators having a rated load 
of 2 300 kg (5,000 lb) or less. 

2.15.5.5 The deflection at any point of a laminated 
platform, when uniformly loaded to rated capacity, shall 
not exceed /960 of the span. The stresses in the steel 
facing shall not exceed one-fifth of its ultimate strength, 
and the stresses in the plywood core shall not exceed 60% 
of the allowable stresses in Section 3.14 of the American 
Plywood Association Plywood Design Specification or 
CSA 086.1, as applicable (see Part 9). 

2.15.6 Materials for Car Frames and Platform Frames 

2.15.6.1 Materials Permitted. Materials used in the 
construction of car frames and platforms shall conform 
to 2.15.6.1.1 through 2.15.6.1.4. 

2.15.6.1.1 Car frames and outside members of 
platform frames shall be made of steel or other metals. 

2.15.6.1.2 Platform stringers of freight elevators 
designed for Class B or Class C loading shall be of steel 
or other metals. 

2.1 5.6.1.3 Platform stringers of passenger eleva- 
tors and of freight elevators designed for Class A loading 
shall be made of steel or other metals, or of wood. 



2.15.6.1.4 Cast iron shall not be used for any 
part subject to tension, torsion, or bending, except for 
guiding supports and guide shoes. 

2.15.6.2 Requirements for Steel. Steel used in the 
construction of car frames and platforms shall conform 
to 2.15.6.2.1 through 2.15.6.2.3. 

2.15.6.2.1 Car-Frame and Platform-Frame Mem- 
bers. Steel shall be rolled, formed, forged, or cast, con- 
forming to the requirements of the following 
specifications: 

(a) Rolled and Formed Steel ASTM A 36 or ASTM A 
283 Grade D or CAN/CSA-G40.21. 

(b) Forged Steel ASTM A 668 Class B. 

(c) Cast Steel ASTM A 27 Grade 60/30. 

2.15.6.2.2 Rivets, Bolts, and Rods. Steel used for 
rivets, bolts, and rods shall conform to the following 
specifications: 

(a) ASTM A 502, Rivets 

(b) ASTM A 307, Bolts and Rods 

2.15.6.2.3 Steels of Other Strength. Steels of 
greater or lesser strength than those specified by 
2.15.6.2.1 shall be permitted to be used, provided they 
have an elongation of not less than 20% in a length of 
50 mm (2 in.) when tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 8, and provided that the stresses and deflections con- 
form to 2.15.10 and 2,15.11, respectively 

Rivets, bolts, and rods made of steel having greater 
strength than specified by ASTM A 307 and ASTM A 
502 shall be permitted to be used and the maximum 
allowable stresses increased proportionally, based on the 
ratio of the ultimate strengths. Elongation shall conform 
to the requirements of the corresponding ASTM specifi- 
cations. 

2.1 5.6.3 Requirements for Metals Other Than Steel. 

Metals other than steel shall be permitted to be used in 
the construction of car frames and platforms, provided 
the metal used has the essential properties to meet all 
the requirements for the purpose in accordance with 
good engineering practice, and provided the stresses 
and deflections conform to 2.15.10 and 2.15.11, respec- 
tively. 

2.15.6.4 Requirements for Wood Used for Platform 
Floors and Stringers. Wood used for platform stringers 
and platform floors and sub-floors shall be of structural 
quality lumber or exterior-type plywood conforming to 
the requirements of the following: 

(a) ASTM D 245, Structural Grades of Lumber 

(b) ASTM D 198, Static Tests of Structural Timbers 

(c) ANSI Voluntary Product Standard PS 1-74 or 
CSA 0151, Softwood Plywood, Construction and Indus- 
trial 



60 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.15.7 Car Frame and Platform Connections 

2.15.7.1 Internal Connections. Connections 
between members of car frames and platforms shall be 
riveted, bolted, or welded, and shall conform to 2.15.7.3. 

2.15.7.2 Connection Between Car Frame and Plat- 
form. The attachment of the platform to the car frame 
shall be done in accordance with good engineering prac- 
tice and shall develop the required strength to transmit 
the forces safely from the platform to the car frame in 
accordance with 2.15.10. Bolts, nuts, and welding, where 
used, shall conform to 2.15.7.3, 

2.15.7.3 Bolts, Nuts, and Welding 

2.15.7.3.1 Bolts, where used through greater 
than 5 deg sloping flanges of structural members, shall 
have bolt heads of the tipped-head type or shall be fitted 
with bevelled washers. 

2.1 5.7.3.2 Nuts used on greater than 5 deg slop- 
ing flanges of structural members shall sit on beveled 
washers. 

2.15.7.3.3 All welding shall conform to 8.8. 

2.15.8 Protection of Platforms Against Fire 

All platform materials exposed to the hoistway shall 
be either of the following: 

(a) metal 

(b) other materials that, in their end-use configura- 
tion, conform to the following requirements, based on 
the tests conducted in accordance with the requirements 
of ASTM E 84, UL 723, NFPA 255, or CAN/ULC-S102.2, 
whichever is applicable (see Part 9): 

(1) flame spread rating of to 75 

(2) smoke development of to 450 

2.15.9 Platform Guards (Aprons) 

The entrance side of the platform of passenger and 
freight elevators shall be provided with smooth metal 
guard plates of not less than 1.5 mm (0.059 in.) thick 
steel, or material of equivalent strength and stiffness, 
adequately reinforced and braced to the car platform 
and conforming to 2.15.9.1 through 2.15.9.4. 

2.1 5.9.1 The guard plate shall extend not less than 
the full width of the widest hoistway-door opening. 

2.1 5.9.2 The guard plate shall have a straight verti- 
cal face, extending below the floor surface of the plat- 
form, conforming to one of the following: 

(a) where the elevator is required to conform to 
2.19.2.2(b) the depth of the truck zone, where provided, 
plus 75 mm (3 in.), but in no case less than 1 220 mm 
(48 in.) 

(b) where the elevator is not required to cor\form to 
2.19.2.2(b) the depth of the levehng zone or truck zone, 
where provided, plus 75 mm (3 in.), but in no case less 
than 525 mm (21 in.) 



2.15.9.3 The lower portion of the guard shall be 
bent back at an angle of not less than 60 deg nor more 
than 75 deg from the horizontal. 

2.15.9.4 The guard plate shall be securely braced 
and fastened in place to withstand a constant force of 
not less than 650 N (145 Ibf) applied at right angles to 
and at any position on its face without deflecting more 
than 6 mm (0.25 in.), and without permanent defor- 
mation. 

Where the car entrance on the truck loading side is 
provided with a collapsible-type gate and the height of 
the hoistway door opening is greater than the distance 
from the car floor to the car top, a head guard extending 
the full width of the door opening shall be provided on 
the car to close the space between the car top and the 
soffit of the hoistway-door opening when the car plat- 
form is level with the floor at the truck loading landing 
entrance. 

2.15.10 Maximum Allowable Stresses in Car Frame 
and Platform Members and Connections 

2.15.10.1 The stresses in car frame and platform 
members and their connections, based on the static load 
imposed upon them, shall not exceed the following: 

(a) for steels meeting the requirements of 2.15.6.2.1 
and 2.15.6.2.2, as listed in Table 2.15.10.1 ' 

(b) for steels of greater or lesser strength, as permitted 
by 2.15.6.2.3, the allowable stresses listed in Table 
2.15.10.1 are to be adjusted proportionally, based on the 
ratio of the ultimate strengths 

(c) for metals other than steel, as permitted by 
2.15.6.3, the allowable stresses listed in Table 2.15.10.1 
are to be adjusted proportionally, based on the ratio of 
the ultimate strengths 

2.15.10.2 Car frame members, brackets, and their 
connections subject to forces due to the application of 
the emergency brake (see 2.19.4) shall be designed to 
withstand the maximum forces developed during the 
retardation phase of the emergency braking so that the 
resulting stresses due to the emergency braking and all 
other loading acting simultaneously, if applicable, shall 
not exceed 190 MPa (27,500 psi). 

2.15.11 Maximum Allowable Deflections of Car 
Frame and Platform Members 

The deflections of car frame and platform members 
based on the static load imposed upon them shall be 
not more than the following: 

(a) for crosshead, plank, and platform frame mem- 
bers, /960 of the span 

(b) for uprights (stiles), as determined by 8.2.2.5.3 

2.15.12 Car Frames Witli Sheaves 

Where a hoisting-rope sheave is mounted on the car 
frame, the construction shall conform to 2.15.12.1 
through 2.15.12.3. 



61 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.15.10.1 Maximum Allowable Stresses in Car Frame and Platform Members and Connections, for 

Steels Specified in 2.15.6.2.1 and 2.15.6.2.2 







Maximum Stress, 




Member Type 


Stress Type 


MPa (psi) 


Area Basis 


Car crosshead 


Bending 


95 (14,000) 


Gross section 


Car frame plank (normal loading) 


Bending 


95 (14,000) 


Gross section 


Car frame plank (buffer reaction) 


Bending 


190 (27,500) 


Gross section 


Car frame uprights (stiles) 


Bending plus tension 


115 (17,000) 


Gross section 






140 (20,200) 


Net section 


Hoisting rope hitch plate and 


Bending plus tension 


75 (11,000) 


Net section 


shapes 








Platform framing 


Bending 


95 (14.000) 


Gross section 


Platform stringers 


Bending 


115 (17,000) 


Gross section 


Threaded brace rods and other 


Tension 


60 (9,000) 


Net section 


tension members except bolts 








Bolts 


Tension 


55 (8,000) 


Net section 


Bolts in clearance holes 


Shear 


55 (8.000) 


Actual area in shear plane 




Bearing 


120 (17,500) 


Gross section 


Rivets or tight body-fit bolts 


Shear 


75 (11,000) 


Actual area in shear plane 




Bearing 


140 (20,000) 


Gross section 


Any framing member normal loading 


Compression 


Note (1) 


Gross section 



NOTE: 

(1) The maximum allowable compressive stress in any member at normal loading shall not exceed 80% of those permitted for static loads 
by the AISC #5326 or CSA S16.1. 



2.15.12.1 Where multiple sheaves mounted on 
separate sheave shafts are used, provision shall be made 
to take the compressive forces, developed by tension in 
the hoisting ropes between the sheaves, on a strut or 
struts between the sheave shaft supports, or by provid- 
ing additional compressive strength in the car frame or 
car-frame members supporting sheave shafts, 

2.15.12.2 Where the sheave shaft extends through 
the web of a car-frame member, the reduction in area of 
the member shall not reduce the strength of the member 
below that required. Where necessary, reinforcing plates 
shall be welded or riveted to the member to provide the 
required strength. The bearing pressure shall in no case 
be more than that permitted in Table 2.15.10.1 for bolts 
in clearance holes. 

2.15.12.3 Where the sheave is attached to the car 
crosshead by means of a single- threaded rod or specially 
designed member or members in tension, the require- 
ments of 2.15.12.3.1 and 2.15.12.3.2 shall be conformed to. 

2.1 5.12.3.1 The single rod, member, or members 
shall have a factor of safety 50% higher than the factor 
of safety required for the suspension wire ropes, but in 
no case shall have a factor of safety of less than 15. 

2.15.12.3.2 The means for fastening the single- 
threaded rod, member, or members to the car frame 
shall conform to 2.15.13. 



2.15.13 Suspension-Rope Hitch Plates or Shapes 

Where cars are suspended by hoisting ropes attached 
to the car frame or to the overhead supporting beams 
by means of rope shackles, the shackles shall be attached 
to steel hitch plates or to structural or formed steel 
shapes. 

Such plates or shapes shall be secured to the underside 
or to the webs of the car-frame member with bolts, rivets, 
or welds so located that the tensions in the hoisting 
ropes will not develop direct tension in the bolts or 
rivets. 

The stresses shall not exceed those permitted by 
2.9.3.3. 

2.15.14 Calculation of Stresses in Car-Frame and 
Platform-Frame Members 

The calculation of the stresses and deflection in the 
car-frame plank and uprights and platform frames shall 
be based on the formulas and data in 8.2.2. 

2.15.15 Platform Side Braces 

Where side bracing and similar members are attached 
to car-frame uprights, the reduction in area of the upright 
shall not reduce the strength of the upright below that 
required by 2.15. 



62 



ASWIE A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Fig. 2.16.1.1 Inside Net Platform Areas for Passenger Elevators 



Inside net platfornn 
area = Ax B 



Inside net platfornn 
area = Ax B 



2.15.16 Hinged Platform Sills 

Hinged platform sills, where used, shall conform to 
2.15.16.1 through 2.15.16.3. 

2.15.16.1 Hinged platform sills shall be provided 
with electric contacts conforming to 2.12.5, that will pre- 
vent operation of the elevator by the normal operating 
device unless the hinged sill is within 50 mm (2 in.) of 
its fully retracted position, provided that when in this 
position, the sill does not reduce the clearance specified 
in 2.5.1.4. 

2.15.16.2 The elevator shall be permitted to be 
operated by the leveling device in the leveling zone with 
the sill in any position. 



2.15.16.3 

to 2.11.11.1. 



The strength of the sills shall conform 



2.15.17 Fastening of Compensation Means 

Fastenings to the car of the suspension ropes' compen- 
sation means shall conform to 2.21.4. 



SECTION 2.16 
CAPACITY AND LOADING 

2.16.1 Minimum Rated Load for Passenger Elevators 

2.16.1.1 Minimum Load Permitted. The rated load 
in kg (lb) for passenger elevators shall be based on the 
inside net platform area, and shall be not less than shown 
by Fig. 8.2.1.2 (see Nonmandatory Appendix D and 
2.26.11). 

The inside net platform area shall be determined at 
a point 1 000 mm (39 in.) above the floor and inside of 
any panels or wall surfaces, but exclusive of any hand- 
rails and space for doors as shown in Fig. 2.16.1.1. To 
allow for variations in car designs, an increase in the 
maximum inside net area not exceeding 5% shall be 



permitted for the various rated loads. See Table 2.16.1.1. 

2.16.1.2 Use of Partitions for Reducing Inside Net 
Platform Area. Where partitions are installed in elevator 
cars for the purpose of restricting the platform net area 
for passenger use, they shall be permanently bolted, 
riveted, or welded in place. Gates, doors, or handrails 
shall not be used for this purpose. Partitions shall be so 
installed as to provide for approximately symmetrical 
loading. 

2.16.1.3 Carrying of Freight on Passenger Elevators. 

When freight is to be carried on a passenger elevator, 
the requirements of 2.16.1.3.1 and 2.16.1.3.2 shall be con- 
formed to. 

2.16.1.3.1 The minimum rated load shall con- 
form to 2.16.1 or 2.16.2, whichever is greater. 

2.16.1.3.2 The elevator shall be designed for 
applicable class of freight elevator loading. 

2.16.2 Minimum Rated Load for Freight Elevators 

2.16.2.1 Minimum Load Permitted. The minimum 
rated load for freight elevators in pounds shall be based 
on the weight and class of the load to be handled, but 
shall in no case be less than the minimum specified in 
2.16.2.2 for each class of loading based on the inside net 
platform area. 

2.16.2.2 Classes of Loading and Design Require- 
ments. Freight elevators shall be designed for one of 
the following classes of loading. 

2.16.2.2.1 Class A: General Freight Loading. 

Where the load is distributed, the weight of any single 
piece of freight or of any single hand truck and its load 
is not more than 25% of the rated load of the elevator, 
and the load is handled on and off the car platform 
manually or by means of hand trucks. 



63 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.16.1.1 Maximum Inside Net Platform 
Areas for the Various Rated Loads 





SI Units 


Imperial Units 




Inside Net 




Inside Net 


Rated Load 


Platform Area. 


Rated Load, 


Platform Area, 


kg 


m^ 


lb 


ft^ 


230 


0.65 


500 


7.0 


270 


0.77 


600 


8.3 


320 


0.89 


700 


9.6 


450 


1.23 


1,000 


13.3 


550 


1.45 


1,200 


15.6 


700 


1.76 


1,500 


18.9 


800 


2.05 


1,800 


22.1 


900 


2.25 


2,000 


24.2 


1 150 


2.70 


2,500 


29.1 


1 350 


3.13 


3,000 


33.7 


1 600 


3.53 


3,500 


38.0 


1 800 


3.92 


4,000 


42.2 


2 000 


4.29 


4,500 


46.2 


2 250 


4.65 


5,000 


50.0 


2 700 


5.36 


6,000 


57.7 


3 200 


6.07 


7.000 


65.3 


3 600 


6.77 


8,000 


72.9 


4 100 


7,48 


9,000 


80.5 


4 500 


8.18 


10,000 


88.0 


5 400 


9.57 


12.000 


103.0 


7 000 


11.62 


15,000 


125.1 


8 000 


13.65 


18.000 


146.9 


9 000 


14.98 


20,000 


161.2 


11 500 


18.25 


25.000 


196.5 


13 500 


21.46 


30.000 


231.0 



GENERAL NOTE: To allow for variations in cab designs, an Increase 
in the maximum Inside net platform area not exceeding 5% shall be 
permitted for the various rated loads. 



For this class of loading, the rated load shall be based 
on not less than 240 kg/m^ (49 Ib/ft^) of inside net 
platform area. 

2.16.2.2.2 Class B: Motor Vehicle Loading. Where 
the elevator is used solely to carry automobile trucks or 
passenger automobiles up to the rated capacity of the 
elevator. 

For this class of loading, the rated load shall be based 
on not less than 145 kg/m^ (30 Ib/ft^) of inside net 
platform area. 

2.16.2.2.3 Class C. There are three types of Class 
C loadings: 

(a) Class CI: Industrial Truck Loading. Where the static 
load during loading and unloading does not exceed the 
rated load. 

(b) Class CI: Industrial Truck Loading. Where the static 
load during loading and unloading is permitted to 
exceed the rated load. 

(c) Class C3: Other Loading With Heavy Concentrations. 
Where the static load during loading and unloading 
does not exceed the rated load. 



2.16.2.2.4 Class C loadings in 2.16.2.2.3 apply 
where the weight of the concentrated load including a 
powered industrial or hand truck, if used, is more than 
25% the rated load and where the load to be carried 
does not exceed the rated load. (For concentrated loads 
exceeding the rated load, see 2.16.6.) 

The following are additional requirements: 

(a) For Class CI, Class C2, and Class C3 loadings, the 
rated load of the elevator shall be not less than the load 
(including any truck) to be carried, and shall in no case 
be less than 240 kg/m^ (49 Ib/ft^) of inside net plat- 
form area. 

The elevator shall be provided with a two-way auto- 
matic leveling device (see 1.3). 

(b) For Class CI and Class C2 loadings, the following 
additional requirements shall apply: 

(1) For elevators with rated loads of 9 000 kg 
(20,000 lb) or less, the car platform shall be designed for 
a loaded truck of weight equal to the rated load or 
for the actual weight of the loaded truck to be used, 
whichever is greater. 

(2) For elevators with rated loads exceeding 
9 000 kg (20,000 lb), the car platform shall be designed 
for a loaded truck weighing 9 000 kg (20,000 lb), or for 
the actual weight of the loaded truck to be used, which- 
ever is greater. 

(c) For Class C2 loading, the following requirements 
shall apply: 

(1) The maximum load on the car platform duriag 
loading or unloading shall not exceed 150% of rated 
load, 

(2) For any load in excess of rated load on elevators 
with a rated load of 9 000 kg (20,000 lb) or less, the 
driving-machine motor, brake, and traction relation shall 
be adequate to sustain and level the full 150% of 
rated load. 

(3) For any load in excess of the rated load on eleva- 
tors with a rated load exceeding 9 000 kg (20,000 lb), the 
driving-machine motor, brake, and traction relation shall 
be adequate to sustain and level the rated load plus 
either 4 500 kg (10,000 lb), or the weight of the unloaded 
truck to be used, whichever is greater. 

NOTES (2.16.2): 

(1) When the entire rated load is loaded or unloaded in increments 
by an industrial truck, the load imposed on the car platform, 
while the last increment is being loaded or the first increment 
unloaded, will exceed the rated load by part of the weight of 
the empty industrial truck. 

(2) Requirement 2.16.2 does not prohibit the carrying of an indus- 
trial truck on a freight elevator of Class C2 or Class C3 loading, 
provided that the total weight on the elevator does not exceed 
the rated load of the elevator, and the elevator is designed to 
meet the requirements of 8.2.2 and 8.2.9, as appropriate, for 
the load involved.. 



64 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.16.3 Capacity and Data Plates 

2.16.3.1 Plates Required and Locations. Every ele- 
vator shall be provided with a capacity plate and a data 
plate permanently and securely attached. 

The capacity plate shall be located in a conspicuous 
position inside the car. 

The data plate shall be located on the car crosshead, 
or inside the car for underslung elevators having no 
crosshead. 

2.16.3.2 Information Required on Plates 

2.16.3.2.1 Capacity plates shall indicate the rated 
load of the elevator in kilograms or pounds or both (see 
Nonmandatory Appendix D), and, in addition, this plate 
or a separate plate shall indicate 

(a) the capacity lifting one-piece loads where the ele- 
vator conforms to 2.16.7 

(b) for freight elevators designed for Class C2 loading, 
the maximum load the elevator is designed to support 
while being loaded or unloaded [see 2.16.2.2.4(c)] 

2.16.3.2.2 Data plates shall indicate 

(a) the weight of the complete car, including the car 
safety and all auxiliary equipment attached to the car 

(b) the rated load and speed 

(c) the wire rope data required by 2.20.2.1 

(d) the name or trademark of the manufacturer and 
year manufactured 

(e) rail lubrication instructions (see 2.17.16) 

2.16.3.3 Material and Marlcing of Plates. Plates shall 
be of such material and construction that the letters and 
figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied to 
the faces shall remain permanently and readily legible. 

The height of the letters and figures shall be not 
less than 

(a) 6 mm (0.25 in.) for passenger elevator capacity 
plates 

(b) 25 mm (1 in.) for freight elevator capacity plates 

(c) 3 mm (0.125 in.) for data plates 

2.16.4 Carrying of Passengers on Freight Elevators 

Freight elevators conforming to 2.16.4.1 through 
2.16.4.9 shall be permitted to carry passengers. 

2.16.4.1 The elevator shall not be accessible to the 
general public. 

2.16.4.2 The rated load shall not be less than that 
required by 2.16.1. 

2.16.4.3 The elevator shall conform to 2.16.8. 

2.16.4.4 Hoistway entrances shall conform to 
2.12.1.1 and 2.11.2.1, or shall be power-operated doors 
conforming to 2.11.2.2(e). 

2.16.4.5 Car doors shall be provided, and shall 
conform to 2.14.5. 



2.16.4.6 Openings in car enclosures shall conform 
to 2.14.2.2. 

2.16.4.7 Hoistway doors and /or car doors shall 
conform to 2.12.5. 

2.16.4.8 The factors of safety for suspension wire 
ropes shall conform to Table 2.20.3 for passenger ele- 
vators. 

2.16.4.9 Power-operated vertically sliding doors 
shall be power closed conforming to the following: 

(a) requirements 2.13.3.2 or 2.13.3.4. 

(b) shall be provided with a reopening device con- 
forming to 2.13.5. The reopening device shall detect 
obstruction in the path of closing door travel without 
the necessity of physical contact. This can be provided 
by mounting the protection device(s) on the car door 
itself or on the car or door jamb. 

(c) vertically sliding hoistway and car doors shall con- 
form to 2.13.6. 

(d) supporting chains, cables, or ropes shall not be 
exposed to the car interior. 

(e) when closed by automatic means, shall be pro- 
vided with a visual warrung to function over the same 
period as the audible signal in 2.13.3.4.1. 

2.16.5 Signs Required in Freiglit Elevator Cars 

2.16.5.1 Signs Required. Signs, in addition to the 
capacity and data plates required by 2.16.3.1, shall be 
provided inside the car and shall be located in a conspic- 
uous position and permanently and securely fastened to 
the car enclosure, subject to the requirements of 2.16.5.1.1 
through 2.16.5.1.3. 

2.16.5.1.1 For every freight elevator, the sign 
shall specify the type of loading (see 2.16.2.2) for which 
the elevator is designed and installed, with one of the 
following markings. 

(a) "CLASS A LOADING. ELEVATOR TO BE 
LOADED OR UNLOADED MANUALLY OR BY 
MEANS OF HAND TRUCKS ONLY. NO SINGLE PIECE 
OF FREIGHT OR SINGLE HAND TRUCK AND ITS 
LOAD SHALL EXCEED KG ( LB)." 

(b) "CLASS B LOADING. THIS ELEVATOR 
DESIGNED TO TRANSPORT MOTOR VEHICLES 
HAVING A MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT NOT TO 
EXCEED KG ( LB)." 

(c) "CLASS CI LOADING. THIS ELEVATOR 
DESIGNED TO TRANSPORT LOADED INDUSTRL^L 
TRUCK. MAXIMUM COMBINED WEIGHT OF 
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND LOAD NOT TO 
EXCEED KG ( LB)." 

(d) "CLASS C2 LOADING. THIS ELEVATOR 
DESIGNED FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING BY 
INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. MAXIMUM LOADING AND 
UNLOADING WEIGHT WHILE PARKED NOT TO 
EXCEED KG ( LB). MAXIMUM WEIGHT 



65 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



TRANSPORTED NOT TO EXCEED KG ( 

LB)." 

(e) ''CLASS C3 LOADING. THIS ELEVATOR 
DESIGNED TO TRANSPORT CONCENTRATED 
LOADS NOT TO EXCEED KG ( LB)." 

2.16.5.1.2 For elevators not permitted to carry 
passengers, the sign shall read: 'THIS IS NOT A PAS- 
SENGER ELEVATOR. NO PERSONS OTHER TPiAN 
THE OPERATOR AND FREIGHT HANDLERS ARE 
PERMITTED TO RIDE ON THIS ELEVATOR." 

2.16.5.1.3 For freight elevators permitted to 
carry passengers (see 2.16.4), a sign reading "PASSEN- 
GERS ARE PERMITTED TO RIDE THIS ELEVATOR." 

2.16.5.2 Material and Marking of Signs. The mate- 
rial and marking of all signs shall conform to 2.16.3.3, 
except that the letters shall be not less than 13 mm 
(0.5 in.) high. 

2.16.6 Overloading of Freight Elevators 

Freight elevators shall not be loaded in excess of their 
rated load as specified on the capacity plate required 
by 2.16.3, except for 

(a) static loads on elevators loaded and unloaded by 
industrial trucks as noted on capacity or separate plate 
[see 2.16.2.2.3 and 2.16.3.2.1(b)] 

(b) elevators designed and installed to conform to 

2.16.7 to carry one-piece loads exceeding their rated load 

2.16.7 Carrying of One-Piece Loads Exceeding the 
Rated Load 

Passenger and freight elevators shall be permitted to 
be used, where necessary, to carry one-piece loads 
greater than their rated load, provided they are 
designed, installed, and operated to conform to 2.16.7.1 
through 2.16.7.11. 

2.16.7.1 A locking device shall be provided that 
will hold the car at any landing, independently of the 
hoisting ropes, while the car is being loaded or 
unloaded. 

2.16.7.2 The locking device shall be so designed 
that it cannot be unlocked until the entire weight of the 
car and load is suspended on the ropes. 

2.16.7.3 A removable wrench or other device shall 
be provided to operate the locking device. 

2.16.7.4 The locking device shall be so designed 
that the locking bars will be automatically withdrawn 
should they come into contact with the landing locks 
when the car is operated in the up direction. 

2.16.7.5 A special capacity plate shall be provided 
inside the elevator car and located in a conspicuous 
place that shall bear the words "CAPACITY LIFTING 
ONE-PIECE LOADS" in letters, followed by figures giv- 
ing the special capacity in kilograms (pounds) for lifting 



one-piece loads for which the machine is designed. For 
material and size of letters, see 2.16.3.3, 

2.16.7.6 The car frame, car platform, sheaves, 
shafts, ropes, and locking devices shall be designed for 
the specified "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads," pro- 
vided that 

(a) in the design of the car frame, platform, sheaves, 
shafts, and ropes, the allowable stress is permitted to 
be 20% higher than those permitted for normal loading 

(b) the factor of safety for the locking device is not 
less than 5 

2.16.7.7 The car safeties shall be designed to stop 
and hold the specified "Capacity Lifting One-Piece 
Loads" with the ropes intact. The safety is not required 
to conform to the safety stopping distances specified in 
Table 2.17.3 if applied while the elevator is carrying a 
one-piece load exceeding the rated load. 

2.16.7.8 Where there is an occupied space, or an 
unoccupied space not secured against unauthorized 
access (see 2.6), under the hoistway, the requirements of 

2.16.7.8.1 through 2.16.7.8.4 shall be conformed to. 

2.16.7.8.1 The machine shall be designed to 
operate the "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads" at slow 
speed. 

2.16.7.8.2 The car safety shall be designed to 
stop and hold the car with this load, independently of 
the hoisting ropes. 

2.16.7.8.3 The counterweight safety, where 
required by 2.6, shall be designed to stop and hold the 
entire weight of the counterweight, independently of 
the ropes. 

2.16.7.8.4 Under the conditions described in 

2.16.7.8.2 and 2.16 '7.8.3, the car and counterweight safe- 
ties are not required to conform to the safety stopping 
distances specified in Table 2.17.3 when the elevator is 
carrying a one-piece load exceeding the rated load and 
the counterweight is provided with additional weight 
as required by 2.16.7.9. 

2.16.7.9 For traction machines, where it is neces- 
sary to secure adequate traction, an additional coimter- 
weight shall be added during the period of use with 
one-piece loads so that the total overbalance is at least 
equal to 45% of the "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads." 

2.16.7.10 A special operating device of the car (05S) 
switch or continuous-pressure type shall be provided 

in a machine room, control space located outside the 
hoistway, or control room to operate the elevator. 

Means shall be provided to visually observe the driv- 
ing machine when this special operating device is oper- 
ated. When this device is operative, all other operating 
devices shall be inoperative (see 2.26.1.3). 



66 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



# 



(05S) 



2.16.7.1 1 The "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads" 
of any passenger traction elevator shall not exceed L33 
times the rated load of the elevator. 

2.16.8 Additional Requirements for Passenger 
Overload in the Down Direction 

Passenger elevators and freight elevators permitted 
by 2.16,4 to carry passengers shall be designed and 
installed to safely lower, stop, and hold the car with an 
additional load up to 25% in excess of the rated load. 

The elevator is not required to attain rated load per- 
formance under the passenger overload conditions spec- 
ified but shall conform to 

(a) requirement 2.17.2, except that 125% of the rated 
load shall be used in place of the rated load. 

(b) requirement 2.17.3, except that 125% of the rated 
load shall be used in the first paragraph in place of the 
rated load. Second paragraph of 2.17.3, except that 125% 
of the rated load shall be used in place of the rated 
load, and the rated load performance including safety 
stopping distance is not required. 

(c) requirement 2.24.2.3, except that 125% of rated 
load shall be used in place of the rated load. 

(d) requirement 2.24.8, except that 125% of the rated 
load shall be used in place of the rated load. 

(e) requirement 2.25.2.1, except that 125% of the rated 
load shall be used in place of the rated load. 

(/) requirement 2.26.9.8, except that 125% of the rated 
load shall be used in place of the rated load. 

(g) requirement 2.26.10, except that 125% of the rated 
load shall be used in place of the rated load. 

(h) requirement 2.19.2.2(b), except that 125% of the 
rated load shall be used in place of the rated load. 

(i) requirement 2.27.2. 1, except that 125% of rated load 
shall be used in place of rated load. 

(j) requirement 2.7.5.1.2(b), except that 125% of rated 
load shall be used in place of rated load. 

2.16.9 Special Loading Means 

Where special means (lift hooks, conveyor tracks, and 
support beams) that exert loads upon the car frame or 
platform, or both, are used to carry loads other than as 
described in 2.16.2.2, the effects of their loading on the 
car frame and platform shall be considered in accordance 
with 8.2.2.1 and 8.2.9.1. The allowable stresses and 
deflections shall be as specified in 2.15.10 and 2.15.11. 
The connections shall conform to 2.15.7. 



SECTION 2.17 
CAR AND COUNTERWEIGHT SAFETIES 

2.17.1 Where Required and Location 

The car of every elevator suspended by wire ropes 
shall be provided with one or more car safety devices 
of one of the types identified in 2.17.5. The safeties shall 



be attached to the car frame, and one safety shall be 
located within or below the car frame. 

All car safeties shall be mounted on a single car frame 
and shall operate only on one pair of guide rails between 
which the frame is located. 

2.17.2 Duplex Safeties 

Where duplex (two) safeties are provided, the lower 
safety device shall be capable of developing not less 
than one-half of the force required to stop the entire car 
with rated load (see 2.16.8). Duplexed safety devices 
shall be arranged so as to function approximately simul- 
taneously. 

Type A or Type C safety devices (see 2.17.5) shall not 
be used in multiple (duplexed). 

2.17.3 Function and Stopping Distance of Safeties 

The safety device, or the combined safety devices, 
where furnished, shall be capable of stopping and sus- 
taining the entire car with its rated load from governor 
tripping speed (see also 2.16.8). ^ 

Type B safeties shall stop the car with its rated load 
from governor tripping speed within the range of the 
maximum and minimum stopping distances as deter- 
mined by the formulas in 8.2.6. Table 2.17.3 and Fig. 8.2.6 
show the maximum and minimum stopping distances 
for various governor tripping speeds, when tested in 
conformance with 8.10 and 8.11. 

2.17.4 Counterweight Safeties 

Counterweight safeties, where furnished [see 2.6 and 
2.19.3.2(a)(1)], shall conform to the requirements for car 
safeties, except as specified in 2.17.7 and 2.18.1. 

2.17.5 Identification and Classification of Types of 
Safeties 

Car safety devices (safeties) are identified and classi- 
fied on the basis of performance characteristics after the 
safety begins to apply pressure on the guide rails. On 
this basis, there are three types of safeties. 

2.17.5.1 Type A Safeties. Safeties that develop a 
rapidly increasing pressure on the guide rails during 
the stopping interval, the stopping distance being very 
short due to the inherent design of the safety. The 
operating force is derived entirely from the mass and 
the motion of the car or the counterweight being 
stopped. These safeties apply pressure on the guide rails 
through eccentrics, rollers, or similar devices, without 
any flexible medium purposely introduced to limit the 
retarding force and increase the stopping distance. 

2.1 7.5.2 Type B Safeties. Safeties that apply limited 
pressure on the guide rails during the stopping interval, 
and which provide stopping distances that are related 
to the mass being stopped and the speed at which appli- 
cation of the safety is initiated. Retarding forces are 



67 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.17.3 Maximum and Minimum Stopping Distances for 
Type B Car Safeties With Rated Load and Type B Counterweight Safeties 





SI Units 








Imperial Units 






Rated 


Maximum 
Governor 


Stopping Distances, 


Rated 


Maximum 
Governor 


Stopping Distances, 


Speed, 
m/s 


Trip Speed, 

m/s 


mm 


Speed, 
ft/min 


Trip Speed, 
ft/min 


in. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


0-0.63 


0.90 


25 


380 


0-125 


175 


1 


15 


0.75 


1.05 


50 


415 


150 


210 


2 


16 


0.87 


1.25 


75 


485 


175 


250 


3 


19 


1.00 


1.40 


100 


540 


200 


280 


4 


22 


1.12 


1.55 


125 


605 


225 


308 


5 


24 


1.25 


1.70 


150 


675 


250 


337 


6 


27 


1.50 


2,00 


200 


840 


300 


395 


8 


33 


1.75 


2.30 


250 


1025 


350 


452 


10 


40 


2.00 


2.55 


330 


1 200 


400 


510 


13 


48 


2.25 


2.90 


430 


1 480 


450 


568 


17 


58 


2.50 


3.15 


505 . 


1 700 


500 


625 


20 


68 


3.00 


3.70 


710 


2 250 


600 


740 


28 


91 


3.50 


4.30 


940 


2 950 


700 


855 


38 


128 


4.00 


4.85 


1 200 


3 680 


800 


970 


49 


150 


4.50 


5.50 


1 540 


4 660 


900 


1.085 


61 


183 


5.00 


6.00 


1835 


5 500 


1,000 


1,200 


75 


222 


5.50 


6.60 


2 220 


6 600 


1,100 


1.320 


90 


268 


6.00 


7.20 


2 640 


7 800 


1,200 


1,440 


107 


316 


6.50 


7.80 


3 100 


9 110 


1.300 


1,560 


126 


371 


7.00 


8.40 


3 595 


10 530 


1,400 


1.680 


146 


427 


7.50 


9.00 


4 125 


12 050 


1,500 


1,800 


168 


490 


8.00 


9.60 


4 695 


13 670 


1,600 


1,920 


191 


555 


8.50 


10.20 


5 300 


15 400 


1.700 


2,040 


215 


628 


9.00 


10.80 


5 940 


17 240 


1,800 


2.160 


241 


700 


9.50 


11.40 


6 620 


19 180 


1,900 


2.280 


269 


779 


10.00 


12.00 


7 335 


21 220 


2.000 


2.400 


299 


862 



# 



reasonably uniform after the safety is fully applied. Safe- 
ties that require or do not require continuous tension in 
the governor rope to operate the safety during the entire 
stopping interval shall be permitted. Minimum and 
maximum distances are specified on the basis of gover- 
nor tripping speed (see 2.17.3). 

2.17.5.3 Type C Safeties (Type A With Oil Buffers). 

Safeties that develop retarding forces during the com- 
pression stroke of one or more oil buffers interposed 
between the lov^er members of the car frame and a 
governor-operated Type A auxiliary safety plank 
applied on the guide rails. The stopping distance is equal 
to the effective stroke of the buffers. 

2.17.6 Reserved for Future Use 

2.17.7 Governor-Actuated Safeties and Car Safety 
Mechanism Switches Required 

2.17.7.1 Counterweight safeties, where provided 
for rated speeds over 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min), and car 



safeties, shall be actuated by separate speed governors. 

Counterweight safeties for rated speeds of not over 
0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) shall be permitted to be operated 
as a result of the breaking or slackening of the suspension 
ropes and shall be permitted to be of the inertia or other 
approved type without governors. 

Where counterw;eight safeties are furnished to provide 
ascending car overspeed protection in accordance with 
2.19.1.1, they shall be actuated by a counterweight speed 
governor (see 2.17.4), 

2.17.7.2 Every car safety shall be provided with 
a switch, operated by the car safety mechanism (see 
2.26.2.9). 

A switch operated by the safety mechanism is not 
required on counterweight safeties. 

2.17.7.3 The car safety mechanism switch shall 
operate before or at the time of application of the safety. 

2.1 1,1 A Switches operated by the car safety mech- 
anism shall be of a type that cannot be reset until the car 



68 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



safety mechanism has been returned to the unapplied 
position. 

2.17.8 Limits of Use of Various Types of Safeties 

2.17.8.1 Type A (Instantaneous) Safeties. Type A 
safeties shall be permitted on elevators having a rated 
speed of not more than 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min). 

When overspeed occurs, with the hoisting rope intact, 
such safeties shall be actuated by the governor. 

On the parting of the hoisting ropes (free fall). Type 
A governor-operated safeties shall apply without appre- 
ciable delay, and their application shall be independent 
of the speed action of the governor and of the location 
of the break in the hoisting ropes (inertia application), 
and shall be permitted to be accomplished by the use 
of a governor and governor rigging having a sufficiently 
high value of inertia to apply the safety on free fall 
independently of the speed action of the governor (see 
8.10 for inertia-application test of car safety). 

2.17.8.2 Type C (Combination Instantaneous and Oil- 
Buffer Safety). Type C safeties shall be permitted sub- 
ject to the requirements of 2.17.8.2.1 through 2.17.8.2.8. 

2.17.8.2.1 The rated speed shall be not more than 

2.5 m/s (500 ft/min). 

2.17.8.2.2 The oil buffers shall conform to all 
requirements specified in 2.22 for oil buffers, except that 
the stroke shall be based on governor tripping speed 
and on an average retardation not exceeding 9.81 m/s^ 
(32.2 ft/s^). 

2.17.8.2.3 After the buffer stroke, as defined in 
2.17.8.2.2, has been completed, provision shall be made 
for an additional travel of the plunger or piston of not 
less than 10% of the buffer stroke, to prevent excessive 
impact on the buffer parts and the auxiliary safety plank. 

2.17.8.2.4 Where the distance between guide 
rails exceeds 2 450 mm (96 in.), the safety shall be pro- 
vided with two oil buffers of substantially identical cali- 
bration, and the buffers shall be so located as to develop 
minimum stresses in the auxiliary safety plank during 
safety operation. 

Buffers shall be located in line with and symmetrically 
between the guide rails. 

2.17.8.2.5 The auxiliary safety plank shall be so 
supported and guided below the car frame that the 
clearances specified in 2.17,10 for the safety parts are 
maintained during normal operation. 

The auxiliary safety plank shall be so designed that 
the maximum stresses in the plank shall not exceed those 
specified for similar car-frame members in 2.15. 

2.17.8.2.6 The rail-gripping device of the auxil- 
iary safety plank shall be so arranged and connected as 
to prevent the plank from being out of level more than 



13 mm (0.5 in.) in the length of the plank when the 
safety is operated to stop the car. 

2.17.8.2.7 An electric switch shall be provided 
and so arranged and connected that the elevator cannot 
be operated by means of the normal operating device 
if any buffer is compressed more than 10% of its stroke 
(see 2.26.2.13). 

2.17.8.2.8 Means shall be provided to prevent 
operation of the elevator by means of the normal 
operating device if the oil level in buffer is below the 
mirumum level (see 2.26.2.13). 

2.17.9 Application and Release of Safeties 

2.17.9.1 Means of Application. Safeties shall be 
applied mechanically Electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic 
devices shall not be used to apply the safeties required 
by 2.17, nor to hold such safeties in the retracted 
position. 

2.17.9.2 Level of Car on Safety Application. The 

application of a Type A or Type B safety to stop the 
car, with its rated load centered on each quarter of the 
platform symmetrically with relation to the centerlines 
of the platform, shall not cause the platform to be out 
of level more than 30 mm/m (0.36 in. /ft) in any direc- 
tion. (See 2.17.8.2.6 for Type C safeties.) 

2.1 7.9.3 Release. When car safeties are applied, no 
decrease in tension in the governor rope or motion of 
the car in the down direction shall release the safeties, 
but such safeties shall be permitted to be released by 
the motion of the car in the up direction. 

2.17.9.4 Force Providing Stopping Action to Be Com- 
pressive. Safeties shall be so designed that, on their 
application, the forces that provide the stopping action 
shall be compressive forces on each side of the guide- 
rail section. 

2.17.10 Minimum Permissible Clearance Between 
Rail-Gripping Faces of Safety Parts 

In the normally retracted position of the safety, the 
distance between the rail-gripping faces of the safety 
parts shall be not less than the thickness of the guide 
rail plus 3.5 mm (0.14 in.), and the clearance on any side 
between the gripping face and the guide rail shall be 
not less than 1.5 mm (0.06 in.), as measured on the side 
of the rail toward which the car frame is pressed with 
sufficient force to take up all clearances in the guide- 
shoe assembly. Safety jaws, while in the retracted posi- 
tion, shall be so restrained as to prevent a reduction of 
this minimum clearance. 



69 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.17.11 Maximum Permissible Movement of 
Governor Rope to Operate the Safety 
Mechanism 

For all Type B safeties, the movement of the governor 
rope, relative to the car or the counterweight, respec- 
tively, required to operate the safety mechanism from 
its fully retracted position to a position where the safety 
jaws begin to exert pressure against the guide rails, shall 
not exceed the following values based on rated speed: 

(a) for car safeties 

(1) 1 m/s (200 ft/min) or less, 1 070 mm (42 in.) 

(2) 1.01 m/s (201 ft/min) to 1.9 m/s (375 ft/min), 
915 mm (36 in.) 

(3) over 1.9 m/s (375 ft/min), 756 mm (30 in.) 

(b) for counterweight safeties, all speeds, 1 070 mm 
(42 in.) 

Drum-operated car and counterweight safeties, 
requiring continual unwinding of the safety drum rope 
to fully apply the safety, shall be so designed that not 
less than three turns of the safety rope will remain on 
the drum after the overspeed test of the safety has been 
made with rated load in the car. 

2.17.12 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses of 
Safety Parts and Rope Connections 

2.17.12.1 Parts of safeties, except springs, safety- 
rope drums, leading sheaves, and their supporting 
brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall have a factor of safety 
of not less than 3.5, and the materials used shall have 
an elongation of not less than 15% in a length of 50 mm 
(2 in.) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 8. Forged, 
cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved. 

2.17.12.2 Springs are permitted in the operation 
of car or coimterweight safeties. Where used, and where 
partially loaded prior to safety operation, the loading 
on the spring shall not produce a fibre stress exceeding 
one-half the elastic limit of the material. Charing opera- 
tion of the safety, the fibre stress shall not exceed 85% 
of the elastic limit of the material. Helical springs, where 
used, shall be in compression. 

2.1 7.12.3 Safety-rope drums, leading sheaves, and 
their supporting brackets and safety-jaw gibs, are per- 
mitted to be made of cast iron and other metals provided 
such parts have a factor of safety of not less than 10. 

2.17.12.4 Rope used as a connection from the 
safety to the governor rope, including rope wound on 
the safety-rope drum, shall be not less than 9.5 mm 
(0.375 in.) in diameter, shall be made of metal, and shall 
be corrosion resistant. The factor of safety of the rope 
shall be not less than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall 
not be used. 

2.17.12.5 The factors of safety shall be based upon 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts during 



the operation of the safety when stopping rated load 
from governor tripping speed. 

2.1 7.1 2.6 Safety-rope leading sheave brackets and 
other safety operating parts shall not be attached to or 
supported by wood platform members. 

2.17.13 Corrosion-Resistant Bearings in Safeties and 
Safety-Operating Meclianisms 

Bearings in safeties and in the safety-operating mecha- 
nisms shall be of corrosion-resistant construction, with 
one or both members of the bearing made of, or electro- 
plated with, a corrosion-resistant material. 

2.17.14 iVIarlcing Plates for Safeties 

A metal plate shaU be securely attached to each safety 
so as to be readily visible, and shall be marked in a 
legible and permanent manner with letters and figures 
not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height indicating: 

(a) the type of safety, based on 2.17.5 

(b) the maximum tripping speed in m/s (ft/min) for 
which the safety is permitted 

(c) the maximum weight in kg (lb), that the safety is 
designed and installed to stop and sustain 

(d) the force in N (Ibf ) required to activate the safety 
or rope releasing carrier, if provided 

(e) the manufacturer's name or trademark 

2.17.15 Governor-Rope Releasing Carriers 

Where a governor-rope releasing carrier is used to 
prevent actuation of the safety by the inertial forces of 
the governor-rope system, or used for any other pur- 
pose, the governor-rope releasing carrier on the car (or 
on the counterweight) shaU be set to require a tension 
in the governor rope, to pull the rope from the carrier, 
of not more than 60% of the pull-through tension devel- 
oped by the governor. The means to regulate the gover- 
nor-rope pull-out force shall be mechanical and shall be 
sealed. The carrier shall be designed so that the pull- 
out tension cannot be adjusted to exceed the amount 
specified without breaking the seal. 

2.17.16 Rail Lubricants and Lubrication Plate 

Rail lubricants or coatings that will reduce the holding 
power of the safety, or prevent its functioning as required 
in 2.17.3, shall not be used (see 8.7 for maintenance 
requirements). 

A metal plate as required by 2.16.3.2 shall be securely 
attached to the car crosshead in an easily visible location, 
and, where lubricants are to be used, shall carry the 
notation, ''CONSULT MANUFACTURER OF THE 
SAFETY FOR THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RAIL 
LUBRICANT TO BE USED." If lubricants are not to be 
used, the plate shall so state. 

If lubricants other than those recommended by the 
manufacturer are used, a safety test shaU be made to 



70 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



demonstrate that the safety will function as required by 

2.17.3. 

SECTION 2.18 
SPEED GOVERNORS 

2.18.1 Speed Governors Required and Location 

2.18.1.1 Counterweight safeties, where provided 
with rated speeds over 0.75 ni/s (150 ft/min), and car 
safeties shall be actuated by separate speed governors. 

Where counterweight safeties are furnished to provide 
ascending car overspeed protection in accordance with 
2.19.1.1, they shall be actuated by a counterweight speed 
governor (see 2.17.4). 

2.18.1.2 The governor shall be located where it 
cannot be struck by the car or the counterweight in case 
of overtravel, and where there is adequate space for full 
movement of governor parts. 

2.18.2 Tripping Speeds for Speed Governors 

2.18.2.1 Car Speed Governors. Speed governors for 
car safeties shall be set to trip at car speeds as follows: 

(a) at not less than 115% of the rated speed. 

(b) at not more than the tripping speed listed opposite 
the applicable rated speed in Table 2.18.2.1. Maximum 
tripping speeds for intermediate rated speeds shall be 
determined from Fig. 8.2.5. For rated speeds exceeding 
10 m/s (2,000 ft/min), the maximum tripping speeds 
shall not exceed 120% of the rated speed. 

2.18.2.2 Counterweight Speed Governors. Speed 
governors, where provided for counterweight safeties, 
shall be set to trip at an overspeed greater than that at 
which the car speed governor is to trip, but not more 
than 10% higher. 

2.18.3 Sealing and Painting of Speed Governors 

2.18.3.1 Speed governors shall have their mear\s 
of speed adjustment sealed after test. If speed governors 
are painted after sealing, all bearing and rubbing sur- 
faces shall be kept free or freed of paint and a hand 
test made to determine that all parts operate freely as 
intended. 

2.1 8.3.2 Where the rope retarding means provides 
for adjustment of the rope pull-through force (tension), 
means shall be provided to seal the means of adjustment 
of the rope tension. 

2.18.3.3 Seals shall be of a iype that will prevent 
readjustment of the sealed governor adjustments with- 
out breaking the seal. Provision shall be made to enable 
affixing seals after tests. 

2.18.4 Speed-Governor Overspeed Switch 

2.18.4.1 Where Required and Function 

2.18.4.1.1 A switch shall be provided on every 
car and counterweight speed governor (see 2.26.2.10). 



2.18.4.1.2 The switches required in 2.18.4.1.1 
shall be operated by the overspeed action of the gover- 
nor, except that the counterweight governor switch shall 
be permitted to be operated upon activation of the coun- 
terweight governor-rope retarding means (see 2.18.6.1). 

2.18.4.2 Setting of Car Speed-Governor Overspeed (ED) 
Switches. The setting of the car speed-governor 
overspeed switch shall conform to 2.18.4.2.1 through 

2.18.4.2.5. 

2.18.4.2.1 For rated speeds more than 0.75 m/s 
(150 ft/min), up to and including 2.5 m/s (500 ft/min), 
the car speed-governor overspeed switch shall open in 
the down direction of the elevator at not more than 90% 
of the speed at which the governor is set to trip in the 
down direction. 

2.18.4.2^2 For rated speeds more than 2.5 m/s 
(500 ft/min), the car speed-governor overspeed switch 
shall open in the down direction of the elevator at not 
more than 95% of the speed at which the governor is 
set to trip in the down direction. 

2.18.4.2.3 For elevators with static control, the 
car speed-governor overspeed switch shaU open in the 
down direction of the elevator at not more than 90% of 
the speed at which the governor is set to trip in the 
down direction. 

2.18.4.2.4 The switch, when set as specified in 
either 2.18.4.2.1, 2.18.4.2.2, or 2.18.4.2.3, shall open in the 
up direction at not more than 100% of the speed at which 
the governor is set to trip in the down direction. 

2.18.4.2.5 The speed-governor overspeed switch 
shall be permitted to open in the down direction of the 
elevator at not more than 100% of the speed at which 
the governor is set to trip in the down direction, subject 
to the following requirements: 

(a) A speed-reducing switch of the manually reset 
type is provided on the governor, that will reduce the 
speed of the elevator in case of overspeed, and that shall 
be set to open as specified in 2.18.4.2.1, 2.18.4.2.2, or 
2.18.4.2.3. 

(b) Subsequent to the first stop of the car following 
the opening of the speed-reducing switch, the car shall 
remain inoperative iintil the switch is manually reset. 

2.18.4.3 Setting of the Counterweight Governor 
Switch. Where the counterweight governor switch is 
operated by the overspeed action (see 2.18.2.2), the 
switch shall be set to open when the coimterweight is 
descending at a speed greater than the elevator rated 
speed, but not more than the speed at which the counter- 
weight governor is set to trip. 

2.18.4.4 Type of Speed-Governor Overspeed (05S) 
Switches and Speed-Reducing Switches. Switches used 
to perform the function specified shall be positively 



71 



Table 2.18.2.1 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Maximum Car Speeds at Which Speed Governor Trips and Governor Overspeed Switch 

Operates 





SI Units 






Imperial Units 








Maximum Car Speed 






Maximum Car Speed 






at Whicli Governor 






at Which Governor 




Maximum 


Overspeed Switch 




Maximum 


Overspeed Switch 


Rated 


Car Governor 


Operates, Down, 


Rated 


Car Governor 


Operates. Down, 


Speed, 


Trip Speed. 


m/s 


Speed, 


trip Speed, 


ft/mm 


m/s 


m/s 


[Note (1)] 


ft/min 


ft/min 


[Note (1)] 


0-0.63 


0.90 


0.81 


0-125 


175 


175 


0.75 


1.05 


0.95 


150 


210 


210 


0.87 


1.25 


1.13 


175 


250 


225 


1.00 


1.40 


1.26 


200 


280 


252 


1.12 


1.55 


1.40 


225 


308 


277 


1.25 


1.70 


1.53 


250 


337 


303 


1.50 


2,00 


1.80 


300 


395 


355 


1.75 


2,30 


2.07 


350 


452 


407 


2.00 


2.55 


2.30 


400 


510 


459 


2.25 


2.90 


2.61 


450 


568 


512 


2.50 


3.15 


2.84 


500 


625 


563 


3.00 


3.70 


3.52 


600 


740 


703 


3.50 


4.30 


4.09 


700 


855 


812 


4.00 


4.85 


4.61 


800 


970 


921 


4.50 


5.50 


5.23 


900 


1,085 


1,031 


5.00 


6.00 


5.70 


1,000 


1,200 


1.140 


5.50 


6.60 


6.27 


1,100 


1,320 


1,254 


6.00 


7.20 


6.84 


1,200 


1,440 


1,368 


6.50 


7.80 


7.41 


1,300 


1,560 


1,482 


7.00 


8.40 


7.98 


1,400 


1.680 


1,596 


7.50 


9.00 


8.55 


1,500 


1,800 


1.710 


8.00 


9.60 


9.12 


1,600 


1,920 


1,824 


8.50 


10.20 


9.69 


1,700 


2,040 


1.938 


9.00 


10.80 


10.26 


1,800 


2,160 


2.052 


9.50 


11.40 


10.83 


1,900 


2,280 


2.166 


10.00 


12.00 


11.40 


2,000 


2,400 . 


2,280 



NOTE: 

(1) See 2.18.4.2.5. 



Opened. Overspeed and speed-reducing switches per- 
mitted by 2.18.4.2.5 and operated by the speed governor 
shall remain in the open position until manually reset. 

NOTE: Manual reset includes means such as a finger, hand or 
cable-actuated lever, cam, etc., or some form of electromechanical 
actuation from the location of elevator controllers located outside 
the hoistway or the enclosure as specified in 2.7.6.5. 

2.18.5 Governor Ropes 

2.18.5.1 Material and Factor of Safety. Governor 
ropes shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, phosphor 
bronze, or stainless steel. They shall be of a regular-lay 
construction and not less than 9.5 mm (0.375 in.) in 
diameter. The factor of safety of governor ropes shall be 
not less than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 



2.18.5.2 Speed-Governor-Rope Clearance. During 
normal operation of the elevator, the governor rope shall 
run free and clear of the governor jaws, rope guards, or 
other stationary parts. 

2.18.5.3 Governor-Rope Tag. A metal data tag shall 
be securely attached to the governor-rope fastening. This 
data tag shall bear the following wire-rope data: 

(a) the diameter (mm or in.) 

(b) the manufacturer's rated breaking strength 

(c) the grade of material used 

(d) the year and month the rope was installed 

(e) whether nonpreformed or preformed 

(f) construction classification 

(g) name of the person or organization who installed 
the rope 



72 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(h) name or trademark by which the manufacturer of 
the rope can be identified 

A new tag shall be installed at each rope renewal. The 
material and marking of the rope data tag shall conform 
to 2.16.3.3, except that the height of the letters and figures 
shall be not less than 1.5 mm (0.06 in.). 

2.18.6 Design of Governor-Rope Retarding Means for 
Type B Safeties 

Type B car and counterweight safeties shall be acti- 
vated by a speed governor with a governor-rope 
retarding means conforming to 2.18.6.1 through 2.18.6.5. 

2.18.6.1 Upon activation at the tripping speeds 
given by 2.18.2, the means shall retard the rope with a 
force that is at least 67% greater than the force required to 
activate the safety or to trip the governor-rope releasing 
carrier, where used (see 2.17.15). 

2.18.6.2 The means shall be set to allow the gover- 
nor rope to slip through the speed governor at a rope 
tension (the governor pull-through tension) higher than 
required to activate the safety or to trip the releasing 
carrier as specified in 2.17.15. The maximum tension in 
the rope shall not exceed one-fifth of the rated ultimate 
strength of the rope. 

2.18.6.3 The means shall be designed to prevent 
appreciable damage to, or deformation of, the governor 
rope resulting from its application (stopping action). 

2.18.6.4 The means shall provide a continuous 
tension in the governor rope as required to operate the 
safety during the entire stopping interval in accordance 
with 2.17.5.2. 

(05S) 2.18.6.5 The governor shall be arranged to be 
manually tripped or activated to facilitate the tests speci- 
fied in 8.10 and 8.11. 

NOTE: Manually tripped or activated includes means such as 
but not Limited to a finger, hand or cable-actuated lever, cam, etc., 
or some form of electromechanical actuation. 

2.18.7 Design of Speed-Governor Sheaves and 
Traction Between Speed-Governor Rope and 
Sheave 

2.18.7.1 The arc of contact between the governor 
rope and the governor sheave shall, in conjunction with 
a governor-rope tension device, provide sufficient trac- 
tion to cause proper functioning of the governor. 

2.18.7.2 Where the rope force imparted to the 
governor rope (see 2.18.6.1) necessary to activate the 
safety, or to trip the releasing carrier, if used, is depen- 
dent upon the tension in the governor rope prior to 
governor tripping, a switch or switches mechanically 
opened by the governor tension sheave before the sheave 
reaches its upper or lower limit of travel shall be pro- 
vided. This switch shall be of the manually reset type 



Table 2.18.7.4 Multiplier for Determining 
Governor Sheave Pitch Diameter 



Rated Speed, 
m/s (ft/min) 



Number of Strands 



Multiplier 



1.00 or less (200 or less) 


6 


42 


1.00 or less (200 or less) 


8 


30 


Over 1.00 (over 200) 


6 


46 


Over 1.00 (over 200) 


8 


32 



and shall conform to 2.26.4.3. Subsequent to the first 
stop of the car following the opening of the switch, the 
car shall remain inoperative until the switch is manu- 
ally reset. 

2.18.7.3 Governor sheave grooves shall have 
machine-finished surfaces. Governor tension sheaves 
shall have machine-finished grooves for rated car speeds 
of more than 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min). Machined governor 
sheave grooves shall have a groove diameter of not more 
than 1.15 times the diameter of the governor rope. 

2.18.7.4 The pitch diameter of governor sheaves 
and governor tension sheaves shall be not less than the 
product of the diameter of the rope and the applicable 
multiplier listed in Table 2.18.7.4, based on tihe rated 
speed and the number of strands in the rope. 

2.18.8 Factors of Safety in Load-Bearing Parts of 
Speed Governor 

2.18.8.1 Material, except cast iron, used in load- 
bearing parts of speed governors shall have a factor of 
safety of not less than 3.5, and the materials used shall 
have an elongation of not less than 15% in a length of 
50 mm (2 in.) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 8. 
Forged, cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved. 
Cast iron shall have a factor of safety of not less than 10. 

2.18.8.2 The factors of safety shall be based upon 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts during 
normal or governor tripping operation. 

2.18.9 Speed-Governor Marking Plate 

A metal plate shall be securely attached to each speed 
governor and shall be marked in a legible and permanent 
manner with letters and figures not less than 6 mm 
(0.25 in.) in height indicating the following: 

(a) the speed in m/s (ft/min) at which the governor 
is set and sealed to trip the governor-rope retarding 
means 

(h) the size, material, and construction of the governor 
rope on which the governor-rope retarding means were 
designed to operate 

(c) the governor pull-through tension (force) in N (Ibf ) 
(see 2.18.6.2) 

(d) manufacturer's name or trademark 



73 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(e) statement ''DO NOT LUBRICATE GOVERNOR 
ROPE" 



SECTION 2.19 

ASCENDING CAR OVERSPEED AND UNINTENDED 

CAR MOVEMENT PROTECTION 

2.19.1 Ascending Car Overspeed Protection 

2.19.1.1 Purpose. Ascending car overspeed protec- 
tion shall be provided to prevent the car from striking 
the hoistway overhead structure as a result of a failure in 

(a) the electric driving-machine motor, brake, cou- 
pling, shaft, or gearing 

(b) the control system 

(c) any other component upon which the speed of the 
car depends, except the suspension ropes and the drive 
sheave of the traction machine 

2.19.1.2 Where Required and Function. All electric 
traction elevators, except those whose empty car weight 
exceeds the total weight of the suspension ropes and 
counterweight, shall be provided with a device to pre- 
vent an ascending elevator from striking the hoistway 
overhead structure. This device (see 2.26.2.29) shall 

(a) detect an ascending car overspeed condition at a 
speed not greater than 10% higher than the speed at 
which the car governor is set to trip (see 2.18.2.1). 

(1) If the overspeed detection means requires elec- 
trical power for its functioning 

(a) a loss of electrical power to the ascending car 
overspeed detection and control means shall cause the 
immediate activation of the emergency brake as required 
in 2.19.1.2(b) 
(07) (h) the occurrence of a single ground, or the fail- 

ure of any mecharucally operated switch that does not 
meet the requirements of 2.26.4.3.1, any single magneti- 
cally operated switch, contactor, or relay, or any single 
solid-state device, or a failure of a software system not 
conforming to 2.26.4.3.2, shall not render the detection 
means inoperative 

(2) The failure of any single mechanically operated 
switch that does not meet the requirements of 226 A3 
shall not render the detection means inoperative. 

(3) When a fault specified in 2.19.1.2(a)(1)(b) or 
2.19.1.2(a)(2) is detected, the car shall stop at or before 
the next landing for which a demand was registered, 
and shall not be permitted to restart. 

(4) Once actuated by overspeed, the overspeed 
detection means shall remain actuated until manually 
reset, and the car shall not start or run unless the detec- 
tion means is reset 

(b) decelerate the car when loaded with any load up 
to its rated load [see 2.16.8(h)] by applying an emergency 
brake conforming to 2.19.3. The car shall not start or 
run unless the emergency brake is reset. 



2.19.2 Protection Against Unintended Car Movement 

2.19.2.1 Purpose. Protection shall be provided with 
a device to prevent unintended car movement away 
from the landing with the hoistway door not in the 
locked position and the car door not in the closed posi- 
tion, as a result of failure in 

(a) the electric driving-machine motor, brake, cou- 
pling, shaft, or gearing 

(b) the control system 

(c) any other component upon which the speed of the 
car depends, except the suspension ropes and the drive 
sheave of the traction machine 

2.19.2.2 Where Required and Function. All electric 
traction elevators shall be provided with a device (see 
2.26.2.30) that shall 

(a) detect unintended car movement away from the 
landing with the hoistway door not in the locked posi- 
tion and the car door not in the closed position. 

NOTE: Freight elevators provided v^ith combination mechanical 
locks and contacts on the hoistway door shall detect the closed 
position of the hoistway door and the closed position of the car 
door. 

(1) If the detection means requires electrical power 
for its functioning 

(a) a loss of electrical power to the imintended 
movement detection and control means shall cause the 
immediate activation of the emergency brake as required 
in 2.19.2.2(b) 

(b) the occurrence of a single ground, or the fail- (07) 
ure of any mechanically operated switch that does not 
meet the requirements of 2.26.4.3.1, any single magneti- 
cally operated switch, contactor, or relay, or any single 
solid-state device, or a failure of a software system not 
conforming to 2.26.4.3.2, shall not render the detection 
means inoperative 

(2) The failure of any single mechanically operated 
switch that does not meet the requirements of 2.26.4.3, 
shall not render the detection means inoperative. 

(3) When a fauh specified in 2.19.2.2(a)(1)(b) or 
2.19.2.2(a)(2) is defected, the car shall stop at or before 
the next landing for which a demand was registered, 
and shall not be permitted to restart. 

(4) Once actuated by unintended movement, the 
detection means shall remain actuated until manually 
reset, and the car shall not start or run unless the detec- 
tion means is reset. 

(b) upon detection of unintended car movement, stop 
and hold the car, with any load up to rated load [see 
also 2.16.8(h)], by applying an emergency brake con- 
forming to 2.19.3, with the car movement limited in both 
directions, to a maximum of 1 220 mm (48 in.). The 
car shall not start or run unless the emergency brake 
provided for the unintended movement protection is 
reset. 



74 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.19.3 Emergency Brake (See Nonmandatory 
Appendix F) 

2.19.3.1 Where Required 

2.19.3.1.1 When requu ed by 2.19.1 for protection 
against ascending car overspeed, an emergency brake 
(see 1.3) conforming to 2.19.3.2 shall be provided. 

2.19.3.1.2 When requiired by 2.19.2 for protection 
against unintended car movement, an emergency brake 
(see 1.3) conforming to 2.19.3.2 shall be provided. 

2.19.3.1.3 A single device shall be permitted to 
meet the requirements of both 2.19.3.1.1 and 2.19.3.1.2, 
or separate devices shall be provided. 

2.19.3.2 Requirements. The emergency brake is 
permitted to consist of one or more devices and shall 

(a) function to decelerate the car by acting on one or 
more of the following (see also 2.19.4): 

(1) counterweight [e.g., counterweight safety (see 

2.17.4 and 2.17.7)] 

(2) car 

(3) suspension or compensation rope system 

(4) drive sheave of a traction machine 

(5) brake drum or braking surface of the driving- 
machine brake, provided that the driving-machine brake 
surface is integral (cast or welded) with or directly 
attached to the driving-machine sheave. Attachments, 
where used, shall conform to 2.24.3 and 2.24.4.1. Weld- 
ing, where used, shall conform to 8.8. 

(b) be independent of the driving-machine brake 

(c) not be used to provide, or assist in providing, the 
normal stopping of the car. When the emergency brake 
is activated during normal elevator stops, it shall only 
be applied to and released from a stationary braking 
surface. 

(d) not require the application of electrical power for 
its activation, nor be rendered inoperative by the failure 
of any power supply 

(e) not on its own cause the car average retardation 
to exceed 9.8 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^) during the stopping or 
slowdown phase during ascending car overspeed 

(f) be designed so that the factors of safety based on 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts subject to 
load during the operation of the emergency brake shall 
comply with the following: 

(1) Where an emergency brake is activated only 
when protecting against either an ascending car 
overspeed condition or unintended car movement with 
the car and hoistway doors open, the minimum factors 
of safety, when applied during the retardation phase of 
emergency braking, shall be not less than those specified 
in 2.17.12.1. 

(2) Where an emergency brake is activated during 
normal stops of the elevator, the minimum factors of 
safety, when applied during the retardation phase of 



emergency braking, shall be not less than those specified 
in 2.24.3.1 and 2.24.3.2. 

(3) Where an emergency brake acts on the suspen- 
sion or compensation rope system 

(a) the factor of safety with respect to the break- 
ing strength of the ropes shall be not less than 5 at any 
time during the retardation phase 

(b) it shall be designed to prevent appreciable 
damage or deformation to the ropes resulting from its 
activation 

(g) be arranged to be tested in accordance with the 
requirements specified in 8.10.2 

(h) if the design of the emergency brake is such that (05S) 
field adjustment or servicing is required and the emer- 
gency brake acts on the brake drum or braking surface 
of the driving-machine brake, it shall be provided with 
a sign stating "EMERGENCY BRAKE." The sign shaU 
be located on the emergency brake at a location visible 
from the area likely to require service. The sign shall be 
of such material and construction that the letters shall 
remain permanently and readily legible. The height of 
the letters shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.). 

2.19.3.3 Marking Plate Requirements. The emer- 
gency brake shall be provided with a marking plate 
indicating the range of total masses (car with attach- 
ments and its load) for which it is permitted to be used, 
the range of speeds at which it is set to operate, and the 
criteria such as rail lubrication requirements that are 
critical to the performance. 

2.19.4 Emergency Bralce Supports 

All components and structural members, including 
their fastenings, subjected to forces due to the applica- 
tion of the emergency brake shall be designed to with- 
stand the maximum forces developed during the 
retardation phase of the emergency braking so that the 
resulting stresses shall not exceed those permitted for 
the applicable type of equipment as follows: 

(a) machinery and sheave beams (see 2.9.6) 

(b) guide rails and their supports (see 2.23.5.3) 

(c) counterweight frames (see 2.21.2.3.3) 

(d) car frames (see 2.15.10.2) 

(e) machines, sheaves, and bedplates (see 2.24.3.2) 

SECTION 2.20 
SUSPENSION ROPES AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 

2.20.1 Suspension Means 

Elevator cars shall be suspended by steel wire ropes 
attached to the car frame or passing around sheaves 
attached to the car frame specified in 2.15.1. Ropes that 
have previously been installed and used on another 
installation shall not be reused. 

Only iron (low-carbon steel) or steel wire ropes, hav- 
ing the commercial classification "Elevator Wire Rope," 



75 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



or wire rope specifically constructed for elevator use, 
shall be used for the suspension of elevator cars and for 
the suspension of counterweights. The wire material 
for ropes shall be manufactured by the open-hearth or 
electric furnace process or their equivalent. 

2.20.2 Wire Rope Data 

2.20.2.1 On Crosshead Data Plate, the crosshead 
data plate required by 2.16.3 shall bear the following 
wire-rope data: 

(a) the number of ropes 

(h) the diameter in millimeters (mm) or inches (in.) 
(c) the manufacturer's rated breaking strength per 
rope in kilonewton (kN) or poimds (lb) 

2.20.2.2 On Rope Data Tag. A metal data tag shall 
be securely attached to one of the wire-rope fastenings. 
This data tag shall bear the following wire-rope data: 

(a) the diameter in millimeters (mm) or inches (in.) 

(b) the manufacturer's rated breaking strength 

(c) the grade of material used 

(d) the month and year the ropes were installed 

(e) the month and year the ropes were first shortened 

(f) whether the ropes were nonpreformed or pre- 
formed 

(g) construction classification 

(h) name of the person or organization who installed 
the ropes 

(i) name or trademark of the manufacturer of the 
ropes 

(j) lubrication information 

A new tag shall be installed at each rope renewal. 

The material and marking of the rope data tag shall 
cor\form to 2.16.3.3, except that the height of the letters 
and figures shall be not less than 1.5 mm (0.06 in.). 

2.20.3 Factor of Safety 

The factor of safety of the suspension wire ropes shall 
be not less than shown in Table 2.20.3. Figure 8.2.7 gives 
the minimum factor of safety for intermediate rope 
speeds. The factor of safety shall be based on the actual 
rope speed corresponding to the rated speed of the car. 

The factor of safety shall be calculated by the following 
formula: 



Table 2.20.3 Minimum Factors of Safety for 
Suspension Wire Ropes 



/ = 



S X N 
W 



where 

N = 



number of rims of rope under load. For 2:1 

roping, N shall be two times the number of 

ropes used, etc. 
S = manufacturer's rated breaking strength of 

one rope 
W = maximum static load imposed on all car ropes 

with the car and its rated load at any position 

in the hoistway 



Rope Speed, 


Minimum Factor of Safety 


m/s (ft/min) 


Passenger 


Freight 


0.25 (50) 


7.60 


6.65 


0,37 (75) 


7.75 


6.85 


0.50 (100) 


7.97 


7,00 


0.62 (125) 


8.10 


7.15 


0.75 (150) 


8.25 


7.30 


0.87 (175) 


8.40 


7.45 


1.00 (200) 


8.60 


7.65 


1.12 (225) 


8.75 


7.75 


1.25 (250) 


8.90 


7.90 


1.50 (300) 


9.20 


8.20 


1.75 (350) 


9.50 


8.45 


2.00 (400) 


9.75 


8.70 


2.25 (450) 


10.00 


8.90 


2.50 (500) 


10.25 


9.15 


2.75 (550) 


10.45 


9.30 


3.00 (600) 


10.70 


9.50 


3.25 (650) 


10.85 


9.65 


3.50 (700) 


11.00 


9,80 


3.75 (750) 


11.15 


9.90 


4.00 (800) 


11.25 


10.00 


4.25 (850) 


11.35 


10.10 


4.50 (900) 


11.45 


10.15 


4.75 (950) 


11.50 


10.20 


5.00 (1.000) ■ 


11.55 


10.30 


5.25 (1,050) 


11.65 


10.35 


5.50 (1,100) 


11.70 


10.40 


5.75 (1,150) 


11.75 


10.45 


6.00 (1.200) 


11.80 


10.50 


6.25 (1,250) 


11.80 


10.50 


6.50 (1,300) 


11.85 


10.55 


6.75 (1,350) 


11,85 


10.55 


7.00-10.00 (1,400-2,000) 


11.90 


10.55 



2.20.4 Minimum Number and Diameter of 
Suspension Ropes 

The niinimum number of hoisting ropes used shall 
be three for traction elevators and two for drum-t)^e 
elevators. 

Where a car counterweight is used, the number of 
counterweight ropes used shall be not less than two. 

The term "diameter/' where used in reference to ropes, 
shall refer to the nominal diameter as given by the rope 
manufacturer. 

The minimum diameter of hoisting and counter- 
weight ropes shall be 9.5 mm (0.375 in.). Outer wires of 
the ropes shall be not less than 0.56 mm (0.024 in.) in 
diameter. 



# 



76 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.20.5 Suspension-Rope Equalizers 

2.20.5.1 Suspension-rope equalizers, where pro- 
vided, shall be of the individual compression spring 
type or shall meet the requirements of 2.20.5.3. Springs 
in tension shall not be used to attach suspension ropes. 

2.20.5.2 Single-bar-type equalizers shall be permit- 
ted only for winding drum machines with two ropes, 
to attach the ropes to the dead-end hitch plate, provided 
it meets the requirements of 2.20.5.3. 

2.20.5.3 Equalizers other than the individual com- 
pression spring type shall be permitted, provided that 
their strength is established through tensile engineering 
tests. Such tests shall show the ultimate strength of the 
equalizers and its fastenings in its several parts and 
assembly to be not less than 10% in excess of the strength 
of the suspension ropes as required by 2.20.3. 

2.20.6 Securing of Suspension Wire Ropes to 
Winding Drums 

Suspension wire ropes of winding-drum machines 
shall have the drum ends of the ropes secured on the 
inside of the drum by clamps. 

Where the ropes extend beyond their clamps or sock- 
ets, means shall be provided to prevent the rope ends 
from coming out of the inside of the drum and to prevent 
interference with other parts of the machine. 

2.20.7 Spare Rope Turns on Winding Drums 

Suspension wire ropes of winding drum machines 
shall have not less than one turn of the rope on the drum 
when the car is resting on the fully compressed buffers. 

2.20.8 Reserved 

2.20.9 Suspension-Rope Fastening 

2.20.9.1 Type of Rope Fastenings. The car and coun- 
terweight ends of suspension wire ropes, or the station- 
ary hitch-ends where multiple roping is used, shall be 
fastened in such a manner that all portions of the rope, 
except the portion inside the rope sockets, shall be 
readily visible. 

Fastening shall be 

(a) by individual tapered I'Ope sockets (see 2.20.9.4) 
or other types of rope fastenings that have undergone 
adequate tensile engineering tests, provided that 

(1) such fastenings conform to 2.20.9.2 and 2.20.9.3; 

(2) the rope socketing is such as to develop at least 
80% of the ultimate breaking strength of the strongest 
rope to be used in such fastenings; or 

(b) by individual wedge rope sockets (see 2.20.9.5); 
and 

(c) U-bolt-type rope clamps or similar devices shall 
not be used for suspension-rope fastenings. 

2.20.9.2 Adjustable Siiaclcle Rods. The car ends, 
or the car or counterweight dead ends where multiple 



roping is used, of all suspension wire ropes of traction- 
type elevators shall be provided with shackle rods of a 
design that will permit individual adjustment of the rope 
lengths. Similar shackle rods shall be provided on the 
car or counterweight ends of compensating ropes. 

2.20.9.3 General Design Requirements. Wire-rope 
fastenings shall conform to 2.20.9.3.1 through 2.20.9.3.8. 

2.20.9.3.1 The portion of the rope fastening that 
holds the wire rope (rope socket) and the shackle rod 
shall be in one piece (unit construction), or separate. 

2.20.9.3.2 The rope socket shall be either cast or 
forged steel, provided that where the rope socket and 
the shackle rod are in one piece (imit construction), the 
entire fastening shall be of forged steel. 

2.20.9.3.3 Where the shackle rod and rope socket 
are not in one piece, the shackle rod shall be of forged 
or rolled steel. 

2.20.9.3.4 Cast or forged steel rope sockets, 
shackle rods, and their connections shall be made of 
unwelded steel, having an elongation of not less than 
20% in a gauge length of 50 mm (2 in.), when measured 
in accordance with ASTM E 8, and conforming to 
ASTM A 668, Class B for forged steel, and ASTM A 27, 
Grade 60/30 for cast steel, and shall be stress relieved. 
Steels of greater strength shall be permitted, provided 
they have an elongation of not less than 20% in a length 
of 50 mm (2 in.). 

2.20.9.3.5 Where the shackle rod is separate from 
the rope socket, the fastening between the two parts 
shall be positive, and such as to prevent their separation 
under all conditions of operation of the elevator. 

Where the connection of the two parts is threaded, 
the thread design, tolerance, and manufacture shall con- 
form to the requirements of ASME B1.13M, M-6H/6g, 
coarse or fine threads (ASME Bl.l, UNC or UNF Class 
2A and Class 2B threads). The length of the thread 
engagement of the rod in the socket shall be not less 
than 1.5 times the root diameter of the thread on the rod, 
and a cotter pin or equivalent means shall in addition be 
provided to restrict the turning to the rod in the socket 
and prevent unscrewing of the connection in normal 
operation. 

Eye bolts used as connections with clevis-type sockets 
shall be of forged steel conforming to ASTM A 668, 
Class B (heat treated), without welds. 

2.20.9.3.6 Rope sockets shall be of such strength 
that the rope will break before the socket is materially 

deformed. 

2.20.9.3.7 The shackle rod, eye bolt, or other 
means used to connect the rope socket to the car or 
counterweight shall have a strength at least equal to the 
manufacturer's rated breaking strength of the rope. 



77 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Fig. 2.20.9.4 Tapered Rope Sockets 




See Noted) 



NOTE: 

(1) Rope socket and shackle rod may be in one piece, as shown 

(unit construction) or the socket and rod may be separate (see 2.20.9.3). 



Table 2.20.9.4.5 Relation of Rope Diameter to Diameter of the Small Soci^et Hole 



Nominal Rope 
Diameter, mm 



Maximum Diameter 
of Hole, d \ mm 



Nominal Rope 
Diameter, in. 



Maximum Diameter of Hole, 
d \ in. 



10 to 12 inclusive 2.5 larger than nominal rope diameter 

13 to 19 inclusive 3 larger than nominal rope diameter 

22 to 29 inclusive 4 larger than nominal rope diameter 

32 to 40 inclusive 5 larger than nominal rope diameter 



Vs to ^16 inclusive 

^/i to V4 inclusive 

^8 to iVs inclusive 

iVi to 1^2 inclusive 



V32 larger than nominal rope diameter 

Vs larger than nominal rope diameter 

%2 larger than nominal rope diameter 

Vu larger than nominal rope diameter 



2.20.9.3.8 Rope fastenings incorporating anti- 
friction devices that will permit free spinning of the rope 
shall not be used. 

2.20.9.4 Tapered Rope Sockets. Tapered rope sock- 
ets shall be of a design as shown in Fig. 2.20.9.4, and shall 
conform to 2.20.9.2 and 2.20.9.3, and 2.20.9.4.1 through 
2.20.9.4.5. 

2.20.9.4.1 The axial length L of the tapered por- 
tion of the socket shall be not less than 4.75 times the 
diameter of the wire rope used. 

2.20.9.4.2 The axial length, L', of the open por- 
tion of the rope socket shall be not less than 4 times the 
diameter of the wire rope used. 

2.20.9.4.3 The length of the straight bore, L", at 
the small end of the socket shall be not more than 13 mm 
(0.5 in.) nor less than 3 mm (0.125 in.), and its outer 
edge shall be rounded and free from cutting edges. 

2.20.9.4.4 The diameter, d, of the hole at the large 
end of the tapered portion of the socket shall be not less 
than 2.25 times nor more than 3 times the diameter of 
the wire rope used. 

2.20.9.4.5 The diameter, d\ of the hole at the end 
of the tapered portion of the socket shall be not more 
than shown in Table 2.20.9.4.5. 

2.20.9.5 Wedge Rope Sockets. Wedge socket assem- 
blies shall be of a design as shown in Fig. 2.20.9.5, and 
shall conform to 2.20.9.2 and 2.20.9.3, and 2.20.9.5.1 
through 2.20.9.5.6. 



Fig. 2.20.9.5 Wedge Rope Sockets 



8 tinnes rope 
diameter max 




4 times rope 
diameter max 



Load-carrying rope 
must be vertically 
in line with 
shackle rod 



Wire rope retaining 
clips jnonload carrying) 
[see 2.20.9.5.4] 



Wedge 

Wedge socket 

Antirotation 
pin 

Shackle rod [Note (1)] 



NOTE: 

(1) Rope socket and shackle rod may be 
in one piece, as shown (unit construction) 
or the socket and rod may be separate 
(see 2.20.9.3). 



78 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.20.9.5.1 A test specimen consisting of the 
strongest elevator wire rope for a given diameter and 
wedge socket assembly shall be subjected to a destruc- 
tive tensile engineering test. The rope socketing shall 
develop at least 80% of the ultimate breaking strength 
of the strongest rope to be used in such a fastening 
without the rope slipping through the assembly. 

2.20.9.5.2 Wedge socket assemblies shall be of 
such a strength that when tested as in 2.20.9.5.1, the 
rope shall break before the socket or wedge is materially 
deformed. 

2.20.9.5.3 Suppliers of wedge sockets shall sub- 
mit certification showing that the sockets, with visible 
permanent manufacturer's identification, have success- 
fully passed the tests described in 2.20.9.5.1 and 
2.20.9.5.2 at a testing laboratory. 

2.20.9.5.4 When the rope has been seated in the 
wedge socket by the load on the rope, the wedge shall 
be visible, and at least two wire-rope retaining clips 
shall be provided to attach the termination side to the 
load-carrying side of the rope (see Fig. 2.20.9.5). The 
first clip shall be placed a maximum of 4 times the rope 
diameter above the socket, and the second clip shall be 
located within 8 times the rope diameter above the first 
clip. The purpose of the two clips is to retain the wedge 
and prevent the rope from slipping in the socket should 
the load on the rope be removed for any reason. The 
clips shall be designed and installed so that they do not 
distort or damage the rope in any manner. 

2.20.9.5.5 Markings on the wedge socket assem- 
bly components shall be as follows: 

(a) Each socket shall be permanently and legibly 
marked or color coded to identify the corresponding 
wedge, or wedges, and rope size to be used in the assem- 
bly. The markings shall be visible after installation. 

(b) Each wedge shall be permanently and legibly 
marked or color coded to identify the corresponding 
socket, or sockets, and rope size, within which it is to 
be inserted to form an assembly. The markings shall be 
visible after installation. 

2.20.9.5.6 Load-carrying rope shall be in line 
with shackle rod, and the sockets shall be permitted to 
be staggered in the direction of travel of the elevator 
and counterweight, where used. 

2.20.9.6 Rope Socket Embedment Medium. Only 
babbitt metal or thermosetting resin compositions 
intended for elevator wire rope socketing shall be used 
to secure ropes in tapered sockets. The embedment 
material shall conform to 2.20.9.6.1 through 2.20.9.6.3. 

2.20.9.6.1 Babbitt Metal. Babbitt metal shall con- 
tain at least 9% of antimony and shall be clean and free 
from dross. 



2.20.9.6.2 Thermosetting Resin Composition 

(a) Physical Properties. The thermoset resin composi- 
tion shall have the following properties: 

(1) Uncured (Liquid) Material 

(a) Viscosity of Resin-Catalyst Mixture. The viscos- 
ity of the resin-catalyst mixture shall be sufficiently low 
to permit rapid, complete saturation of the rope rosette 
in order to prevent entrapment of air. 

(b) Flash Point. All components shall have a mini- 
mimi flash point of 27°C (80°F). 

(c) Shelf Life. AU components shaU have a mini- 
mum of 1 year shelf life at 21°C (70°F). 

(d) Pot Life and Cure Time. After mixing, the resin- 
catalyst mixture shall be pourable for a minimum of 
8 min at 21°C (70°F) and shall cure within 1 h after 
hardening. Heating of the resin mixture in the socket to 
accelerate curing shall follow the resin manufacturer's 
instructions. 

(2) Cured Resin 

(a) Socket Performance. Resin, when cured, shall 
develop sufficient holding strength to solvent-washed 
wire in wire-rope sockets to develop 80% of the ultimate 
strength of all types of elevator wire rope. No slippage of 
wire is permissible when testing resin-filled rope socket 
assemblies in tension; however, after testing, some seat- 
ing of the resin cone shall be permitted to be apparent 
and is acceptable. Resin terminations shall also be capa- 
ble of withstanding tensile shock loading. 

(b) Shrinkage. The volumetric shrinkage of fully 
cured resin shall not exceed 2%. The use of an inert filler 
in the resin is permissible. 

(c) Curing. The resin-catalyst mixture shall be 
capable of curing either at ambient [16°C to SS'^C (60°F 
to 100°F)] or elevated temperatures. At temperatures 
below 16°C (60°F), an elevated temperature cure shall 
be used. 

(b) Materials Required. The thermoset resin composi- 
tion intended for elevator wire rope socketing shall be 
supplied in two parts consisting of preweighed resin and 
preweighed catalyst, each packaged separately within a 
kit. Each kit containing the thermoset resin composition 
shall consist of the following: 

(1) preweighed thermoset resin 

(2) preweighed catalyst 

(3) necessary materials for mixing and pouring 

(4) detachable label on resin container 

(c) Marking 

(1) Resin Container. The label on the resin container 
shall show the following information: 

(a) product name 

(b) part designation (e.g., "Part A" or "Resin") 

(c) manufacturer's name or trademark and 
address 

(d) mixing iristructions 

(e) ICC information 

(f) safety warnings and cautions 



79 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(g) packaging date 
(h) flash point 
(i) shelf life 
(j) storage instructions 
(k) curing instructions 
(/) net weight 

(m) a statement certifying that the product con- 
forms to 2.20.9.6.2 of ASME A17.1 or CSA B44 

2.20.9.6.3 Catalyst Container. The label on the cat- 
alyst container shall show the following information: 

(a) product name 

(b) part designation (e.g., 'Tart B," "Catalyst/' or 
"Hardener") 

(c) manufacturer's name or trademark and address 

(d) safety warnings and cautions 

(e) flash point 

(f) storage instructions 

(g) net weight 

2.20.9.7 Method of Securing Wire Ropes in Tapered 
Soclcets. Where the tapered type of socket is used, the 
method and procedure to be followed in making up the 
fastening shall conform to the following as applicable. 

2.20.9.7.1 Handling. The rope to be socketed shall 
be carefully handled to prevent twisting, untwisting, or 
kinking. 

2.20.9.7.2 Seizing of Rope Ends. The rope ends 
to be socketed shall be seized before cutting with seizing 
in accordance with the following: 

(a) The seizing shall be done with annealed iron wire, 
provided that other methods of seizing be permitted, 
that give the same protection from loss of rope lay. Where 
iron wire is used for seizing, the length of each seizing 
shall be not less than the diameter of the rope. 

(h) For nonpreformed rope, three seizings shall be 
made at each side of the cut in the rope. The first seizing 
shall be close to the cut end of the rope, and the second 
seizing shall be spaced back from the first the length of 
the end of the rope to be turned in. The third seizing 
shall be at a distance from the second equal to the length 
of the tapered portion of the socket. 

(c) For preformed rope, one seizing shall be made at 
each side of the cut in the rope. The seizing shall be at 
a distance from the end of the rope equal to the length 
of the tapered portion of the socket plus the length of 
the portion of the rope to be turned in. 

2.20.9.7.3 Spreading of Rope Strands. After the 
rope has been seized, it shall be inserted into the socket 
through the hole in the small end, a sufficient distance 
for manipulation, and where nonpreformed rope is 
used, the first two seizings shall be removed. The rope 
strands shall then be spread apart, and where rope with 
fibre core is used, the fibre core shall be cut away as 
close as possible to the remaining seizing. 



2.20.9.7.4 Removal of Grease or Oil. Thorough 
cleaning of the outer wires of the strand surface and the 
inside of the rope socket is required for good adhesion. 
Brush or dip in clean solvents is recommended. 

2.20.9.7.5 Turning in of Rope Strands. The 

exposed rope strands shall then be bent, turned in, and 
bunched closely together, each strand being turned back 
the same distance. The portion turned in (rope rosette) 
shall have a length of not less than 2.5 times the diameter 
of the rope, and such that, when the rope is pulled as 
far as possible into the socket, the bend of the tumed- 
in strands shall be slightly overflush with the mouth of 
the tapered socket (large end) and will be visible when 
the socket has been completed (see 2.20.9.7.9). Where 
rope with steel core is used, the steel core shall be cut 
off even with tops of the looped strands. 

2.20.9.7.6 Insertion of Bent-ln Rope Strands in 
Socket. The rope end shall be pulled as far as possible 
into the socket, so that the remaining seizing projects 
outside the hole at the small end of the socket. 

2.20.9.7.7 Position of Socliet Preparatory to Pouring 
Embedment Medium. The socket shall be held in a verti- 
cal position with the large end up, and the rope held in 
a position truly axial with the socket. Tape or waste shall 
be permitted to be wound aroimd the rope at the small 
end of the socket to prevent the embedment medium 
from seeping through, but shall be removed after com- 
pletion of the socket. 

2.20.9.7.8 Preparation of Embedment Medium 

(a) Babbitt Metal 

(1) Heating of Babbitt. The babbitt shall be heated 
to a fluidity just sufficient to char a piece of soft wood 
such as white pine without igniting it. Gare shall be 
taken not to overheat the babbitt sufficiently to damage 
the rope. 

(2) Heating of Socket Basket and Pouring of Babbitt. 
The rope socket basket shall be heated by a blowtorch 
flame sufficiently to prevent chilling of the babbitt and 
to ensure that the babbitt, when poured, will completely 
fill the basket, including all the spaces between the rope 
strands. Following this the molten babbitt shall be 
poured slowly and evenly into the basket until it is 
filled to a point level with the top of the opening in the 
large end. 

(b) Thermosetting Resin Composition 

(1) The manufacturer's directions shall be strictly 
followed in handling, mixing, pouring, and curing the 
resin material. 

(2) New containers of resin and catalyst shall be 
utilized for each set of rope sockets. The entire quantity 
of resin and catalyst shall be mixed when the containers 
are opened. 

(3) Resin sockets shall not be poured at a tempera- 
ture below 16°C (60°F) without first warming the socket 



80 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



and the resin composition to 21°C to 32°C (70°F to 90°F). 
The socket shall be permitted to be warmed using the 
electrical resistance heating devices intended for curing 
resin sockets. 

(4) Curing of resin sockets shall be accomplished 
by heating at elevated temperature following the manu- 
facturer's suggested schedule and directions. Cure time 
shall not exceed 30 min. Electrical resistance heating 
devices designed to fit around the sockets, or other 
means of providing controlled, evenly distributed heat, 
shall be used to provide the elevated temperature for 
curing. Open flames or exposed electrical resistance 
heating elements shall not be used. 

(5) Upon completion of the socketing, the label 
from the container of resin shall be attached to one of 
the rope sockets for inspection purposes and shall be 
suitably protected. 

2.20.9.7.9 Inspection of Sockets After Completion. 

A visual inspection of the completed sockets shall be 
made after they have cooled and the tape or waste has 
been removed from the small end of the sockets. The 
visual inspection shall verify that 

(a) the embedment medium is visible at the small end 
of the socket 

(b) the bends of all of the individual rope strands (see 
2.20.9.7.5) are approximately the same height above the 
embedment medium and visible within the range of not 
less than one-half the diameter of the rope strand above 
the embedment medium and that there is not more than 
1.5 mm (0.06 in.) clearance between the embedment 
medium and the underside of the bend in the rope strand 

(c) no loss of rope lay has occurred where the wire 
rope enters the socket 

2.20.9.7.10 Lubrication of Wire Rope After Socket 
Attacliment. After the resin has cured, the wire ropes 
shall be lubricated at the base of the socket (small end) 
to replace the lubricant that was removed during the 
cleaning operation required imder 2.20.9.7.4. 

2.20.9.8 Antirotation Devices. Following the com- 
pletion of the rope socketing and any adjustments of 
individual shackle rods as provided for in 2.20.9.2, 
means shall be provided to prevent the rotation of the 
suspension ropes without restricting their movement 
horizontally or vertically. 

2.20.10 Auxiliary Rope Fastening Devices 

Auxiliary rope fastening devices, designed to support 
elevator cars or counterweights if any regular rope fas- 
tening fails, shall be permitted to be provided, subject 
to the requirements of 2.20.10.1 through 2.20.10.9, 

2.20.10.1 They shall be approved on the basis of 
adequate tensile and fatigue engineering tests. 

2.20.10.2 The device and its fastenings, in its sev- 
eral parts and assembly, shall have a strength at least 



equal to that of the manufacturer's breaking strength of 
the rope to which it is to be attached. 

2.20.10.3 Steel parts used in the device shall be 
cast or forged with an elongation of not less than 20%, 
conforming to ASTM A 668, Class B, for forgings and 
ASTM A 27, Grade 60/30 for cast steel, and shall be 
stress relieved. 

2.20.10.4 The device shall be so designed and 
installed that 

(a) it will not become operative unless there is a failure 
of the normal rope fastening 

(b) it wiU function in a rope movement of not over 
38 mm (1.5 in.) 

(c) it will not interfere with the vertical or rotational 
movements of the rope during normal service 

2.20.10.5 Means shall be provided to cause the 
electric power to be removed from the driving-machine 
motor and brake when any auxiliary fastening device 
operates. Such means shall 

(a) have all electrical parts enclosed 

(b) be of the manually reset type that can be reset 
only when the wire rope or ropes have been resocketed 
and the auxiliary rope fastening device has been restored 
to its normal ruiming position 

2.20.10.6 The method used to attach the device 
to the rope shall be such as to prevent injury to, or 
appreciable deformation of, the rope. 

2.20.10.7 The installation of the device shall not 
reduce the required overhead clearances. 

2.20.10.8 The car-frame supports for the fastening 
members of the device shall conform to 2.15.13, or where 
existing conditions will not permit compliance with this 
requirement, other means of fastening shall be permitted 
to be used subject to the approval of the enforcing 
authority, 

2.20.10.9 Each device shall be permanently 
marked with the name or trademark of the manufacturer 
by means of metal tags or plates with the following data 
of the wire rope for which tihey are designated to be used: 

(a) diameter of the rope in millimeters (mm) or 
inches (in.) 

(b) manufacturer 's rated breaking strength of the rope 

(c) construction classification of the wire rope 

The material and marking of the tags or plates shall 
conform to 2.16.3.3, except that the height of the letters 
and figures shall be not less than 1.5 mm (0.06 in.). 

SECTION 2.21 
COUI^TERWEIGHTS 

2.21.1 General Requirements 

2.21.1.1 Frames. Weight sections of a counter- 
weight shall be moimted in structural or formed metal 



81 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



frames so designed as to retain them securely in place 
(see 2.21.2.6). 

2.21.1.2 Retention of Weight Sections. Means shall 
be provided to retain weight sections in place in the 
event of buffer engagement or safety application or if 
they become broken. 

Where tie rods are used, a minimum of two shall be 
provided, that shall pass through all weight sections. 
Tie-rods shall be provided with a lock nut and cotter 
pin at each end. 

2.21.1.3 Guiding Members. Counterweight frames 
shall be guided on each guide rail by upper and lower 
guiding members attached to the frame. 

Retention means shall be provided to prevent the 
counterweight from being displaced by more than 
13 mm (0.5 in.) from its normal running position should 
any part of the guiding means fail, excluding the guiding 
member base and its attachment to the frame. The reten- 
tion means shall be permitted to be integral with the 
base. 

2.21.1.4 Independent Car Counterweights. Where 
an independent car counterweight is provided, it shall 
nm in separate guide rails and shall not be of sufficient 
weight to cause undue slackening of the hoisting ropes 
during acceleration or retardation of the elevator car. 

2.21.2 Design Requirements for Frames and Rods 

2.21.2.1 Material. Frames and rods shall be made of 
steel or other metals conforming to 2.15.6.2 and 2.15.6.3, 
provided that where steels of greater strength than those 
specified, or where metals other than steel are used, 
the factor of safety used in the design shall conform to 
2.21.2.3. 

2.21.2.2 Frame Connections. Connections between 
frame members shall conform to 2.15.7. 

2.21.2.3 Factor of Safety 

2.21.2.3.1 The frame members and their connec- 
tions shall be designed with a factor of safety of not less 
than 5 with the elevator at rest and the counterweight 
at the top of its travel. 

2.21.2.3.2 The counterweight frame shall be 
designed with a factor of safety of not less than 2.5 at 
buffer engagement or safety application. 

2.21.2.3.3 The frame members, brackets, and 
their connections subject to forces due to the application 
of the emergency brake (see 2.19.4) shall be designed to 
withstand the maximum forces developed during the 
retardation phase of the emergency braking so that the 
resulting stresses due to the emergency braking and all 
other loading acting simultaneously, if applicable, shall 
not exceed 190 MPa (27,500 psi). 



2.21.2.4 Sheaves. Where a hoisting sheave or 
sheaves are raounted in the frame, the requirements of 
2.15.12 shall apply (see also 2.24.2 and 2.24.3 for require- 
ments for sheaves). 

2.21.2.5 Suspension-Rope Hitcli or Shapes. Where 
counterweights are suspended by ropes attached 
directly to the frames by means of rope fastenings, the 
rope attachments shall conform to 2.15.13. 

2.21.2.6 Securing of Weights in Frames. The 

weights shall be so moimted and secured in the frames 
as to prevent shifting of the weights by an amount that 
will reduce the running clearances to less than those 
specified in 2.5.1.2. 

2.21.3 Cars Counterbalancing One Another 

An elevator car shall not be used to counterbalance 
another elevator car. 

2.21.4 Compensation Means (07) 

Compensation means, such as compensating ropes or 
chains or other mechanical means and their attachments 
(except for safety hooks, where used) to tie the counter- 
weight and car together, shall be capable of withstand- 
ing, with a factor of safety of 5, any forces to which the 
means is subjected with the elevator at rest. 

The maximum suspended weight of compensation 
means with car or counterweight at the top of its travel 
and one-half total weight of tension sheave assembly, 
where used, shall be included. 

The factor of safety for compensation means shall be 
based on the minimum, breaking load, or breaking force 
as appropriate to the tensile testing method. 

2.21.4.1 Connections. A connection shall be pro- (07) 
vided between the car or counterweight and the com- 
pensation means. The connection shall be bolted or 
welded and shall conform to 2.15.7.3. 

2.21.4.1.1 Cast iron, where used, shall have a 
factor of safety of not less than 10, based on maximim\ 
stress developed. 

2.21.4.1.2 When compensation ropes are used 
with a tension sheave, one end of each rope shall be 
provided with a means to individually adjust rope 
length. 



2.21.4.2 Tie-Down Compensation Means. For rated 
speeds greater than 3.5 m/s (700 ft/min), a tie-down 
compensation means shaU be provided and fastened to 
the building structure to limit the jump of the car or 
counterweight as a result of car or counterweight buffer 
engagement or safety application. 

The compensation means, connection, building struc- 
tural members, and fastenings shall be capable of with- 
standing the maximum forces to which they are 



(07) 



82 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.22.3.1 Minimum Spring Buffer Strolie 



Rated Car Speed, 
m/s (ft/min) 



Minimum Stroke, 
mm (in.) 



# 



0.5 or less (100 or less) 
0.51 to 0.75 (101 to 150) 
0.76 to 1.00 (151 to 200) 



38 (1.5) 

63 (2.5) 

100 (4.0) 



subjected due to car or counterweight buffer engage- 
ment or safety application with a factor of safety of not 
less than 2.5. 



SECTION 2.22 
BUFFERS AND BUMPERS 

2.22.1 Type and Location 

2.22.1.1 Type of BufFers. Buffers of the spring, oil, 
or equivalent type shall be installed under the cars and 
counterweights of passenger and freight elevators sub- 
ject to the requirements of 2.22.1.1.1 through 2.22.1.1.3. 

2.22.1.1.1 Spring buffers or their equivalent shall 
be permitted to be used where the rated speed is not 
in excess of 1 m/s (200 ft/min). 

2.22.1.1.2 Oil buffers or their equivalent shall 
be used where the rated speed is in excess of 1 m/s 

(200 ft/min). 

2.22.1.1.3 Where Type C safeties are used (see 
2.17.8.2), car buffers are not required if solid bumpers 
are installed. 

2.22.1.2 Location. Buffers or bumpers shall be 
located so as to retard the car and counterweight without 
exceeding allowable design stresses in the car frame and 
coimterweight frame. 

2.22.2 Solid Bumpers 

Solid bumpers, where permitted, shall be made of 
wood or other suitably resilient material of sufficient 
strength to withstand without failure the impact of the 
car with rated load, or the counterweight, descending 
at governor tripping speed. 

The material used shall be of a type that will resist 
deterioration or be so treated as to resist deterioration. 

2.22.3 Spring Buffers 

2.22.3.1 Strolce. The stroke of the buffer spring, as 
marked on its marking plate, shall be equal to or greater 
than the value specified in Table 2.22.3.1. 

2.22.3.2 Load Rating 

2.22.3.2.1 Buffers for cars and counterweights 
shall be capable of supporting, without being com- 
pressed solid or to a fixed stop, a static load having a 
minimum of 2 times the total weight of 



(a) the car and its rated load for car buffers 

(b) the counterweight for counterweight buffers 

2.22.3.2.2 Buffers for cars and counterweights 
shall be compressed solid or to a fixed stop with a static 
load of three times the weight of 

(a) the car and its rated load for car buffers 

(b) the counterweight for counterweight buffers 

2.22.3.2.3 Where the space below the hoistway is 
not permanently secured against access, the load rating 
specified in 2.22.3.2.1 shall be increased to meet the 
requirements of 2.6.1(b) and 2.6.2. 

2.22.3.3 Marl^ing Plates. Each spring buffer shall 
be provided with a marking plate showing its load rating 
and stroke and the number of springs. Where the springs 
are removable, each spring shall be identified, and the 
assembly marking plate shall indicate this identification. 
Markings shall be made in a permanent and legible 
manner. 

2.22.4 Oil BufFers 

2.22.4.1 Strolce. The minimum stroke of oil buffers 
shall be based on the requirements of 2.22.4.1.1 or 
2.22.4.1.2. 

2.22.4.1.1 The stroke shall be such that the car 
or the counterweight, on striking the buffer at 115% of 
the rated speed, shall be brought to rest with an average 
retardation of not more than 9.81 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^). 

2.22.4.1.2 Where terminal speed reducing device 
is installed that conforms to 2.25.4.1, and that will limit 
the speed at which the car or counterweight can strike 
its buffer, the buffer stroke shall be based on at least 
115% of such reduced striking speed and on an average 
retardation not exceeding 9.81 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^). In no 
case shall the stroke used be less than 50% of the stroke 
required by 2.22.4.1.1 for rated speeds under 4 m/s 
(800 ft/min), nor less than 33V3%, or 450 mm (18 in.), 
whichever is greater, for rated speeds of 4 m/s 
(800 ft/min) or more. 

NOTE (2.22.4.1): Figure 8.2.4 indicates the minimum buffer 
strokes for various mitial velocities. Table 2.22.4.1 indicates the 
minimum buffer strokes for the most usual rated speeds. See for- 
mula in 8.2.4 for calculation of buffer strokes differing from or 
exceeding those listed in Table 2.22.4.1. 

2.22.4.2 Retardation. Oil buffers shall develop an 
average retardation not in excess of 9.81 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^), 
and shall develop no peak retardation greater than 
24.5 m/s^ (80.5 ft/s^), having a duration exceeding 0.04 s 
with any load in the car, from rated load to a minimum 
load of 70 kg (154 lb), when the buffers are struck with 
an initial speed of not more than 

(a) 115% of the rated speed for buffers conforming to 
2.22.4.1.1 

(b) 115% of the predetermined reduced speed for buff- 
ers conforming to 2.22,4.1.2 



83 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 







Table 2.22.4.1 Minimum Oil Buffer Strol^es 








SI Units 






Imperial Units 






115% of 


Minimum 




115% of 


Minimum 


Rated Speed, 


Rated Speed 


Strolte, 


Rated Speed, 


Rated Speed, 


Stroke. 


m/s 


m/s 


mm 


ft/min 


ft/min 


in. 


1.00 


1.15 


65 


200 


230 


2.75 


1.12 


1.29 


85 


225 


269 


3.50 


1.25 


1.44 


105 


250 


288 


4.25 


1.50 


1.73 


155 


300 


345 


6.25 


1.75 


2.01 


205 


350 


402 


8.25 


2.00 


2.30 


270 


400 


460 


11.00 


2.25 


2.59 


340 


450 


517 


13.75 


2.50 


2.88 


425 


500 


575 


17.00 


3.00 


3.45 


605 


600 


690 


24.75 


3.50 


4.03 


825 


700 


805 


33.25 


4.00 


4.60 


1080 


800 


920 


43.75 


4.50 


5.18 


1365 


900 


1,035 


55.50 


5.00 


5.75 


1685 


1,000 


1.150 


68.50 


5.50 


6.32 


2 040 


1,100 


1,265 


83.00 


6.00 


6.90 


2 425 


1,200 


1.380 : 


98.50 


6.50 


7.48 


2 845 


1,300 


1,495 


115.50 


7.00 


8.05 


3 300 


1,400 


1,610 


134.50 


7.50 


8.63 


3 790 


1,500 


1,725 


154.00 


8.00 


9.20 


4 310 


1,600 


1,840 


175.25 


8.50 


9.78 


4 870 


1,700 


1,955 


197.75 


9.00 


10.35 


5 460 


1,800 


2,070 


221.75 


9.50 


10.93 


6 080 


1,900 


2,105 


247.00 


10.00 


11.50 


6740 


2,000 


2,300 


273.75 



2.22.4.3 Factor of Safety for Oil-Buffer Parts. The 

factor of safety of parts of oil buffers, based on the yield 
point for compression members and on the ultimate 
strength and elongation for other parts, at gravity retar- 
dation with the maximum load for which the buffer is 
designed, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 8 
using a 50 mm (2 in.) gauge length, shall be not less than 

(a) 3 for materials having an elongation 20% or more 

(b) 3.5 for materials having an elongation from 15% 
to 20% 

(c) 4 for materials having an elongation from 10% 
to 15% 

(d) 5 for materials having an elongation less than 10% 

(e) 10 for cast iron parts 

2.22.4.4 Slenderness Ratio for Members Under Com- 
pression as Columns. The slenderness ratio (L/R) for 
members of oil buffers imder compression as columns 
shall be not more than 80. 

The slenderness ratio (L/R) specified applies only to 
those main buffer members that are subject to the impact 
of the fully loaded car when striking the buffer. 



2.22.4.5 Plunger Return Requirements. 

shall be so designed that 



Oil buffers 



(a) the buffer plunger of gravity-return and spring- 
retum-type oil buffers, when the buffer is filled with oil 
shall, when released after full compression, return to its 
fully extended position within 90 s 

(b) the plxmger of a spring-retum-type oil buffer with 
a 20 kg (44 lb) weight resting on it shall, when released 
after being depressed 50 mm (2 in.), return to the fully 
extended position within 30 s 

(c) gas spring-return oil buffers shall be provided with 
a switch conforming to 2.26.2.22 that shall be actuated 
if the plimger is not within 13 mm (0.5 in.) of the fully 
extended position 

2.22.4.6 Means for Determining Oil Level. Oil buff- 
ers shall be provided with means for determining that 
the oil level is within the maximum and minimum allow- 
able limits. Glass sight gauges shall not be used. 

2.22.4.7 Type Tests and Certification for Oil Buffers 

2.22.4.7.1 Each type of oil buffer shall be sub- 
jected to the type tests as specified in 8.3.2 and to the 
certification process as specified in 8.3.1. 



84 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.22.4.7.2 A type test on an oil buffer shall be 
permitted to be acceptable for similarly designed buff- 
ers, provided that the longest stroke of the type is sub- 
jected to the type test; and the load range of the buffer 
is within the maximum and minimum range for the oil 
portings of the given buffer. 

2.22.4.7.3 Oil buffers tested in accordance with 
the test requirements of prior editions of ASME A17.1 
or CSA B44 shall be acceptable without being retested, 
provided the buffer has been listed /certified to a previ- 
ous edition of the Code or on submittal by the person or 
organization installing the buffers of the test certificate 
stating that the buffer, when tested, met the specified 
test requirements of that edition of the Code. 

2.22.4.8 Compression of BufFers When Car Is Level 
With Terminal Landings. Car and counterweight oil 
buffers of the mechanical spring-return type shall be 
permitted to be compressed not to exceed 25% of their 
stroke when the car is level with the terminal landings 
(see 2.4.2.1). 

2.22.4.9 Buffer Oil Requirements. Oils used in oil 
buffers shall have a pour point of -18°C (C^F), or lower, 
as defined in ASTM D 97, and a viscosity index of 13, 
or higher, as defined in ASTM D 2270. 

2.22.4.10 Load Ratings of Oil Buffers. The mini- 
mum and maximum load ratings of car and counter- 
weight oil buffers, as indicated on the buffer marking 
plate, shall conform to 2.22.4.10.1 through 2.22.4.10.3. 

2.22.4.10.1 The minimum load rating shall be 
not greater than 

(a) for car oil buffers, the total weight of the car as 
marked on the car crosshead data plate plus 70 kg 
(150 lb) 

ih) for counterweight oil buffers, the weight of the 
counterweight used 

2.22.4.10.2 The maximum load rating shall be 
not less than 

(a) for car oil buffers, the total weight of the car as 
marked on the crosshead data plate plus the rated load 

{}}) for coimterweight oil buffers, the weight of the 
counterweight used 

(ED) 2.22.4.10.3 When compensating rope tie-down 

is present, the increase in load shall be taken into account 
(see 2.21.4.2). 

2.22.4.11 Buffer Marking Plate. Every installed oil 
buffer shall have permanently attached thereto a metal 
plate, marked by the manufacturer in a legible and per- 
mcinent manner, indicating 

(a) the maximum and minimum loads and the maxi- 
mum striking speeds for which the buffer has been rated 
for use in conformance with the requirements in 2.22 



ih) the permissible range in viscosity of the buffer oil 
to be used, stated in Saybolt Seconds Universal at 38°C 
(100°F) 

{c) the viscosity index number of the oil to be used 

(d) the pour point in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit) of 
the oil to be used 

(e) the stroke of the buffer in mm (in.) 
(j) the composition of the gas, if used 

(g) the name, trademark, or file number by which 
the organization that manufactured the product can be 
identified 

(h) the certification marking in accordance with 
8.3.1.3 



SECTION 2.23 
CAR AND COUNTERWEIGHT GUIDE RAILS, GUIDE- 
RAIL SUPPORTS, AND FASTENINGS 



2.23.1 Guide Rails Required 

Elevator cars and covinterweights shall be provided 
with guide rails. 



2.23.2 Material 

Guide rails, guide-rail brackets, rail clips, fishplates, 
and their fastenings shall be either of the following: 
(a) of steel or other metals conforming to 2.23 
{h) where steel presents an accident hazard, as in 
chemical or explosive plants, guide rails shall be permit- 
ted to be of selected wood or other suitable nonmetallic 
materials, provided the rated speed of the car does not 
exceed 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min). 

2.23.2.1 Requirements for Steel, Where Used 

(a) Rails, brackets, fishplates, and rail clips shall be 
made of open-hearth steel, or its equivalent, having a 
tensile strength of not less than 380 MPa (55,000 psi) 
and having an elongation of not less than 22% in a length 
of 50 mm (2 in.) when measured in accordance with 
ASTM E 8. 

ih) Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307. 

(c) Rivets shall conform to ASTM A 502. 

(d) Maximum permissible stresses and deflections 
shall conform to 2.23.5. 

2.23.2.2 Requirements for Metals Other Than Steel. 

Metals other than steel shall be permitted to be used, 
provided the factor of safety is not less than, and the 
deflections are not more than, the values specified in 
this section, and provided that cast iron is not used. 



85 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Fig. 2.23.3 Elevator Guide Rails 




T Section Rail 



2.23.3 Rail Section 

Guide rails shall be either of the following: 

(a) T-section, conforming to the nominal weights and 
dimensions shown in Fig. 2.23.3 and Table 2.23.3 

(b) other shapes, subject to the following 
requirements: 

(1) They shall have a section modulus and moment 
of inertia equal to or greater than that of the section 
shown in Fig. 2.23.3 for a given loading condition. 

(2) They shall have a sectional area sufficient to 
withstand the compressive forces resulting from the 
application of the car or coimterweight safety device, 
if used. 

(055) 2.23.4 Maximum Load on Rails in Relation to the 
Braclcet Spacing 

The maximum load on guide rails in relation to the 
bracket spacing shall conform to 2.23.4.1 through 
2.23.4.3. hi addition to the loads specified therein any 
static and dynamic loads imposed by the support of 
machines, sheaves, and hitches, if any, on one or more 
guide rails shall be taken into account in determining 
rail size and bracket spacing. 

The combination of all vertical loads on any single 
guide rail shall not exceed one-half of the values speci- 
fied in Fig. 2.23.4.1-1 in relation to the bracket spacing. 
This load requirement is not intended to limit design, 
and more detailed design and calculation methods shall 
be permitted to be used, provided that the moments 
and vertical loads induced into the rail system are taken 
into account in the calculations. 

EXAMPLES (2.23.4): 

(1) SI Units. For 2 750 kg total weight of car plus load and a 2 150 kg 
counterweight both roped 2:1; 90 kg suspension weight, 70 kg 
compensation weight, 20 kg traveling cable weight, and a 
machine weight of 360 kg; and with the machine supported 
in the overhead by one guide rail; the impacted reaction on 
that guide rail due to the machine loading is 2 750 kg + 2 150 kg 



+ 90 kg + 70 kg + 20 kg + 360 kg = 5 440 kg. The equivalent 
static loading per pair of guide rails is 5 440 kg and given a 
22.5 kg/m rail, there is a maximum bracket spacing of 
4 050 mm. 
(2) Imperial Units. For 6,000 lb total weight of car plus load and a 
4,700 lb counterweight, both roped 2:1; 200 lb suspension 
weight; 150 lb compensation weight; 45 lb traveling cable 
weight, and a machine weight of 800 lb; and with the machine 
supported in the overhead by one guide rail; the impacted 
reaction on that guide rail due to the machine loading is 6,000 lb 
+ 4,700 lb + 200 lb + 150 lb +45 lb + 800 lb = 11,895 lb. The 
equivalent static loading per pair of guide rails is 11,895 lb 
and given a 15 lb rail, there is a maximum bracket spacing of 
13 ft 3 in. 

2.23.4.1 With Single Car or Counterweight Safety. 

Where a single car or counterweight safety is used, the 
maximiun suspended weight of the car and its rated 
load, or the maximum suspended weight of the counter- 
weight, including the weight of any compensation 
means and of any traveling cables suspended therefrom 
per pair of guide rails, shall not exceed the maximum 
specified in Fig. 2.23.4.1-1 for the size of the rail and the 
bracket spacing used, except that the bracket spacing 
shall be permitted to exceed the values specified in 
Fig. 2.23.4.1-1, provided that 

(a) the guide rail is reinforced or a rail of larger size 
is used 

(b) the moment of inertia of a single reinforced rail 
or of a single larger size T-section about the x~x axis 
parallel to the base of the rail is not less than that required 
by Fig. 2.23.4.1-1 for the given weight of car plus load, 
or the counterweight with safety device, at the bracket 
spacing used 

(c) where the bracket spacings exceed those shown 
on Figs. 2.23.4,1-1 and 2.23.4.1-2, the rail system 

(1) conforms to 2.23.5 

(2) is designed to limit the deflection during the 
application of the safety with a fully loaded car to not 
more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) per rail 

EXAMPLES [2.23.4.1(c)]: 

(1) SI Units. For 5 500 kg total weight of car plus load and a bracket 
spacing of 4 875 mm, there is required 

(a) 27.5 kg/m rail without reinforcement; or 

(b) 22.5 kg/m rail with reinforcement having a combined 
moment of inertia of 3.3 mm x 10^ mm*. 

(2) Imperial Units. For 12,000 lb total weight of car plus load and 
a bracket spacing of 16 ft in., there is a required 

(a) 18.5 lb ran without reinforcement; or 

(b) 15 lb rail with reinforcement having a combined moment 
of inertia of 8 in.^ 

2.23.4.2 With Two (Duplex) Car or Counterweight 
Safeties. Where the car or counterweight is provided 
with two safety devices, the loads specified in 
Fig. 2.23.4.1-1 shall be permitted to be increased by the 
factors specified in Table 2.23.4.2. 



86 



ASWIE A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 









Table 2.23.3 


T-Section Guide-Rail Dimensions 












SI Units 












Imperial 


Units 






Nominal 




Nominal Dimensions, 




Nominal 




Nominal Dimensions^ 




IVIass, 






mm 






Weight, 
lb/ft 






in. 






kg/m 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


A 


B 


C 


D 


f 


8.5 


68.3 


82.6 


9.1 


25.4 


6.0 


5V. 


2^yi6 


374 


"/64 


1 


^764 


9.5 


49.2 


69.9 


15.9 


25.4 


7.9 


6V4 


l^Vl6 


27. 


Vs 


1 


7l6 


12.0 


61.9 


88.9 


15.9 


31.8 


73 


8 


2%6 


37 


78 


174 


7l6 


16.5 


88.9 


114.3 


15.9 


38.1 


7.9 


11 


37' 


472 


7a 


172 


76 


18.0 


88.9 


127.0 


15.9 


44.5 


7.9 


12 


37 


5 


78 


174 


76 


22.5 


88.9 


127.0 


15.9 


50.0 


12.7 


15 


372 


5 


78 


1^V32 


y2 


27.5 


108.0 


139.7 


19.1 


50.0 


12.7 


1872 


47 


57 


7 


1^732 


7 


33.5 


101.6 


139.7 


28.6 


50.8 


14.3 


2272 


4 


57 


178 


2 


/16 


44.5 


127.0 


139.7 


31.8 


57.2 


17.5 


30 


5 


57 


17. 


274 


11/ 
/16 



(05S) 



2.23.4.3 Counterweiglit With No Safety 

2.23.4.3.1 Guide rails for counterweights not 
provided with a safety device shall be fastened to the 
building structure at intervals specified in 
Table 2.23.4.3.1, except as specified in 2.23.4.3.2, and the 
weight of the counterweight for each size of guide rail 
shall not exceed that specified in Table 2.23.4.3.1. 

2.23.4.3.2 The bracket spacing specified shall be 
permitted to be increased by an amount determined by 
Figs. 2.23.4.1-1 and 2.23.4.1-2, subject to the following 
requirements: 

(a) where guide rails are reinforced or a larger rail 
section is used having a moment of inertia, about an 
axis parallel to the base [x-x axis in Fig. 2.23.4.1-2], at 
least equal to that of the rail sections shown in 
Table 2.23.3, based on the weight of the counterweight 

(h) where intermediate tie brackets, approximately 
equally spaced, are provided between the guide rails at 
intervals of not over 2 130 mm (84 in.) 

2.23.4.3.3 Intermediate tie brackets, approxi- 
mately equally spaced, shall be provided between the 
guide rails at intervals as specified in Table 2.23.4.3.3. 
Intermediate tie brackets are not required to be fastened 
to the building structure. 

2.23.5 Stresses and Deflections 

2.23.5.1 Guide Rails 

2.23.5.1.1 For steels conforming to 2.23.2.1, the 
stresses in a guide rail, or in the rail and its reinforcement 
shall not exceed 105 MPa (15,000 psi), based upon the 
class of loading, and the deflection shall not exceed 6 mm 
(0.25 in.). The loads used to determine the guide rail 
stress and deflection shall include vertical and moment 
loads transferred into the rail, that are imposed by equip- 
ment supported by the guide rail, combined with the 
horizontal forces imposed on the rail during loading. 



unloading, or rurming, calculated without impact (see 
2.16.2.2 and 8.2.2.6). 

2.23.5.1.2 Where steels of greater strength than 
those specified in 2.23.2.1 are used, the stresses specified 
may be increased proportionately, based on the ratio of 
the ultimate strengths. 

2.23.5.2 Braclcets, Fastenings, and Supports. The 

guide-rail brackets, their fasterungs, and supports, such 
as building beams and walls, shall be capable of resisting 
the horizontal forces imposed by the class of loading 
(see 2,16.2.2 and 8.2.2.6) with a total deflection at the 
point of support not in excess of 3 mm (0.125 in.). 

2.23.5.3 Allowable Stresses Due to Emergency Bralc- 
ing. Guide rails, brackets, supports, and their fasten- 
ings subject to forces due to the application of the 
emergency brake (see 2.19.4) shall be designed to with- 
stand the maximum forces developed during the retar- 
dation phase of the emergency braking so that the 
resulting stresses due to the emergency braking and all 
other loading acting simultaneously, if applicable, shall 
not exceed 190 MPa (27,500 psi). 

2.23.6 Guide-Rail Surfaces 

Guide-rail surfaces used for guiding a car or counter- 
weight shall be sufficiently smooth and true to operate 
properly with the guiding members. Those surfaces that 
the car or counterweight safeties engage shall be smooth 
and true within the tolerances required to ensure proper 
safety application without excessive retardation or 
excessive out-of-level platform conditions resulting (see 
2.17.3, 2.17.9.2, and 2.17.16). 

2.23.7 Rail Joints and Fishplates 

2.23.7.1 Type and Strength of Rail Joints. Metal 
guide-rail sections shall be joined together as specified 
in 2.23.7.2. The jointed rail sections shall withstand the 



87 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B4A-07 






o 

T3 



14515(31,971) 



(07) Fig. 2.23.4.1-1 Maximum Weiglit of a Car Witli Rated Load or of Counterweight With Safety Device for a Pair 

of Guide Rails as Specified in 2.23.4.1 

24000(52,863) 
23000(50,661) 
22000 (48,458) 
21000(46,256) 
20000 (44,053) 
19000(41,850) 
18000 (39,648) 
17000 (37,445) 
16000(35,242) 
15000(33,040) 
14000(30,837) 
13000 (28,634) 
12000(26,432) 
11000(24,229) 
10000 (22,046) 

9000(19,824) 

8000(17,621) 

7000(15,419) 
, 6000(13,216) 

5000(11,013) 
4000(8,811) 
3000 (6,608) 
2000 (4,405) 

1000(2,203) 







































































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*■ 


**" 


'^ 


^ 




- 




































































1^ 


^ 




































































^ 


\2 


i 


<9 


d 


5 


lb 


r 


\\\ 


















































^ 










^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 




^ 


^ 










































_ 














~" 


™ 


~" 


__- 




■** 


SS 


^ 


— 


- 




^ 






_ 


























































^ 






*^ 


i^ 




18 


kc 


( 


12 


lb 


)r 


a. 




















































_ 








1 






























^ 


;;] 


■* 


m» 


^ 
















-■ 


16 


5 


<g 


(1 


1. 


1 1 


b) 


re 


jl 
























"i«i 




■i* 


mm 


^ 




** 






mm, 


^ 








































■* 






m^ 


^ 


- 


12 


^ 


i(i 


Jl 


3) 


ra 


il 






































































































" 






^ 


^ 










mm 








«« 


Li 


^ 


- 


- 
































































■* 






^ 


"^ 


























































.1 

9 


31 
QQ 


4 




^ 


"% 


1^ 


■^ 


/ 


1( 


4: 

.0,, 


J 










































a\ 












7\ 












































1 
















.. 









9980(21,982) 



8165(17,985) 



5443(11,989) 

4062(8,991) 
3630 (7,996) 



1 
(3.3) 



2 
(6.6) 



3 

(9.8) 



4 
(13) 



Bracket Spacing, m (ft) 



88 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Fig. 2.23.4.1-2 Minimum Moment of inertia About x-x Axis for a Single Guide Rail With Its Reinforcement (07) 






3000(6,608) 
2000(4,405) 
1000(2,203) 




1 


= 0.583 
(1.40) 

1 


L <c.<^' 










ir 


2495 




1 


_- 










**- 

o 


(5,500) 




'y 














I 






'V 


^ 












I 






K^ 




















1 














i 






1 

1 














CD 




( 


) 



(1. 


5 
2) 


1 
(2.4) 


1.5 
(3.6) 


2 
(4.8) 



Moment of Inertia, nnm'* x 10^ (12 kg Rail) 
Moment of Inertia, in."^ (8 lb Rail) 



o 



SI 

i 



6000(13,216) 
5000(11,013) 








/= 1.79 
(4.29) 


1 

1 


,<. 






1..^^' 




4E 


40 - 






1 
1 








i^^ 








1 


Oc" 


V3.^ 






4000(8,811) 
3000(6,608) 
2 000(4,405) 
1 000 (2,203) 


— (10,1 


)00) 






" ^? 


^~ 


^^^^ . 




_^^_^^p 








1 


^^ 


X^ 


"""^rvOQ 












k: 




ri^^^''^ 


^ S9^^ 












1 
















1 

1 














( 


) 




(2 


4) 


(4 


I 

8) 


(7 


2) 


(9. 


6) 



Moment of Inertia, mm^ x 10® (16.5 kg Rail) 
Moment of Inertia, in.^ (11 lb Rail) 



89 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) Fig. 2.23.4.1-2 Minimum Moment of Inertia About x-x Axis for a Single Guide Rail Witli Its Reinforcement 

(Cont*d) 



¥ 






o 



CD 
Q. 






6000(12,216) 
5000(11,013) 
4000(8,811) 
3000(6,608) 
2 000(4,405) 
1 000 (2,203) 





(2.4) 



(4.8) 



(72) 



(9.6) 



(12) 



Moment of Inertia, nnm'* x 10^ (18 kg Rail) 
Moment of Inertia, in.^ (12 lb Rail) 






CO 



I 



7 000(15,421) 

6000(13,216) 

5000(11,013) 

4000(8,811) 

3000(6,608) 

2 000(4,405) 

1 000 (2,203) 






1 2 

(2.4) (4.8) 



6 



8 



(7.2) 



(9.6) (12.0) (14.4) (16.8) (19.2) 



Moment of Inertia, mm"^ x 10^ (22.5 kg Rail) 
Moment of Inertia, in.^ (15 lb Rail) 



90 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Fig. 2.23.4.1-2 Minimum Moment of Inertia About x-x Axis for a Single Guide Rail With its Reinforcement 

(Cont'd) 



(07) 



Jt 



EID 



/= 4.025 
(9.66) 



j^ 

_w 

"(5 
oc 

•4- 

o 
"co 

CL 






10000(22,046) 

9000(19,824) 

8000(17,621) 

7000(15,421) 

6000(13,216) 

5000(11,013) 

4000(8,811) 

3000 (6,608) 

2000 (4,405) 

1000(2,203) 






2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 

(4.8) (7.2) (9.6) (12.0) (14.4) (16.8) (19.2) (21.6) (24.0) (26.4) (28.8) (31.2) 






0) 



SI 



Moment of Inertia, nnnn^ x 10® (27.5 kg Rail) 
Moment of Inertia, in,'* (18.5 lb Rail) 



/=4.65 

(11.16) 



14000(30,837) H- 13608 

129^9741 
12000(26,432) 

10000 (22,046) 

8000(17,621) 

6000 (13,216) 

4000(8,811) 

2000 (4,405) 




2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
(4.8) (7.2) (9.6) (12.0)(14.4)(16.8)(19.2)(21.6)(24.0}(26.4)(28.8)(31.2) 

Moment of Inertia, mm* x 10® (33.5 kg Rail) 
Moment of Inertia, in."^ (22.5 lb Rail) 



91 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) Fig. 2.23.4.1-2 Minimum l\Aoment of Inertia About x-x Axis for a Single Guide Rail With Its Reinforcement 

(Cont*d) 




/=io.o 

(24.0) 



cc 

o 



03 

a. 






24000 (52,863) 

22000 (48,458) 

20000 (44,053) 

18000(39,648) 

16000(35,242) 

14000 (30,837) 

12000(26,432) 

10000 (22,026) 

8000(17,621) 

6000(13,216) 

4000(8,811) 

2000 (4,405) 






3.5 m (11.5 ft) spacing 
■- 4.0 m (13 ft) spacing 

4.5 nn (15 ft) spacing 



9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

(21.6) (24.0) (26.4) (28.8) (31.2) (33.6) (38.4) (36.0) (40.8) (43.2) (45.6) (48.0) (56.4) 



Monnent of Inertia, mm^x 10^ (44.5 kg Rail) 
Moment of Inertia, in.^ (30 lb Rail) 



Table 2.23.4.2 Load Multiplying Factor for 
Duplex Safeties 



Vertical Distance 






Between Safeties, 


Multiply Load in 


mm (in.) 


Fig. 


2.23.4.1-1 by 


5 400 (212 or more) 




2.00 


4 600 (182) 




1.83 


3 700 (146) 




1.67 


2 700 (106) 




1.50 



92 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.23.4.3.1 Guide Rails for Counterweiglit Without Safeties 





SI Units 






Imperial Units 






Nominal 


Maximum Bracket 




Nominal 


Maximum Bracket 


Mass of 


Mass of 


Spacing Without 


Weight of 


Weight of 


Spacing Without 


Counterweight, 


Guide Rail, 


Reinforcement, 


Counterweight, 


Guide 


Reinforcement, 


kg 


kg/m 


mm 


lb 


Rail, lb/ft 


ft 


3 000 


9.5 


3 000 


6,600 


e'A 


10 


4 000 


8.5 


4 400 


8,800 


5V4 


14.5 


7 000 


12.0 


4 900 


15,000 


8 


16 


12 000 


16.5 


4 900 


27,000 


11 


16 


13 000 


18.0 


4 900 


29,000 


12 


16 


18 000 


22.5 


4 900 


40,000 


15 


16 


25 000 


27.5 


4 900 


56,000 


1872 


16 


36 000 


33.5 


4 900 


80,000 


227^ 


16 


60 000 


44.5 


4 900 


133,000 


30 


16 



Table 2.23.4.3.3 Intermediate Tie Braclcets 



Nominal Distance Between 
Fastenings to Building Structure, mm (in.) 

For 8.5 kg (6V4 lb) Rail For All Other Rails 



Number of 
Intermediate 
Tie Brackets 



0-3 300 (0-130) 

3 301-3 800 (130-150) 

3 801-4 400 (150-173) 



0-3 700 (0-146) 

3 701-4 300 (147-169) 1 

4 301-4 900 (170-193) 2 



forces specified in 2.23.5.1 without exceeding the stress 
and deflection limitations. 

2.23.7.2 Design and Construction of Rail Joints 

2.23.7.2.1 The joints of metal guide rails with T- 
section profiles as specified in 2.23.3(a) shall conform to 
the following requirements: 

(a) The ends of the rails shall be accurately machined 
with a tongue and matching groove centrally located in 
the web. 

(b) The backs of the rail flanges shall be accurately 
machined, in relation to the rail guiding surfaces, to a 
uniform distance front to back of the rails to form a flat 
surface for the fishplates. 

(c) The ends of each rail shall be bolted to the fish- 
plates with not fewer than four bolts that conform to 
Table 2.23.7.2.1. 

(d) The width of the fishplate shall be not less than 
the width of the back of the rail, 

(e) The thickness of the fishplates and the diameter 
of the bolts for each size of guide rail shall be not less 
than specified in Table 2.23.7.2.1. 

(/) The diameter of bolt holes shall not exceed the 
diameter of the bolts by more than 2 mm (0.08 in.) for 
guide rails nor 3 mm (0.125 in.) for fishplates. 

2.23.7.2.2 Joints of different design and construc- 
tion shall be permitted \o be used, provided they are 
equivalent in strength and will adequately maintain the 
accuracy of the rail alignment. 



2.23.8 Overall Length of Guide Rails 

The car and counterweight guide rails shall extend at 
the top and bottom to prevent the guiding members (see 
2.15.2 and 2.21.1.3) from disengaging from the guide 
rails in the event that either the car or counterweight 
reaches its extreme limit of travel. 

2.23.9 Guide-Rail Braclcets and Building Supports 

2.23.9.1 Design and Strength of Bracl^ets and Sup- 
ports 

2.23.9.1.1 The building construction forming the 
supports for the guide rails and the guide-rail brackets 
shall be designed to 

(a) safely withstand the application of the car or coim- 
terweight safety when stopping the car and its rated 
load or the counterweight 

(h) withstand the forces specified in 2.23.5.2 within 
the deflection limits specified 

2.23.9.1.2 Walls of bricks, terra-cotta, hollow 
blocks, and similar materials shall not be used for attach- 
ment of guide-rail brackets unless adequately rein- 
forced. 

2.23.9.1.3 Where necessary, the building con- 
struction shall be reinforced to provide adequate sup- 
port for the guide rails. 

2.23.9.2 Braclcet Fastenings 

2.23.9.2.1 Guide-rail brackets shall be secured 
to their supporting structure by one of the following 
means: 

(a) by bolts or rivets 

(h) by using clip fastenings to mount brackets to the 
building structure, provided that 

(1) the friction force of such clips has a minimum 
factor of safety of 10 

(2) an additional means, having a safety factor of 
not less than 5, of resisting horizontal shear is incorpo- 
rated 



93 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.23.7.2.1 Minimum Thickness of Fishplates and Minimum Diameter of Fastening Bolts 






SI Units 








Imperial Units 




Nominal Mass 


Minimum Tiiickness Minimum Diameter 


Nominal Weight 


Minimum Thicl<ness 


Minimum Diameter 


of Guide Rail, 


of Fish Plates, 




of Bolts, 


of Guide Rail, 


of Fish Plates, 


of Bolts, 


kg/m 




mm 




mm 


lb/ft 


in. 


in. 


8.5 




9.5 




M12 


sy. 


Vs 


'A 


9.5 




9.5 




M12 


67, 


Vs 


V2 


12.0 




14.0 




M12 


8 


'/16 


V2 


16.5 




17.0 




M16 


11 


/16 


% 


18.0 




17.0 




M16 


12 


"/16 


% 


22.5 




17.0 




(V116 


15 


"/16 


% 


27.5 




20.0 




M20 


1872 


/16 


\ 


33.5 




20.0 




M20 


22y2 


A 6 


V. 


44.5 




23.0 




M20 


30 


15/ 
A 6 


V. 


Table 2.23.10.2 Minimum Size of Rail-Fastening 


2.23.10.3 


Bolt Holes for Fastenings 


. The diameter 






Bolts 






of holes or the width of slots for fastening bolts shall 


SI Units 




imperial Units 


not exceed the diameter of the bolt by 


more than 2 mm 












yj.yjo in.j. 






Nominal 


Minimum 


Nominal 


Minimum 








Mass of 


Diameter of 


Weight of 


Diameter of 








Guide Rail, 


Rail Bolts, Guide Rail, 


Rail Bolts, 




SECTION 2.24 




kg/m 


mm 




lb/ft 


in. 


DRIVING MACHINES AND SF 
2.24.1 Type of Driving Machines 


lEAVES 


8.5 


M12 




5% 


'A 




9.5 


M12 




6'/^ 


y^ 








12.0 


M12 




8 


V2 


All driving 


machines shall be of the traction type. 












except that winding-drum machines shall be permitted 


16.5 


M16 




11 


% 


for freight elevators, subject to the following: 


18.0 


M16 




12 


% 


(a) They shall not be provided with 


counterweights. 


22.5 


IV116 




15 


% 


(h) The rated speed of the elevator shall not exceed 


27.5 


iV116 




i8y2 


% 


0.25 m/s (50 ft/min). 




33.5 


M20 




2272 


% 


(c) The travel of the elevator car shall not exceed 


44.5 


M20 




30 


% 


12.5 m (40 ft). 







ic) by welding conforming to 8.8 

2.23.9.2.2 Fastening bolts and bolt holes in 
brackets and their supporting beams shall conform to 
2.23.10. 

2.23.9.3 Slotted guide-rail brackets having single- 
bolt fastenings shall be provided with an additional 
means to prevent lateral movement of the rail bracket. 
Such means shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5. 

2.23.10 Fastening of Guide Rails to Rail Braclcets 

2.23.10.1 Type of Fastenings. Guide rails shall be 
secured to their brackets by clips, welds, or bolts. 

Bolts used for fastening shall be of such strength as 
to withstand the forces specified in 2.23.5.2 and 2.23.9.1. 
Welding, where used, shall conform to 8.8. 

2.23.10.2 Size of Bolts for Fastening. The size of 
bolts used for fasterdng the guide rails or rail clips to the 
brackets shall be not less than specified in Table 2.23.10.2. 



NOTE (2.24.1): See 4.1 for rack-and-pinion machines and 4.2 for 
screw machines. 

2.24.2 Sheaves and Drums 

2.24.2.1 Material and Grooving. Sheaves and drums 
used with suspension and compensating ropes shall be 
of metal and provided with finished grooves for ropes 
or shall be permitted to be lined with nonmetallic groove 
material. 

2.24.2.2 Minimum Pitch Diameter. Sheaves and 
drums used with suspension and compensating ropes 
shall have a pitch diameter of not less than 

{a) 40 times the diameter of the rope where used with 
suspension ropes 

{h) 32 times the diameter of the ropes where used 
with compensating ropes 

2.24.2.3 Traction 

l.Jl^J.3A Where the grooves are used to trans- 
mit power, sufficient traction shall be provided between 
the rope and groove, and in the event of nonmetallic 



# 



94 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B4A-07 



lining failure, between the rope and the remaining 
sheave groove, to safely stop and hold the car with 
rated load [see 2.16.8(c)] from rated speed in the down 
direction. 

2.24.2.3.2 If either the car or the counterweight 
bottoms on its buffers or becomes otherwise immovable 

(a) the ropes shall slip in the drive sheave grooves 
and not allow the car or counterweight to be raised; or 

(b) the driving system shall stall and not allow the 
car or counterweight to be raised. 

2.24.2.4 Minimum Sheave and Drum Diameter. 

Drive sheaves and drums shall be permanently and legi- 
bly marked to state the minimum sheave or drum diame- 
ter, measured at the bottom of the groove, that is required 
to maintain structural integrity (see 2.24.3). 

2.24.3 Factor of Safety for Driving Machines and 
Sheaves 

The factor of safety to be used in the design of driving 
machines, and in the design of sheaves used with sus- 
pension and compensating ropes, shall be not less than 

(a) 8 for metals having an elongation of at least 14% 
in a gauge length of 50 mm (2 in.) when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 8 

(b) 10 for cast iron, or for metals having an elongation 
of less than 14% in a gauge length of 50 mm (2 in.) when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 8 

The load to be used in determining the factor of safety 
shall be the resultant of the maximum tensions in the 
ropes leading from the sheave or drum with the elevator 
at rest and with the rated load in the car. 

2.24.3.1 Factors of Safety Based on Alternating/ 
Reversing Stresses 

2.24.3.1.1 Driving-machine components sub- 
jected to alternating or reversing stresses shall have a 
factor of safety of not less than 1.5. 

2.24.3.1.2 This factor of safety shall be the ratio 
of the endurance Limit of the components (see 1.3) to 
the actual alternating or reversing stress to which the 
components can be subjected under any normal 
operating condition. The endurance limit shall be based 
on 10^ cycles of stress reversals. The actual stress shall 
include all designed or anticipated load conditions and 
stress risers, such as sharp comers, shock loading, sur- 
face finish, keyways, material variations, alignment tol- 
erances, etc. 

2.24.3.2 Factors of Safety at Emergency Bralcing. 

Driving-machine components including bedplate, 
where used, subject to forces due to the application of 
the emergency brake (see 2.19.4) shall be designed to 
withstand the maximum forces developed during the 
retardation phase of the emergency braking so that the 
factor of safety resulting from the emergency braking 



and all other loading acting simultaneously, if applica- 
ble, shall be not less than those specified in 2.24.3(a) and 
2.24.3(b). 

2.24.4 Fasteners Transmitting Load 

2.24.4.1 Fasteners and Rigid Connections. Set 

screws or threaded portions located in the shear plane 
of bolts and screws shall not be used to transmit load. 

Means shall be provided to ensure that there is no 
relative motion between rigidly joined components 
transmitting load. 

The factors of safety to be used in the design of fasten- 
ers transmitting load in driving machines and sheaves 
shall be not less than those specified in 2.24.3. 

2.24.4.2 Flexible Connections. Where flexible cou- 
plings are used to transmit load, means shall be provided 
to prevent disengagement of the coupling components 
in the event of the failure of or excessive motion in the 
flexible coruaection. 

2.24.5 Shaft Fillets and Keys 

A fillet shall be provided at any point of change in the 
diameter of driving-machine shafts and sheave shafts to 
prevent excessive stress concentrations in the shafts (see 
2.24.3.1). 

Shafts that support drums, sheaves, gears, couplings, 
and other members, and that transmit torque, shall be 
provided with tight-fitting keys. 

2.24.6 Cast-Iron Worms and Worm Gears 

Worms and worm gears made of cast iron shall not 
be used in elevator driving machines. 

2.24.7 Friction Gearing and Clutches 

Friction gearing or a clutch mechanism shall not be 
used to connect a driving-machine drum or sheave to 
the main driving mechanism. 

2.24.8 Braking System and Driving-Machine Bralces 
(See Nonmandatory Appendix F, Table F-1) 

2.24.8.1 General Requirements. The elevator shall 
be provided with a braking system conforming to 
2.24.8.2. 

2.24.8.2 Bralcing System 

2.24.8.2.1 The braking system shall consist of a 
driving-machine brake and in addition shall be permit- 
ted to include other braking means, such as electrically 
assisted braking. 

2.24.8.2.2 The braking system shall be capable 
of decelerating the car from its rated speed when it is 
carrying its rated load (see 2.16.8) in the down direction, 
or empty car in the up direction from the speed at which 
the governor overspeed switch is set. Any deceleration 



95 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



not exceeding 9.8 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^) is acceptable, pro- 
vided that all factors such as, but not limited to, system 
heat dissipation and allowable buffer striking speeds 
are considered. The loss of main line power shall not 
reduce the braking system capacity below the require- 
ments stated here. 

2.24.8.3 Driving-Machine Braise. The driving 
machine shall be equipped with a friction brake applied 
by a spring or springs, or by gravity, and released electro- 
mechanically or electrohydraulically (see 1.3) in confor- 
mance with 2.26.8. The driving-machine brake, on its 
own, shall be capable of 

(a) holding the car at rest with its rated load (see 

2.16.8 and 2.26.8) 

(b) holding the empty car at rest 

(c) decelerating the empty car traveling in the up 
direction from the speed at which the governor 
overspeed switch is set. Any deceleration not exceeding 
9.8 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^) is acceptable provided that all fac- 
tors such as, but not limited to, system heat dissipation 
and allowable buffer striking speeds are considered. 

2.24.8.4 Means for Manual Release. Means shall be 
permitted for manual release of the driving-machine 
brake. The means shall permit car movement in a grad- 
ual, controllable manner. Provision shall be made to 
prevent unintended actuation of the device. The manual 
release device shall be designed to be hand applied only 
with continuous effort. The brake shall reapply at its 
fully adjusted capacity in the absence of the hand- 
applied effort. Devices required in accordance with 2.19 
are permitted to be temporarily disabled when the man- 
ual release device is in use. 

2.24.8.5 Marlting Plates for Bralces. The brake set- 
ting and method of measurement shall be permanently 
and legibly marked on the driving machine. 

2.24.8.6 Driving-Machine Brake Design. The driv- 
ing-machine brake design shall ensure contact of the 
friction material on the braking surface consistent with 
good engineering practice. Means shall be provided to 
protect the braking surfaces from contamination caused 
by any driving-machine fluid leak. 

2.24.9 Indirect Driving Machines 

2.24.9.1 Belt and Chain Drives. Indirect driving 
machines, utilizing V-belt drives, tooth drive belts, or 
drive chains, shall include not less than three belts or 
chains operating together in parallel as a set. Belt and 
chain drive sets shall be preloaded and matched for 
length in sets. 

2.24.9.2 General Requirements 

2.24.9.2.1 Belt sets shall be selected on the basis 
of the manufacturer's rated breaking strength and a fac- 
tor of safety of 10. Chain and sprocket sets shall be 



selected on the basis of recommendations set forth in the 
Supplementary Information section of ASME B29.1M, 
using a service factor of 2. Offset links in chain are not 
permitted. 

2.24.9.2.2 Sprockets in a chain drive set and also 
a driven set shall be assembled onto a common hub, 
with teeth cut in-line after assembly to assure equal load 
distribution on all chains. Tooth sheaves for a belt drive 
shall be constructed in a manner to assure equal load 
distribution on each belt in the set. 

2.24.9.2.3 Load determination for both the belt 
and chain sets shall be based on the maximum static 
loading on the elevator car, that is the full load in the 
car at rest and at a position in the hoistway that creates 
the greatest load, including either the car or coimter- 
weight resting on its buffer. 

2.24.9.2.4 Chain drives and belt drives shall be 
guarded to protect against accidental contact and to 
prevent foreign objects from interfering with the drives. 

2.24.9.3 Monitoring and Bralce Location. Each belt 
or chain shall be continuously morutored by a broken 
belt or chain device, that shall function to stop the car 
at the next available landing and prevent it from running, 
in the event that any belt or chain in the set breaks or 
becomes excessively slack. The driving-machine brake 
shall be located on the traction sheave or drum assembly 
side of the driving machine so as to be fully effective 
in the event that the entire belt set or chain set should 
break. 

2.24.10 Means for Inspection of Gears 

Each gear case of geared machines shall have access 
to permit inspection of the contact surfaces of the gears. 
Such access need not provide a direct view of all gears, 
but shall be located and sized adequately to allow access 
by fibre optic or similar visual inspection instrumen- 
tation. 

SECTION 2.25 
TERMINAL STOPPING DEVICES 

2.25.1 General Requirements 

2.25.1.1 Normal terminal stopping devices 
required by 2.25.2, emergency terminal stopping devices 
required by 2.25.4.2, and emergency terminal speed- 
limiting devices required by 2.25.4.1 shall be pernutted 
to use mechanically operated, magnetically operated, 
optical, or solid-state devices for determining car posi- 
tion and speed. 

2.25.1.2 Final terminal stopping devices required 
by 2.25.3 shall use only mechanically operated switches 
for determining car position. 

2.25.1 .3 Terminal stopping devices that are located 
on the car or in the hoistway shall be of the enclosed type 



96 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



and securely mounted in such a manner that horizontal 
movement of the car shall not affect the operation of 
the device. 

2.25.2 Normal Terminal Stopping Devices 

2.25.2.1 Where Required and Function. Normal ter- 
minal stopping devices shall conform to 2.25.2.1.1 
through 2.25.2.1.3. 

(055) 2.25.2.1.1 Normal terminal stopping devices 

shall be provided and arranged to slow down and stop 
the car automatically, at or near the top and bottom 
terminal landings, with any load up to and including 
rated load in the car and from any speed attained in 
normal operation (see 2.16.8). 

2.25.2.1.2 Such devices shall function indepen- 
dently of the operation of the normal stopping means 
and of the final terminal stopping device, except that 
on elevators with a rated speed of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) 
or less, the normal terminal stopping device shall be 
permitted to be used as the normal stopping means. 

2.25.2.1.3 The device shall be so designed and 
installed that it will continue to function until the final 
terminal stopping device operates. 

2.25.2.2 Location of Stopping Devices. Normal ter- 
minal stopping devices shall be located as specified in 
2.25.2.2.1 and 2.25.2.2.2. 

2.25.2.2.1 Stopping devices for traction 
machines shall be located on the car, in the hoistway, a 
machinery space, machine room, control space, or con- 
trol room, and shall be operated by the movement of 
the car. 

2.25.2.2.2 Stopping devices for winding drum 
machines shall be located on the car or in the hoistway, 
and shall be operated by the movement of the car. 

2.25.2.3 Indirectly Operated Normal Terminal Stop- 
ping Devices. Stopping devices that are not located on 
the car or in the hoistway shall conform to 2.25.2.3.1 
through 2.25.2.3.3. 

2.25.2.3.1 The stopping device shall be mounted 
on and operated by a stopping means mechanically con- 
nected to and driven by the car. 

Stopping means depending on friction or traction 
shall not be used. 

2.25.2.3.2 Tapes, chains, ropes, or similar devices 
mechanically connecting the stopping device to the car 
and used as a driving means shall be provided with a 
device that will cause the electric power to be removed 
from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake if 
the driving means fails (see 2.26.2.6). 

2.25.2.3.3 If mecharucally operated switches are 
used, only one set of floor-stopping contacts is necessary 
for each terminal landing on floor controllers or other 



similar devices used to stop the car auton\aticalIy at the 
landings (such as automatic operation, signal operation, 
etc.), provided these contacts and the means for 
operating them conform to 2.25.2.3.1 and 2.25.2.3.2. 
These contacts shall be permitted to serve also as the 
normal terminal stopping devices. 

2.25.3 Final Terminal Stopping Devices 

2.25.3.1 General Requirements. Final terminal 
stopping devices shall conform to 2.25.1 and the fol- 
lowing: 

(a) They shall be mechanically operated. 
(h) Operating cams shall be of metal. 
(c) The switch contacts shall be directly opened 
mechanically. 

2.25.3.2 Where Required and Function. Final termi- 
nal stopping devices shall be provided and arranged to 
cause the electric power to be removed automatically 
from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake after 
the car has passed a terminal landing. 

The device shall be set to function as close to the 
terminal landing as practicable, but so that under normal 
operating conditions it will not function when the car 
is stopped by the normal terminal stopping device. 

Where spring buffers are provided, the device shall 
function before the buffer is engaged. 

The device shall be so designed and installed that it 
will continue to function 

(a) at the top terminal landing, until the car has trav- 
eled above this landing a distance equal to the coimter- 
weight runby plus 1.5 times the buffer stroke, but in no 
case less than 0.6 m (2 ft) 

(b) at the bottom terminal landing, until the car rests 
on its fuUy compressed buffer 

The operation of final terminal stopping devices shall 
prevent movement of the car by the normal operating 
devices in both directions of travel. 

2.25.3.3 Location. Final terminal stopping devices 
shall be located as specified in 2.25.3.3.1 and 2.25.3.3.2. 

2.25.3.3.1 Traction machine elevators shall have 
final terminal stopping switches located in the hoistway 
and operated by cams attached to the car. 

2.25.3.3.2 Winding drum machine elevators 
shall have two sets of final terminal stopping switches, 
one located on and operated by the driving machine, 
and the other located in the hoistway and operated by 
cams attached to the car (see 2.25.3.5). 

2.25.3.4 Controller Switches Controlled by Final Ter- 
minal Stopping Device. The normal and final terminal 
stopping devices shall not control the same controller 
switches unless two or more separate and independent 
switches are provided, two of which shall be closed to 
complete the driving-machine motor and brake circuit 
in either direction of travel. 



97 



ASME A17,l-2007/CSA B44-07 



Where a two- or three-phase AC driving-machine 
motor is used, these switches shall be of the multipole 
type. 

The control shall be so designed and installed that a 
single ground or short circuit may permit either, but not 
prevent both, the normal or final stopping device circuits 
from stopping the car. 

2.25.3.5 Additional Requirements for Winding-Drum 
JMachines. Final terminal stopping devices for wind- 
ing-drum machines shall conform to 2.25.3.5.1 through 
2.25.3.5.3. 

2.25.3.5.1 Stopping switches, located on and 
operated by the driving machine, shall not be driven by 
chains, ropes, or belts. 

2.25.3.5.2 Where a two- or three-phase AC driv- 
ing-machine motor is used, the maiidine circuit to the 
driving-machine motor and the circuit of the driving- 
machine brake coil shall be directly opened either by 
the contacts of the machine stop switch or by stopping 
switches moiinted in the hoistway and operated by a 
cam attached to the car. The opening of these contacts 
shall occur before or coincident with the opening of the 
final terminal stopping switch required by 2.25.3.2. 

2.25.3.5.3 Driving machines equipped with a 
direct-current brake and having a DC mainline control 
switch in the driving-machine motor circuit controlled 
by a final terminal stopping switch located in the 
hoistway and operated by a cam attached to the car 
need not conform to 2.25.3.5.2. This does not eliminate 
the need for a machine-operated switch. 

2.25.4 Emergency Terminal Stopping Means 

2.25.4.1 Emergency Terminal Speed-Limiting 
Device. Emergency terminal speed-limiting devices 
shall be installed on all elevators where reduced stroke 
buffers are used (see 2.22.4.1.2 and 2.26.2.12), and shall 
conform to 2.25.4.1.1 through 2.25.4.1.9. 

2.25.4.1.1 The operation of the emergency termi- 
nal speed-limiting devices shall be entirely independent 
of the operation of the normal terminal stopping device. 
The emergency terminal speed-limiting device shall 
automatically reduce the car and counterweight speed 
by removing power from the driving-machine motor 
and brake, such that the rated buffer striking speed is 
not exceeded if the normal terminal stopping device 
fails to slow down the car at the terminal as intended. 

2.25.4.1.2 The car speed sensing device shall be 
independent of the normal speed control system. 

2.25.4.1.3 The emergency terminal speed- 
limiting device shall provide a retardation not in excess 
of 9.81 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^). 

2.25.4.1.4 The emergency terminal speed- 
limiting devices shall not apply the car safety. 



2.25.4.1.5 The emergency terminal speed- 
limiting devices shall be so designed and installed that 
a single short circuit caused by a combination of 
grounds, or by other conditions, shall not render the 
device ineffective. 

2.25.4.1.6 The emergency terminal speed-lim- (055) 
iting devices shall be located on the car, in the hoistway, 

or a machinery space, machine room, control space, or 
control room, and shall be operated by the movement 
of the car. 

2.25.4.1.7 Mechanically operated switches, 
where located on the car or in the hoistway, shall con- 
form to 2.25.3.1. 

2.25.4.1.8 Where the operation of emergency ter- 
minal speed-limiting devices is dependent on car posi- 
tion relative to the terminal landings 

(a) friction or traction drives shall not be used 

(b) if tape, chain, or rope is used for connection to 
the car, a switch shall be provided to remove electrical 
power from the driving-machine motor and brake 
should this connection fail (see 2.26.2.6) 

2.25.4. 1 .9 Where magnetically operated, optical, 
or solid-state devices are used for position sensing, a 
single short circuit caused by a combination of grounds 
or by other conditions, or the failure of any single mag- 
netically operated, optical, or solid-state device shall not 

(a) render the emergency terminal speed-limiting 
device inoperative 

(h) permit the car to restart after a normal stop 

2.25.4.2 Emergency Terminal Stopping Device. Ele- 
vators with static control and rated speeds over 1 m/s 
(200 ft/min) shall be provided with an emergency termi- 
nal stopping device that will cause power to be removed 
from the driving-machine motor and brake should the 
normal stopping means and the normal terminal stop- 
ping device fail to cause the car to slow down at the 
terminal as intended. 

The emergency terminal stopping device shall func- 
tion independently of the normal terminal stopping 
device and the normal speed control system. 

Elevators with static generator-field control that use 
the normal terminal stopping device to limit the genera- 
tor-field current directly, or elevators that have an emer- 
gency terminal speed-limiting device that complies with 
2.25.4.1, are not required to have an emergency terminal 
stopping device. 

SECTION 2.26 
OPERATING DEVICES AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT 

2.26.1 Operation and Operating Devices 

2.26.1.1 Types of Operating Devices. All operating 
devices shall be of the enclosed electric type. 



• 



98 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Rope or rod operating devices actuated directly by 
hand, or rope operating devices actuated by wheels, 
levers, or cranks, shall not be used. 

2.26.1.2 For Car-Switch Operation Elevators. Han- 
dles of lever-type operating devices of car-switch opera- 
tion elevators shall be so arranged that they will return 
to the stop position and latch there automatically when 
the hand of the operator is removed. 

2.26.1.3 Additional Operating Devices for Elevators 
Equipped to Carry One-Piece Loads Greater Than the 
Rated Load. Elevators equipped to carry one-piece 
loads greater than their rated load shall be provided 
with an additional operating device of the continuous- 
pressure type to operate the elevator at a speed not 
exceeding 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) under such conditions. 
The normal operating devices shall be inoperative dur- 
ing such operation (see 2.16.7.10). 

(055) 2.26.1.4 Inspection Operation. See Appendix R, 
Table R-1. 

2.26.1.4.1 General Requirements 

(a) Operating Devices 

(1) Operating devices for inspection operation shall 
be provided 

(a) on the top of the car 

(b) at the inspection and test panel when required 
by 2.7.6.5.2(h) 

(2) Operating devices for inspection operation shall 
also be permitted 

(a) in the car 

(b) in a machinery space outside the hoistway 

(c) in a machine room 

(d) in a control space outside the hoistway 

(e) in a control room 

(f) in the pit in accordance with 2.7.5.2.2 

(g) at a working platform in accordance with 
2.7.5.3.6 

(b) A switch for transferring control of the elevator 
to the operating devices for inspection operation shall 
be provided, that shall 

(1) be manually operated 

(2) be labeled "INSPECTION" 

(3) have two positions, labeled "INSPECTION" or 
"INSP" and "NORMAL" or "NORM" 

(4) when in the "INSPECTION" position 

(a) enable inspection operation by means of the 
inspection operating devices 

(b) except as provided, in 2.26.1.4.2(f), cause the 
movement of the car to be solely under the control of 
the inspection operating devices through a contact that 
shall be positively opened mechanically and whose 
opening shall not depend solely on springs 

(c) disable automatic power door opening and 
closing and car leveling, except as provided in 
2.26.1.4,2(f) 



(5) when in the "NORMAL" position, disable 
inspection operation by means of the inspection 
operating devices 

(c) Inspection operating devices shall 

(1) be of the continuous-pressure type 

(2) be labeled "UP" and "DOWN," respectively 

(d) Inspection operation shall conform to the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) the speed of the car shall not exceed 0.75 m/s (07) 
(150 ft/min) 

For elevators with static control, an independent 
means shall be provided to limit the inspection speed 
to a maximum of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min), should the 
normal means to control this speed (mechanical, electri- 
cal, or solid-state devices) fail to do so. 

(2) be subject to the electrical protective devices 
required by 2.26.2, except as permitted by 2.26.1.5 

(3) fully closed doors shaU be permitted to be held 
in the closed position with power applied 

(e) Inspection operation shall be used only by elevator 
personnel. 

2.26.1. 4;2 Top-of-Car Inspection Operation. Top- 
of-car inspection operation shall conform to 2.26.1.4.1 
and the following: 

(a) A stop switch (see 2.26.2.8) shall be permanently 
located on the car top and readily accessible to a person, 
while standing at the hoistway entrance normally used 
for access to the car top. 

(W The transfer switch [see 2.26.1.4.1(b)] shall be 
located on the car top and shall be so designed as to 
prevent accidental transfer from the "INSPECTION" to 
"NORMAL" position. 

(c) A separate device of the continuous-pressure type 
labeled "ENABLE" shall be provided adjacent to the 
inspection operating devices. 

(d) The inspection operating devices shall become 
effective only when the "ENABLE" device is activated. 

(e) The inspection operating devices [see 
2.26.1.4.1(c)], shall be permitted to be of the portable 
type, provided that 

(1) the "ENABLE" device [see 2.26.1.4.2(c)], and a 
stop switch, in addition to the stop switch required in 
2.26.1.4.2(a) are included in the portable unit 

(2) the flexible cord is permanently attached so that 
the portable unit carmot be detached from the car top 

(/) Separate additional devices of the continuous- 
pressure type shall be permitted to be provided on the 
car top to make power door opening and closing and 
automatic car leveling operative from the top of the car 
for testing purposes. 

(g) When on top-of-car inspection operation, a sepa- 
rate additional device shall be permitted to render inef- 
fective the top final terminal stopping device, and the 
buffer switch for gas spring-return counterweight oil 
buffers, in conformance with the requirements of 



99 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2,26.4.3, 2.26.9.3(a), and 2.26.9.4, and it shall allow the 
car to be moved to a position in conformance with the 
requirements of 2.7.4.5 and 2.7.5.1.3(c). 

2.26.1.4.3 In-Car Inspection Operation. When in- 
car inspection operation is provided, it shall conform to 
2.26.1.4.1, and the transfer switch [see 2.26.1.4.1(b)] 

(a) shall be located in the car. 

(b) shall be key-operated or placed behind a locked 
cover. Keys to operate or access the switch shall be Group 
1 Security (see 8.1). 

(c) shall be rendered ineffective if top-of-car inspec- 
tion operation is activated. 

(d) when in the "INSPECTION" position, shaU not 
enable hoistway access switch(es). A third switch posi- 
tion shall be permitted to enable the hoistway access 
switches [see 2.12.7.3.3(a)]. 

2.26.1.4.4 Macliinery Space Outside the Hoistway, 
Macliine Room, Control Space Outside the Hoistway, Con- 
trol Room, Pit, Landing, and Worl<ing Platform Inspection 
Operations. Where inspection operation in a machinery 
space outside the hoistway, machine room, control space 
outside the hoistway, control room, pit, or at an inspec- 
tion and test panel, or a working platform is provided, 
it shall conform to 2.26.1.4.1 and the following: 

(a) The transfer switch [see 2.26.1.4.1(b)] shall be 

(1) located in the pit, where provided in accordance 
with 2.7.5.2.2 (Pit Inspection Operation) 

(2) located in the inspection and test panel as 
required by 2.7.6.5.2(h) (Landing Inspection Operation) 

(3) located in the machinery space outside the 
hoistway, machine room, control space outside the 
hoistway, or control room, as applicable 

(4) located at a working platform where required 
by 2.7.5.3.6 (Working Platform Inspection Operation) 

(5) rendered ineffective if top-of-car inspection 
operation, in-car inspection operation, or hoistway 
access operation is activated, or when a car door or 
hoistway door bypass switch is in the "BYPASS" 
position 

(b) Only one mode of the inspection operation as 
described in 2.26,1.4.4(a)(l) through (4) shall be permit- 
ted to be operative at any time. If more than one inspec- 
tion operation transfer switch, as permitted in 
2.26.1.4.4(a)(1) through (4), is in the "INSPECTION" 
position, the controls shall prevent operation of the car 
from any location as described in 2.26.1.4.4(a)(1) 
through (4). 

(c) Pit inspection operation where provided shall also 
conform to 2.26.1, 4.2(c) and (d). When the pit transfer 
switch is in the "INSPECTION" position, the controls 
shall prevent operation of the car when any inspection 
transfer switch, other than that in the pit, is in the 
"INSPECTION" position, or when hoistway access oper- 
ation is enabled. 



(d) Where inspection operation from a working plat- 
form is provided land the working platform transfer 
switch is in the "INSPECTION" position, the controls 
shall prevent operation of the car when any other inspec- 
tion transfer switch, other than that at the working plat- 
form, is in the "INSPECTION" position, or when 
hoistway access operation is enabled. 

2.26.1.5 Inspection Operation With Open Door Cir- (oss) 
cuits. A single set of switches marked "CAR DOOR 
BYPASS" and "HOISTWAY DOOR BYPASS" shaU be 
provided in the elevator controller enclosure containing 

the car door and gate electric contact circuits and 
hoistway door interlock and hoistway door electric con- 
tact circuits (see 2.26.2.14 and 2.26.2.15); except where 
the switches are not accessible from outside the 
hoistway, they shall be located in the inspection and test 
panel (see 2.7.6.5). The switches shall prepare the control 
system so that, only when top-of-car or in-car inspection 
operation is activated, the car shall be permitted to be 
moved with open door contacts. The switches shall con- 
form to 2.26.1.5.1 through 2.26.1.5.8. 

2.26.1.5.1 They shall have contacts that are posi- 
tively opened mechanically, when switching to either 
"BYPASS" or "OFF" positions, and their opening shall 
not be solely dependent on springs, 

2.26.1.5.2 The positions of the "BYPASS" 
switches shall be clearly marked "BYPASS" and "OFF." 

2.26.1.5.3 The related circuits shall comply with 
2.26.9.3 and 2.26.9.4. 

2.26.1.5.4 When either or both of the switches 
are in the "BYPASS" position, all means of operation 
shall be made inoperative except top-of-car and in-car 
inspection operation [see also 2.26.1.4.4(c) and (d)]. 

2.26.1.5.5 When the "CAR DOOR BYPASS" 
switch is in the "BYPASS" position, it shall permit top- 
of-car and in-car inspection operation with open car 
door (or gate) contacts. 

2.26.1.5.6 When the "HOISTWAY DOOR 
BYPASS" switch is in the "BYPASS" position, it shall 
permit top-of-car and in-car inspection operation with 
open hoistway door interlocks or contacts. 

2.26.1.5.7 Each of the "BYPASS" switches shaU 
be permitted to be replaced by a set of switches used 
to bypass individual groups of door contacts. Each 
switch in this set shall be marked to identify the specific 
door contacts bypassed. 

2.26.1.5.8 A warning sign shall be mounted adja- 
cent to the "BYPASS" switches stating, "Jumpers shall 
not be used to bypass hoistway door or car door electric 
contacts." 

2.26.1.6 Operation in Leveling or Trucl( Zone. Oper- 
ation of an elevator in a leveling or truck zone at any 



100 



ASWIE A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



landing by a car leveling or truck zoning device, when 
the hoistv^ay doors, or the car doors or gates, or any 
combination thereof, are not in the closed position, is 
permissible, subject to the requirements of 2.26.1.6.1 
through 2.26.1.6.7. 

2*26.1.6.1 Operating devices of manually oper- 
ated car leveling devices or truck zoning devices shall 
be of the continuous-pressure type and located in the car. 

2.26.1.6.2 Car platform guards, conforming to 
2.15.9, shall be provided. Where a car leveling device is 
used, landing sill guards, conforming to 2.11.12.7, shall 
also be provided. 

2.26.1.6.3 The leveling zone at any landing shall 
not extend more than 450 mm (18 in.) above and below 
any landing where an automatic leveling device is used, 
and not more than 250 mm (10 in.) above and below 
any landing where a manually operated leveling device 
is used. 

2.26.1 .6.4 The truck zone at any landing shall not 
extend more than 1 700 rmn (67 in.) above the landing. 

2.26.1 .6.5 Where a truck or leveling zone for one 
hoistway entrance extends into the door interlocking 
zone for a second entrance, the truck zoning or leveling 
operation shall be inoperative unless the hoistway door 
at the second entrance is in the closed position. 

Where a truck or leveling zone for one hoistway 
entrance extends into the leveling zone for a second 
entrance, the leveling operation for the second entrance 
shall be inoperative while the hoistway door at the first 
entrance is open. 

2.26.1 .6.6 A leveling or truck-zoning device shall 
not move the car at a speed exceeding 0.75 m/s 
(150 ft/min). 

For elevators with static control, an independent 
means shall be provided to limit the leveling speed to 
a maximum of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) with the doors 
open, should the normal means to control this speed 
(mechanical, electrical, or solid-state devices) fail to 
do so. 

2.26.1.6.7 For elevators with static control, an 
irmer landing zone extending not more than 75 mm 
(3 in.) above and 75 mm (3 in.) below the landing shall 
be provided. A car shall not move if it stops outside of 
the inner landing zone unless the doors are fully closed. 

2.26.2 Electrical Protective Devices 

When an electrical protective device is activated 
(operated, opened), it shall cause the electric power to 
be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor 
and brake. [See also 2.26.3, 2.26.4.3, 2.26.4.4, 2.26.7, 
2.26.8.3(c), 2.26.9.3, and 2.26.9.4.] Electrical protective 
devices shall be provided as specified in 2.26.2.1 through 
2.26.2.37. 



2.26.2.1 Slaclc-Rope Switch. Winding-drum 
machines shall be provided with a slack-rope device 
equipped with a slack-rope switch of the enclosed manu- 
ally reset type. This switch shall operate whenever the 
ropes are slack. 

2.26.2.2 Motor-Generator Running Switcli. Where 
generator-field control is used, means shall be provided 
to prevent the application of power to the elevator 
driving-machine motor and brake unless the motor gen- 
erator set connections are properly switched for the run- 
ning condition of the elevator. It is not required that 
the electrical connections between the elevator driving 
machine motor and the generator be opened in order 
to remove power from the elevator motor. 

2.26.2.3 Compensating-Rope Sheave Switch. Com- 
pensating-rope sheaves shall be provided with a com- 
pensating-rope sheave switch or switches mechanically 
opened by the compensating-rope sheave before the 
sheave reaches its upper or lower limit of travel. 

2.26.2.4 Motor Field Sensing Means. Where direct 
current is supplied to an armature and shunt field of an 
elevator driving-machine motor, a motor field current 
sensing means shall be provided, that shall cause the 
electric power to be removed from the driving-machine 
motor armature, and brake urUess current is flowing in 
the shunt field of the motor, except for static control 
elevators provided with a device to detect an overspeed 
condition prior to, and independent of, the operation of 
the governor overspeed switch. This device shall cause 
power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine 
motor armature and machine brake. 

2.26.2.5 Emergency Stop Switch. An emergency 
stop switch shall not be provided on passenger elevators. 
On all freight elevators, an emergency stop switch shall 
be provided in the car, and located in or adjacent to each 
car operating panel. 

When open ("STOP" position), this switch shall cause 
the electric power to be removed from the elevator driv- 
ing-machine motor and brake. 

Emergency stop switches shall 

(a) be of the manually opened and closed type 

(b) have red operating handles or buttons 

(c) be conspicuously and permanently marked 
"STOP," and shall indicate the "STOP" and "RUN" posi- 
tions 

(d) while opened, cause the audible device to sound 
(see 2.27.1.2) 

NOTE (2.26.2.5): See 2.26.2.21 for in-car stop switch requirements 
for passenger elevators. 

2.26.2.6 Brolcen Rope, Tape, or Chain Switches. The 

switch or switches that shall be opened by a failure of 
a rope, tape, or chain, shall be provided when required 
by 2.25.2.3.2 or 2.25.4.1.8(b). 



101 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.26.2.7 Stop Switch in Pit. A stop switch conform- 
ing to 2.26.2.5(a), (b), (c) shall be provided in the pit of 
every elevator (see 2.2.6). 

2.26.2.8 Stop Switch on Top of Car. A stop switch 
conforming to 2.26.2.5(a), (b), and (c) shall be provided 
on the top of every elevator car. 

2.26.2.9 Car Safety Mechanism Switch. A switch, 
conforming to 2.17.7 shall be required where a car safety 
is provided. 

2.26.2.10 Speed-Governor Overspeed Switch. A 

speed-governor overspeed switch shall be provided 
when required by 2.18.4.1 and shall conform to 2.18.4.1 .2, 
2.18.4.2, and 2.18.4.3. 

2.26.2.11 Final Terminal Stopping Devices. Final 
terminal stopping devices, conforming to 2.25.3, shall 
be provided for every electric elevator. 

2.26.2.12 Emergency Terminal Speed-Limiting 
Devices. Where reduced-stroke oil buffers are provided, 
as permitted by 2.22.4.1.2, emergency terminal speed- 
limiting devices conforming to 2.25.4.1 shall be pro- 
vided. 

2.26.2.13 Buffer Switches for Oil Buffers Used With 
Type C Car Safeties. Oil level and compression switches 
conformiiig to 2.17.8.2.7 and 2.17.8.2.8 shall be provided 
for all oil buffers used with Type C safeties (see 2.17.5.3). 

2.26.2.14 Hoistway Door Interlocl^s and Hoistway 
Door Electric Contacts. Hoistway door interlocks or 
hoistway door electric contacts conforming to 2.12 shall 
be provided for all elevators. 

2.26.2.15 Car Door and Gate Electric Contacts. Car 

door or gate electric contacts, conforming to 2.14.4.2, 
shall be provided for all elevators; except when car door 
interlock, conforming to 2.26.2.28 is provided. 

2.26.2.16 Emergency Terminal Stopping Devices. 

Emergency terminal stopping devices conforming to 
2.25.4.2 shall be provided for all elevators where static 
control is used, urUess exempted by 2.25.4.2. 

2.26.2.18 Car Top Emergency Exit Electrical Device. 

An electrical device conforming to 2.14.1.5.1(f) shall be 
provided on the car top emergency exit cover. 

2.26.2.19 Motor-Generator Overspeed Protection. 

Means shall be provided to cause the electric power to 
be removed automatically from the elevator driving- 
machine motor and brake should a motor-generator set, 
driven by a DC motor, overspeed excessively. 

2.26.2.20 Electric Contacts for Hinged Car Platform 
Sills. Hinged car platform sills, where provided, shall 
be equipped with electric contacts conforming to 2.15.16. 

2.26.2.21 In-Car Stop Switch. On passenger eleva- 
tors, a stop switch, either key operated or behind a 



locked cover, shall be provided in the car and located 
in or adjacent to the car operating panel. The key shall 
be Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 

The switch shall be clearly and permanently marked 
"STOP" and shall indicate the "STOP" and "RUN" posi- 
tions. 

When opened ("STOP" position), this. switch shall 
cause the electric power to be removed from the elevator 
driving-machine motor and brake. 

2.26.2.22 Buffer Switclies for Gas Spring-Return Oil 
Buffers. Buffer switches conforming to 2.22.4.5(c) shall 
be provided. 

2.26.2.23 Stop Switch in Remote Machine and Con- 
trol Rooms. A stop switch conforming to 2.26.2.5(a), 
(b), and (c) shall be provided in remote machine and 
control rooms where required by 2.7.8. 

2.26.2.24 Stop Switch for Machinery Spaces and Con- (05S) 
trol Spaces. A stop switch conforming to 2.26.2.5(a), 

(b), and (c) shall be provided where required by 2.7.3.5. 

2.26.2.25 Blind Hoistway Emergency Door Locldng 
Device. A locking device conforming to 2.11.1.2(e) shall 
be provided on every emergency door in a blind 
hoistway 

2.26.2.26 Pit Access Door Electric Contact. An elec- 
tric contact shall be provided on each pit access door 
where required by 2.2.4.4. 

2.26.2.27 Stop Switch in Remote Counterweight 
Hoistways. A stop switch conforming to 2.26.2.5(a), (b), 
and (c) shall be provided in the remote counterweight 
hoistway where required by 2.3.3.3. 

2.26.2.28 Car Door Interloclc. An interlock conform- 
ing to 2.14.4.2 shall be provided where required by 

2.14.4.2.1. 

2.26.2.29 Ascending Car Overspeed Protection 
Device. An overspeed device shall be provided when 
required by 2.19.1 and shall meet the requirements of 
2.19.1.2(a). 

2.26.2.30 Unintended Car Movement Device. An 

unintended car movement device shall be provided 
when required by 2.19.2 and shall meet the requirements 
of 2.19.2.2(a). Where generator-field control is used, this 
electrical protective device shall also cause the power 
to be removed from the drive motor of the motor-genera- 
tor set. 

2.26.2.31 Car Access Panel Locking Device. A lock- 
ing device conforming to 2.14.2.6 shall be provided 
where required by 2.14.2.6(e). 

2.26.2.32 Hoistway Access Opening Lodging 
Device. Access openings in the hoistway shall be pro- 
vided with a locking device where required by 2.11.1.4. 



102 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.26.2.33 Firefighter's Stop Switch. A firefighter's 
stop switch that conforms to the requirements of 
2.26.2.5(a), (b), and (c) shall be provided where required 
by 2.27.3.3.1(m). 

(055) 2.26.2.34 Unexpected Car Movement Device. An 

unexpected car movement device shall be provided 
where required by 2.7.5.1.2(c). This requirement shall be 
permitted to be satisfied by another device specified in 
2.26.2, provided that the means required by 2.7.5.1.1 
actuates the electrical device. 

(OSS) 2.26.2.35 Equipment Access Panel Electrical 
Device. An electric contact on equipment access panels 
in the car shall be provided where required by 2.7.5.1.4 
or 2.14.2.2(g). 

(OSS) 2.26.2.36 Worlcing Platform Electrical Device. An 

electric contact conforming to 2.14.4.2.3(b), (c), and (e) 
shall be provided where required by 2.7.5.3.1. 

(OSS) 2.26.2.37 Retractable Stop Electrical Device. An 

electric contact conforming to 2.14.4.2.3(b), (c), and (e) 
shall be provided where required by 2.7.5.5(a). 

(07) 2.26.2.38 Retractable Ladder Electrical Device. An 

electrical contact conforming to the following shall be 
provided where required by 2.2.4.2.7: 

(a) be positively opened by a device attached to and 
operated by the ladder 

(b) not utilize mercury tube switches 

2.26.3 Contactors and Relays for Use in Critical 
Operating Circuits 

Where electromechanical contactors or relays are pro- 
vided to fulfill the requirements of 2.26.8.2, and 2.26.9.3 
through 2.26.9.7, they shall be considered to be used in 
critical operating circuits. If contact (s) on these electro- 
mechanical contactors or relays are used for monitoring 
purposes, they shall be prevented from changing state 
if the contact(s) utilized in a critical operating circuit 
fail to open in the intended manner. The ability of the 
monitoring contact(s) to perform this function shall not 
be solely dependent upon springs. 

2.26.4 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

2.26.4.1 AU electrical equipment and wiring shall 
conform to NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applica- 
ble (see Part 9). 

(07) 2.26.4.2 Electrical equipment shall be listed /certi- 

fied and labeled/marked. CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5 
defines the scope and applicable requirements for this 
listing / certification. 

(07) 2.26.4.3 The devices covered by 2.26.2 shall meet 

the requirements of either 2.26.4.3.1 or 2.26.4.3.2. 

2.26.4.3.1 They shall have contacts that are posi- 
tively opened mechanically; their opening shall not be 



solely dependent on springs. Exceptions are devices 
described by 2.26.2.4, 2.26,2.19, 2.26.2.29, and 2.26.2.30; 
and 2.26.2.12 and 2.26.2.16 where magnetically operated, 
optical, or static-type switches are used. 

2.26.4.3.2 They shall be listed /certified and 
labeled /marked to a SIL rating in accordance with the 
applicable requirements of lEC 61508-2 and lEC 61508-3 
with a SIL rating equal to or greater than the SIL indi- 
cated for the applicable device shown in Table 2.26.4.3.2. 
The detection of a dangerous fault (e.g., with diagnos- 
tic tests, proof-tests, or by any other means) in SIL rated 
E/E/PES that can tolerate a single fault shall cause the 
elevator to revert to a known fail-safe condition. Where 
necessary, to maintain the integrity of the SIL rated 
E/E/PES and maintain the fail-safe condition prior to 
a second fault that could lead to a dangerous condition, 
a manual reset shall be required to remove the SIL rated 
E/E/PES from the fail-safe condition. 

2.26.4.4 Control equipment shall be tested in 
accordance with the testing requirements of EN 12016 
by exposing it to interference levels at the test values 
specified for ''safety circuits." The interference shall not 
cause any of the conditions described in 2.26.9.3(a) 
through (e) and shall not cause the car to move while 
on inspection operation. 

If enclosure doors or suppression equipment must 
remain installed to meet the above requirements, warn- 
ing signs to that effect shall be posted on the control 
equipment. 

2.26.4.5 In jurisdictions enforcing CSA-C22.1, 
power supply Une disconnecting means, shall not be 
opened automatically by a fire alarm system. 

2.26.5 System to Monitor and Prevent Automatic 
Operation of the Elevator Witli Faulty Door 
Contact Circuits 

Means shall be provided to monitor the position of 
power-operated car doors that are mechanically coupled 
with the landing doors while the car is in the landing 
zone, in order 

(a) to prevent automatic operation of the car if the 
car door is not closed (see 2.14.4.11), regardless whether 
the portion of the circuits incorporating the car door 
contact or the interlock contact of the landing door cou- 
pled with the car door, or both, are closed or open, 
except as permitted in 2.26.1.6 

(b) to prevent the power closing of the doors during 
automatic operation if the car door is fully open and 
any of the following conditions exist: 

(1) the car door contact is closed or the portion of 
the circuit, incorporating this contact is bypassed 

(2) the interlock contact of the landing door that is 
coupled to the opened car door is closed or the portion 
of the circuit, incorporating this contact is bypassed 



(07) 



103 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) 



Table 2.26.4.3.2 SIL for Electrical Protective Devices and Other Electrical Safety Functions 



Requirement 



Device Name 



Safety Function 



SIL 



2.12.7.3.3(a) 
2.26.1.4.1(b) 
2.26.1.5 

2.26.1.6 



2.26.2.1 


2.26.2.2 


2.26.2.3 


2.26.2.4 


2.26.2.5 


2.26.2.6 


2.26.2.7 


2.26.2.8 


2.26.2.9 


2.26.2.10 


2.26.2.11 


2.26.2.12 


2.26.2.13 


2.26.2.14 


2.26.2.15 



2.26.2.16 
2.26.2.18 
2.26.2.19 
2.26.2.20 

2.26.2.21 
2.26.2.22 

2.26.2.23 

2.26.2,24 



Hoistway access switclies 
Inspection switch 
Bypass switches 

Car leveling or truck zoning device 

Slacl<-rope switch 
Motor-generator running switch 

Compensating-rope sheave switch 

Motor field sensing means 

Emergency stop switch 

Broken rope, tape, or chain 
switches . 

Stop switch in pit 

Stop switch on top of car 

Car safety mechanism switch 

Speed-governor overspeed switch 

Final terminal stopping devices 

Emergency terminal speed-limiting 
devices 

Buffer switches for oil buffers 
used with Type C car safeties 

Hoistway door interlocks and 
hoistway door electric contacts 

Car door and gate electric contacts 



Emergency terminal stopping 
devices 

Car top emergency exit electrical 
device 

Motor-generator overspeed pro- 
tection 

Electric contacts for hinged car 
platform sills 



In-car stop switch 

Buffer switches for gas spring- 
return oil buffers 

Stop switch in remote machine 
and control rooms 

Stop switch for machinery spaces 
and control spaces 



Check enable hoistway access operation 

Check on enable of inspection operation 

Check bypass device for bypassing landing and car 
door device(s) 

Check on leveling (re-leveling) with car and hoistway 
doors not in the closed position 

Check the tension of winding drum machine ropes 

Check that the motor generator is switched for the run- 
ning condition 

Check the position limits of compensating-rope sheave 

Check for current flow in the motor shunt field 

Check that the stop switch is actuated 

Check for a failure of a rope, tape, or chain 

Check that the stop switch is actuated 

Check that the stop switch is actuated 

Check on the operation of the car safety mechanism 

Check on overspeed 

Check that the car has passed a terminal landing 

Check on retardation in the case of reduced stroke 
buffers 

Check on the return to normal. 
Extended position of buffer. 

Check on locked and/or closed position of landing 
doors 

Check on closed position of car door 
(Note: For the application of a SIL 3 ELECTRICAL/ELEC- 
TRONIC/PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS device 
for freights and cars with swing hoistway doors, an 
independent monitoring of the closed car door gate 
position by the elevator control is required to prevent 
the car from moving if the car/gate door is open.) 

Check on stopping at terminal landings 

Check on the closed position of the car top exit 

Check on overspeed of DC driven motor generator sets 

Check on the retracted position of car platform sill. 
Obsolete technology. 

Check that the stop switch is actuated 

Check on the return to normal 
extended position of buffer 

Check that the stop switch Is actuated 
Check that the stop switch is actuated 



SIL rated 
device not 
permitted 

3 



104 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.26.43.2 SIL for Electrical Protective Devices and Other Electrical Safety Functions (Cont'd) 



Requirement 



Device Name 



Safety Function 



SIL 



2.26.2.25 

2.26,2.26 
2.26.2.27 

2.26.2.28 
2.26.2.29 

2.26.2.30 
2.26.2.31 



2.26.2.32 



2.26.2.33 
2.26.2.34 

2.26.2.35 

2.26.2.36 
2.26.2.37 



Blind hoistway emergency door 
locking device 

Pit access door electric contact 

Stop switch in remote counter- 
weight hoistways 

Car door interlock 

Ascending car overspeed protec- 
tion device 

Unintended car movement device 

Car access panel locking device 



Hoistway access opening locking 
device 



Firefighter's stop switch 
Unexpected car movement device 

In-car equipment access panel 
device 

Working platform electrical device 

Retractable stop electrical device 



Check on the locked position of blind hoistway door 

Check on the closed position of pit access doors 
Check that the stop switch is actuated 

Check on locking and closed position of car doors 

Check on the ascending car overspeed protection 
means 

Check on unintended car movement with doors open 

Check on locked position of car access panel 



Check on locked position of hoistway access openings 



Check that the stop switch is actuated 

Check on actuation of unexpected car movement 
means 

Check on closed position of access panel in the car 



Check on fully retracted position of working platform 
Check on fully retracted position of retractable stops 



SIL rated 

device not 

permitted 

[see Note (1)] 

SIL rated 

device not 

permitted 

[see Note (1)] 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) For the purpose of this Standard, the SIL represents the requirement for a device operating in the low demand mode and the probabil- 
ity of failure to perform its safety function on demand (see CEl lEC 61508-1, Table 2). However, where the device is used for continu- 
ous control to maintain functional safety, for example when the use of a stop switch solely prevents an elevator controller from 
operating in automatic operation, the SIL shall represent the requirement for a device considered operating in the high demand mode 
and the dangerous failure rate of the device (see CEl lEC 61508-1, Table 3 and definition). 

(b) For the purposes of this Standard, SIL refers to SIL rating of a E/E/PES to the applicable requirements of CEl lEC 61508-2 and CEl lEC 
61508-3. 

(c) The SIL values specified in Table 2.26.4.3.2 are based on a proof-test frequency of no more than half the rate of demand on the safety 
function. The inspection frequencies provided in Nonmandatory Appendix N serve as a reference to this proof-test interval and are 
addressed in the Maintenance Control Program. See requirement 8.6.1.2.1(a)(1). 

(d) It is possible to use several lower safety integrity level systems to satisfy the need for a higher safety integrity level function provided 
that the implementation is certified. 

(e) The summary of functions described in the "Safety Function" column are for reference only. The referenced Code item in the "Require- 
ment" column must be used to determine the safety function of the item in the "Device Name" column. 

NOTE: 

(1) A device rated SIL 4 or less cannot fulfill this function. 



(3) the car door contact and the interlock contact 
of the door that is coupled to the opened car door are 
closed, or the portions of the circuits incorporating these 
contacts are bypassed 

2.26.6 Phase Protection of Motors 

Elevators having a polyphase AC power supply shall 
be provided with means to prevent the starting of the 
elevator drive motor or door motor if a reversal of phase 
rotation, or phase failure of the incoming polyphase AC 



power, will cause the elevator car or elevator door(s) to 
operate in the wrong direction. 

2.26.7 Installation of Capacitors or Other Devices to 
Malce Electrical Protective Devices Ineffective 

The installation of capacitors or other devices, the 
operation or failure of which will cause an unsafe opera- 
tion of the elevator, is prohibited. 

No permanent device that will make any required 
electrical protective device ineffective shall be installed 



(05S) 



105 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



except as provided in 2.7.6.5.2(h), 2.12.7.1, 2.26.1.4.2(g), 
2.26.1.5, 2.26.1.6, and 2.27.3.1.6(c) (see 8.6.1.6.1). 

2.26.8 Release and Application of Driving-Machine 
Braises 

(05S) 2.26.8.1 Driving-machine brakes shall not be elec- 
trically released until power has been applied to the 
driving-machine motor except as permitted by 2.7.6.4.3. 

(07) 2.26.8.2 Two means shall be provided to indepen- 

dently remove power from the brake. The electrical pro- 
tective devices required by 2.26.2 shall control both 
means, except that leveling 'shall be permitted to take 
place with power opening of doors and gates in confor- 
mance with 2.13.2.1.1 and 2.13.2.2.1. 

One of the means shall be either a contactor, or an 
E/E/PES with a SIL of not less than the highest SIL of 
the function for the electrical protective devices involved 
with removing power from the brake and shall be 
listed /certified and labeled /marked for compliance 
with the applicable requirements of EEC 61508-2 and 
lEC 61508-3. This means is not required to remove power 
from the driving-machine motor. 

If the brake circuit is ungrounded, power shall be 
interrupted at all power feed lines to the brake. 

2.26.8.3 The brake shall apply automatically when 

(a) the operating device of a car switch or continuous- 
pressure operation elevator is in the stop position 

(b) a normal stopping means functions 

(c) any electrical protective device is activated 

(d) there is a loss of power to the driving-machine 
brake 

2.26.8.4 The application of the brake shall be per- 
mitted to occur on or before the completion of the slow- 
down and leveling operations, under conditions 
described in 2.26.8.3(a) and (b). 

2.26.8.5 The brake shall not be permanently con- 
nected across the armature or field of a direct-current 
elevator driving-machine motor. 

2.26.9 Control and Operating Circuits 

The design and installation of the control and 
operating circuits shall conform to 2.26.9.1 through 
2.26.9,8. 

2.26.9.1 If springs are used to actuate switches, 
contactors, or relays to break the circuit to stop an eleva- 
tor at the terminal landings, they shall be of the compres- 
sion type. 

2.26.9.2 The completion or maintenance of an 
electric circuit shall not be used to interrupt the power 
to the elevator driving-machine motor or brake at the 
terminal landings, nor to stop the car when any of the 
electrical protective devices (see 2.26.2) operate. 
Requirement 2.26.9.2 does not apply to dynamic braking, 
nor to speed control switches. 



2.26.9.3 The occurrence of a single ground or the (07) 
failure of any single magnetically operated switch, con- 
tactor, or relay, or any single device that Limits the level- 
ing or truck zone, or any single solid-state device not a 
part of a software system; or a failure of a software 
system in circuits not in conformance with 2.26.9.4(b), 
shall not 

(a) render any electrical protective device ineffective 
(see 2.26.2) 

(b) permit the car to move beyond the leveling or 
truck zone if any hoistway-door interlock is unlocked 
or if any hoistway door or car door or gate electric 
contact is not in the closed position (see 2.26.1.6) 

(c) permit speeds in excess of those specified in (ED) 
2.12.7.3.2, 2.26.1.4.1(d)(1), and 2.26.1.6.6 

(d) permit the car to revert to normal operation when (055) 
the electrical contact required by 2.7.5.2.1(b)(3) is in the 
open position, or the electrical device as permitted in 
2.7.5.5(b) is activated, or on hoistway access switch oper- 
ation (see 2.12.7.3), or on inspection operation (see 
2.26.1.4), or on bypass operation (see 2.26.1.5) 

(e) continue to make ineffective any hoistway-door 
interlock or car door or gate electric contact when either 
a hoistway access switch (see 2.12.7.3) or a "BYPASS" 
switch (see 2.26.1.5) is turned to the "OFF" position. 

2.26.9.4 Methods used to satisfy 2.26.9.3 shall be (07) 
checked prior to each start of the elevator from a landing, 
when on automatic operation. When a single ground or 
failure, as specifieei in 2.26.9.3 occurs, the car shall not 

be permitted to restart. Methods implemented using 
software systems are permitted, provided that 

(a) the removal of power from the driving-machine 
motor and brake is not solely dependent on 
software-controlled means, or 

(b) the software system and related circuits are 
listed /certified and labeled /marked for compliance i 
with the applicable requirements of lEC 61508-2 and 
lEC 61508-3. This software system and its related circuits 
shall have a SIL of not less than the highest SIL value 

of the safety function(s) in Table 2.26.4.3.2 used in the 
circuit. 

2.26.9.5 Except for elevators employing alternat- (ED) 
ing-current hoist motors driven from a direct-current 
source through a static inverter (see 2.26.9.6), elevators 
with driving motors employing static control without 
motor-generator sets shall conform to 2.26.9.5.1 through 
2.26.9.5.4. 

2.26.9.5.1 Two means shall be provided to (07) 
remove power independently from the driving-machine 
motor. At least one shall conform to either 2.26.9.5.1(a) 
or 2.26.9.5.1(b). 

(a) An electromechanical contactor arranged to 

(1) open each time the car stops, or 

(2) open, at ttie latest, each time the car reverses 
direction, except for releveling, and it has been verified 



106 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



at each stop that there is no current flow exceeding 
normal leakage current through the other means 

(h) An E/E/PES, with a SIL of not less than the high- 
est SIL value of the applicable function as shown in 
Table 2.26.4.3.2 for the electrical protective devices 
involved and shall be listed/certified and 
labeled /marked for compliance with the applicable 
requirements of lEC 61508-2 and lEC 61508-3. 

(07) 2.26.9.5.2 The means used for conformance to 

2.26.9.5.1 shall cause power to be removed from the 
driving-machine brake. 

(07) 2.26.9.5.3 The electrical protective devices 

required by 2.26.2 shall control both means, except that 
leveling shall be permitted to take place with power 
opening of doors and gates in conformance with 
2.13.2.1.1 and 2,13.2.2.1. 

(07) 2.26.9.5.4 Where contactors are used to satisfy 

2.26.9.5.1 or 2.26.8.2, after each time the contactor is 
required to open in conformance with 2.26.9.5.1(a) or 
2.26.9.5.2, the car shall not respond to a signal to start 
imless the contactor(s) is in the de-energized position. 
After each stop in conformance with 2.26.9.5.1(a)(2), the 
car shall not respond to a sig]:ial to start if current flow 
exceeding normal leakage current through the other 
means is detected. 

(ED) 2.26.9.6 Elevators employing alternating-current 

driving motors driven from a direct-current power 
source through a static inverter shall conform to 
2.26.9.6.1 through 2.26.9.6.4. 

(07) 2.26.9.6.1 Two separate means shall be provided 

to independently inhibit the flow of alternating current 
through the solid-state devices that connect the 
direct-current power source to the alternating-current 
driving motor. At least one of the means shall conform 
to either 2.26.9.6.1(a) or 2.26.9.6.1(b). 

(a) An electromechanical relay arranged to 

(1) open each time the car stops, or 

(2) open, at the latest, each time the car reverses 
direction, except for releveling, and it has been verified 
at each stop that there is no current flow exceeding 
normal leakage current through the other means 

(b) An E/E/PES, with a SIL of not less than the high- 
est SIL value of the applicable function as shown in 
Table 2.26.4.3.2 for the electrical protective devices 
involved and shall be listed/certified and 
labeled /marked for compliance with the applicable 
requirements of lEC 61508-2 and lEC 61508-3. 

2.26.9.6.2 The means used for conformance to 
2.26.9.6.1(a) or 2.26.9.6.1(b) shall cause power to be 
removed from the driving-machine brake circuit. 

2.26.9.6.3 The electrical protective devices 
required by 2.26.2 shall control both means that inhibit 
the flow of alternating current through the solid-state 



devices, except that leveling shall be permitted to take 
place with power opening of the doors and gates as 
restricted by 2.13.2.1.1 and 2.13.2.2.1. 

2.26.9.6.4 Where relays are used to satisfy 
2.26.9.6.1(a) and contactors are used to satisfy 2.26.8.2, 
after each time the relay is required to open in confor- 
mance to 2.26.9.6.1(a) or the contactor is required to open 
in conformance to 2.26.9.6.2, the car shall not respond 
to a signal to start unless the relay that inhibits the flow 
of alternating current through the solid-state devices, as 
well as the contactors in the brake circuit, are in the 
de-energized position. After each stop in conformance 
to 2.26.9.6.1(a)(2), the car shall not respond to a signal 
to start if current flow exceeding normal leakage current 
through the other means is detected. 

2.26.9.7 Where generator-field control is used, 
means shall be provided to prevent the generator from 
building up and applying sufficient current to the eleva- 
tor driving-machine motor to move the car when the 
elevator motor control switches are in the "OFF" posi- 
tion. The means used shall not interfere with mainte- 
nance of an effective dynamic-braking circuit during 
stopping and standstill conditions. 

2.26.9.8 The control circuits shall be so designed 
and installed that the car speed in the down direction 
with rated load in the car, under normal operating condi- 
tions with the power supply on or off, shall not exceed 
governor tripping speed, or 125% of rated speed, which- 
ever is the lesser (see also 2.16.8). 

2.26.10 Absorption of Regenerated Power 

When a power source is used that, in itself, is incapable 
of absorbing the energy generated by an overhauling 
load, means for absorbing sufficient energy to prevent 
the elevator from attaining governor tripping speed or 
a speed in excess of 125% of rated speed, whichever is 
less, shall be provided on the load side of each elevator 
power supply line discormecting means (see 2.16.8). 

2.26.11 Car Platform to Hoistway Door Sills Vertical 
Distance 

Where ANSI/ICC A117.1 or ADAAG is not applica- 
ble, the vertical distance between the car platform sill 
and the hoistway door sill on passenger elevators shall 
be in accordance with the following: 

(a) it shall not exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.) on initial stop 
at a landing 

(b) the car shall relevel if the vertical distance exceeds 
25 mm (1 in.) while loading or unloading 

2.26.12 Symbols 

2.26.12.1 Where reference is made requiring word- 
ing to designate a specific function, the symbols as 
shown in Table 2.26.12.1 shall be substituted for, or used 
in conjimction with, the required wording. 



107 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 2.26.12.1 Symbol Identification 



Function 



Tactile Symbol 



Braille Message 
Where Provided 



Proportions 

(Open Circles Indicate Unused Dots Within 

Each Braille Cell) 



Door Open 



i\> 



• •• 

• • • 

• • • 

OP"EN" 



h^2.0 mm 




3.0 mm typical 
J~ between elements 



16.0 mm 



4.8 mm 



Rear/Side 
Door Open 



i>^ 



• # # 
• • • 

REAR/SIDE OP"EN" 



•o •• oo 

0« 90 90 
• O 90 O* 



Door Close 



►H 



• • • # mm 

m # • • 
• # • 

CLOSE 



•• tto so o« ao 
oo so o» 90 o« 

oo 40 90 #0 oo 



Rear/Side 
Door Close 



X 



'# # # # • 

• # # e 

• # • 

REAR/SIDE CLOSE 



•• tto so o« so 

oo 90 0« VO 0» 
oo 40 90 90 OO 



Main 



m m 

MA" IN" 



•• 90 OO 
OO OO O* 
•O OO 90 



Alarm 



A 



• # # 

AL"AR"M 




•o •o o« •• 
00 mo o* oo 
oo 90 mo mo 



Phone 



c 



PH"ONE" 



•• mo oo vo 
•o •• o* o* 
•o oo oo so 



Emergency 
Stop 



O 



• • •• 
• • • 
"ST"OP 



o« so •• 

oo 0« 90 
•O 90 90 



108 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



2.26.12.2 The emergency stop switch shall have 
the "STOP" and "RUN" positions conspicuously and 
permanently marked as required by 2.26.2.5(c). 

2.26.12.3 Where Braille is provided it shall con- 
form to the requirements in Table 2.26.12.1. 

NOTE (2.26.12): See also ANSI/ICC A117.1, ADAAG, and B44 
Appendix E. 

2.26.12.4 Identify "HELP" button [see 
2.27.1.1.3(b)] and visual indication [see 2.27.1.1.3(c)] with 
the phone symbol. 

(07) SECTION 2.27 

EMERGENCY OPERATION AND SIGNALING DEVICES 

NOTE (2.27): Additional requirements, including those for fire- 
fighters' communications systems, may be foimd in the building 
code. 

2.27.1 Car Emergency Signaling Devices 

2.27.1.1 Emergency Communications 

(07) 2.27.1.1.1 A two-way communications means 

between the car and a location staffed by authorized 
personnel shall be provided. 

(07) 2.27.1.1.2 When the two-way communications 

location is not staffed 24 h a day, by authorized personnel 
who can take appropriate action, the means of two-way 
communications shall automatically be directed within 
30 s to an additional on- or off-site location, staffed by 
authorized personnel, where an appropriate response 
can be taken. 

2.27.1.1.3 The two-way communication means 
within the car shall comply with the following require- 
ments: 

(a) In jurisdictions enforcing NBCC, Appendix E of 
CSA B44, or in jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, ICC/ 
ANSI A117.1. 

(h) A push button to actuate the two-way communica- 
tion means shall be provided in or adjacent to a car 
operating panel. The push button shall be visible and 
permanently identified as "HELP." The identification 
shall be on or adjacent to the "HELP" button. When 
the push button is actuated, the emergency two-way 
commimication means shall initiate a call for help and 
establish two-way commimications. 

(c) A visual indication on the same panel as the 
"HELP" push button shall be provided, that is activated 
by authorized personnel, to acknowledge that two-way 
communications link has been established. The visual 
indication shall be extinguished when the two-way com- 
mimication link is terminated. 

(d) The two-way communication means shall provide 
on demand to authorized personnel, information that 
identifies the building location and elevator number and 
that assistance is required. 



(e) After the call acknowledgement signals are sent 
[2.27.1.1.3(c)], the two-way voice communications shall 
be available between the car and authorized personnel. 

(f) The two-way commimications, once established, 
shall be disconnected only when authorized personnel 
outside the car terminate the call. 

(g) The two-way communication means shall not use 
a handset in the car. 

(h) The two-way communications shall not be trans- 
nutted to an automated answering system. The call for 
help shall be answered by authorized personnel. 

(i) Operating instructions shall be incorporated with 
or adjacent to the "HELP" button. 

2.27.1.1.4 Where the elevator rise is 18 m (60 ft) (07) 
or more, a two-way voice communication means within 

the building accessible to emergency personnel shall be 
provided and comply with the following requirements: 

(a) The means shall enable emergency personnel 
within the building to establish two-way voice commu- 
nications to each car individually. Two-way voice com- 
munication shall be established without any intentional 
delay and shall not require intervention by a person 
within the car. The means shall override communica- 
tions to outside of the building. 

(b) Two-way voice commimications, once established, 
shall be disconnected only when emergency personnel 
outside the car terminates the call. 

(c) Once the two-way voice communication has been 
established, the visual indication [see 2.27.1.1.3(c)] 
within the car shall illuminate. The visual indication 
shall be extinguished when the two-way communication 
is terminated. 

(d) Operating instructions shall be incorporated with 
or adjacent to the two-way voice communication outside 
the car. Instructions shall conform to 2.27.7.3. 

2.27.1.1.5 If the emergency communication 
means is normally connected to the building's main 
power supply, it shall automatically transfer to an alter- 
nate source(s) of power when the normal power supply 
fails. The alternate source(s) of power (standby, emer- 
gency, etc.) shall be capable of providing power for illu- 
mination of the visual indication [see 2.27.1.1.3(c)] 
within the car, and the means of emergency communica- 
tions for at least 4 h; and the audible signaling device 
(see 2.27.1.2) for at least 1 h. 

2.27.1.2 Emergency Stop Switch Audible Signal. 

When an emergency stop switch (2.26.2.5) is provided, 
an audible signaling device shall be provided. The audi- 
ble signaling device shall 

(a) have a rated sound pressure rating of not less than 
80 dBA nor greater than 90 dBA at 3 m (10 ft) 

(b) respond without delay after the switch has been 
activated 

(c) be located inside the building and audible inside 
the car and outside the hoistway 



109 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(ED) (d) for elevators with a rise greater than 30 m (100 ft), 
be duplicated as follows: 

(1) one device shall be mounted on the car 

(2) a second device shall be placed at the desig- 
nated level 

2,27.2 Emergency or Standby Power System 

Where an emergency or standby power system is pro- 
vided to operate an elevator in the event of normal 
power supply failure, the requirements of 2.27.2.1 
through 2.27.2.5 shall be complied with. 

2.27.2.1 The emergency or standby power system 
shall be capable of operating the elevator(s) with rated 
load (see 2.16.8), at least one at a time, unless otherwise 
required by the building code. 

2.27.2.2 The transfer between the normal and the 
emergency or standby power system shall be automatic. 

2.27.2.3 An illuminated signal marked "ELEVA- 
TOR EMERGENCY POWER" shall be provided in the 
elevator lobby at the designated level to indicate that 
the normal power supply has failed and the emergency 
or standby power is in effect. 

2.27.2.4 Where the emergency or standby power 
system is not capable of operating all elevators simulta- 
neously, requirements of 2.27.2.4.1 through 2.27.2.4.5 
shall be conformed to. 

2.27.2.4.1 A selector switch(es) marked "ELEVA- 
TOR EMERGENCY POWER" in red lettering a mini- 
mum of 5 mm (0.25 in.) in height, that is key-operated 
or tmder a locked cover (see 2.27.8), shall be provided 
to permit the selection of the elevator(s) to operate on 
the emergency or standby power system. The key shall 
be Group 3 Security (see 8.1). 

2.27.2.4.2 The selector switch(es) positions shall 
be marked to correspond with the elevator identification 
number (see 2.29) and a position marked "AUTO." 

2.27.2.4.3 The selector switch(es) shall be located 
at the designated level in view of all elevator entrances, 
or if located elsewhere means shall be provided adjacent 
to the selector switch(es) to indicate that the elevator is 
at the designated level with the doors in the normally 
open position. 

2.27.2.4.4 When the selector switch is in the 
"AUTO" position, automatic power selection. shall be 
provided, that will return each elevator that is not on 
designated attendant operation, inspection operation, 
or Phase II In-Car Emergency Operation, one or more 
at a time, to the recall level. Failure of the selected car to 
move shall cause power to be transferred to another car. 

2.27.2.4.5 The selector switch(es) positions cor- 
responding to the elevator identification numbers (see 
2.29.1) shall override the automatic power selection. 



Operation of the selector switch(es) shall not cause 
power to be removed from any elevator until the elevator 
is stopped. 

NOTE (2.27.2.4): The selector switch(es) should normally be 
placed in the ''AUTO" position. 

2.27.2.5 When the emergency or standby power 
system is designed to operate only one elevator at a 
time, the energy absorption means (if required) shall be 
permitted to be located on the supply side of the elevator 
power disconnecting means, provided all other require- 
ments of 2.26.10 are conformed to when operating any 
of the elevators the power might serve. Other building 
loads, such as power and lights that can be supplied by 
the emergency or standby power system, shall not be 
considered as a means of absorbing the regenerated 
energy for the purposes of conforming to 2.26.10, unless 
such loads are normally powered by the emergency or 
standby power system. 

2.27.3 Firefighters' Emergency Operation: Automatic (07) 
Elevators 

Firefighters' Emergency Operation shaU apply to all 
automatic elevators except where the hoistway or a por- 
tion thereof is not required to be fire-resistive construc- 
tion (see 2.1.1.1), the rise does not exceed 2 000 mm 
(80 in.), and the hoistway does not penetrate a floor. 

NOTE (2.27.3): When the structure (building, etc.) is located in 
a flood hazard area, the alternate and designated levels (see 8.12.1) 
should be above the base flood elevation. 

2.27.3.1 Pliase I Emergency Recall Operation 

2.27.3.1.1 A three-position key-operated switch (07) 
that will not change position without a deliberate action 

by the user, shall be 

(a) provided only at the designated level for each 
single elevator or for each group of elevators. 

(b) labeled 'TIRE RECALL" and its positions marked 
"RESET," "OFF," and "ON" (in that order), with the 
"OFF" position as the center position. The 
"FIRE RECALL" letters shall be a minimum of 5 mm 
(0.25 in.) high in red or a color contrasting with a red 
background. 

(c) located in the lobby within sight of the elevator or 
all elevators in that group and shall be readily accessible. 

2.27.3.1.2 An additional key-operated (07) 
"FIRE RECALL" switch, with two positions that will 

not change position without a deliberate action by the 
user, marked "OFF" and "ON" (in that order), shall be 
permitted only at the building fire control station. 

2.27.3.1.3 The switch(es) shall be rotated clock- 
wise to go from the "RESET" (designated level switch 
only), to "OFF" to "ON" positions. Keys shall be remov- 
able only in the "OFF" and "ON" positions. 

2.27.3.1.4 Only the "FIRE RECALL" switch(es) (055) 
or fire alarm initiating device located at floors that are 



110 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



served by the elevator, or in the hoistway, or in an eleva- 
tor machine room, or a control space, or a control roon\ 
(see 2.27.3.2) shall initiate Phase I Emergency Recall 
Operation. 

2.27.3.1.5 All "FIRE RECALL" switches shall be 
provided with an illuminated visual signal to indicate 
when Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is in effect. 

2.27.3.1.6 When a "FIRE RECALL" switch is in 
the "ON" position all cars controlled by the switch shall 
operate as follows: 

(a) A car traveling towards the designated level shall 
continue nonstop to the designated level and power- 
operated doors shall open and remain open. 

On cars with two entrances, if both entrances can be 
opened at the designated level, only the doors serving 
the lobby where the "FIRE RECALL" switch is located 
shall open and remain open. 

(b) A car traveling away from the designated level 
shall reverse at or before the next available landing with- 
out opening its doors and proceed to designated level. 

(c) A stopped car shall have the in-car stop switch 
(see 2.26.2.21) and the emergency stop switch in the car 
(see 2.26.2.5) when provided, rendered inoperative as 
soon as the car moves away from the landing. A moving 
car shall have the in-car stop switch and the emergency 
stop switch in the car when provided, rendered inopera- 
tive without delay. Once the emergency stop switch in 
the car and the in-car stop switch have been rendered 
inoperative, they shall remain inoperative while the car 
is on Phase I Emergency Recall Operation. All other stop 
switches required by 2.26.2 shall remain operative. 

(d) A car standing at a landing other than the desig- 
nated level, with the doors open and the in-car stop 
switch and the emergency stop switch in the car when 
provided, in the run position, shall conform to the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Elevators having automatic power-operated 
horizontally sliding doors shall close the doors without 
delay and proceed to the designated level. 

(2) Elevators having power-operated vertically 
sliding doors provided with automatic or momentary 
pressure closing operation per 2.13.3.4 shall have the 
closing sequence initiated without delay in accordance 
with 2.13.3.4.1, 2.13.3.4.2, 2.13.3.4.3, and 2.13,3.4.5, and 
the car shall proceed to the designated level. 

(3) Elevators having power-operated doors pro- 
vided with continuous pressure closing operation (see 
2.13.3.2), or elevators having manual doors, shall be pro- 
vided with a visual and audible signal system [see 
2.27.3.1.6(h)] to alert an operator to close the doors and 
shall, when the doors are closed, proceed to the desig- 
nated level. Sequence operation, if provided, shall 
remain effective. 

(e) Door reopening devices for power-operated doors 
that are sensitive to smoke or flame shall be rendered 



inoperative without delay. Door reopening devices not 
sensitive to smoke or flame (e.g., mechanically actuated 
devices) are permitted to remain operative. Door closing 
for power-operated doors shall conform to 2.13.5. 

(f) All car and corridor call buttons shall be rendered 
inoperative. All call-registered lights and directional lan- 
terns shaU be extinguished and remain inoperative. Car 
position indicators, where provided, shall remain opera- 
tive. Where provided, landing position indicators shall 
be extinguished and remain inoperative, except at the 
designated level cind the building fire control station, 
where they shall remain operative. 

(g) Where provided on elevators with vertically slid- 
ing doors, corridor door open and door close buttons 
shall remain operative. 

(h) An illuminated visual and audible signal system 
shall be activated. The visual signal shall be one of the 
symbols shown in Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h) and located on the 
car-operating panel. The entire circular or square area 
or the outline of the hat, or the outline of the area shown 
in Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h) shall be illuminated. The visual sig- 
nal shall remain activated until the car is restored to 
automatic operation. When the door is open, the audible 
signal shall remain active until the door is closed. When 
the door is closed, the audible signal shaU remain active 
for a minimum of 5 s. The audible signal shall not be 
active when the car is at the recall level. 

(i) A car stopped at a landing shall have the in-car (07) 
door open button rendered inoperative as soon as the 
car moves away from the landing. The in-car door open 
button shall remain inoperative when a car stops to 
reverse direction. Once the in-car door open button has 
been rendered inoperative, it shall remain inoperative 
vmtil the car has returned to the designated level. 

(j) Where an additional "FIRE RECALL" switch is 
provided, both "FIRE RECALL" switches shall be in the 
"ON" position to recall the elevator to the designated 
level if the elevator was recalled to the alternate level 
(see 2.27.3.2,4). 

(k) To remove the elevator(s) from Phase I Emergency 
Recall Operation, the "FIRE RECALL" switch shall be 
rotated first to the "RESET," and then to the "OFF" 
position, provided that 

(1) the additional two-position "FIRE RECALL" 
switch, where provided, is in the "OFF" position 

(2) no fire alarm initiating device is activated (see 
2.27.3.2). 

(/) Means used to remove elevators from normal oper- (07) 
ation shall not prevent Phase I Emergency Recall Opera- 
tion, except 

(1) as specified in this Code 

(2) as controlled by elevator personnel 

(m) No device, that measures load, shall prevent oper- 
ation of the elevator at or below the capacity and loading 
required in 2.16. 



Ill 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) 



Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h) Visual Signal 





















































'' 




x^ 


f^ 






■^ 


hv. 


T 


























/ 














\ 










r\ 


-^ 


— 












._ . i 


/ 




r\ 


-^ 




*% 








\ 








y 




Y" 


■^ 




s 








f 


y 




*" 






s 








i 






/ 




I 














25 mm i 

(1 in.) j 




/ 




I 








\ 






\ 25 mm 


^ 


X 


J 
















> 


X 


J 










V 






1 (1 m.) 


c 




^.rf" 


^ 


-^ 






■■» 




:^ 


min. I 


c 




^ 


^ 




— 


— 




■^v 


^ 


1 min. 


N 


"^ 


















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J 


r 
























N 


















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N 


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y 






- 


-2 


5r 


nrr 


(1 


in 


.} min 


. — 
















^—^ 




^ 









(07) fw) If the normal power supply, emergency power 
supply, and standby power supply are not available and 
the elevator is equipped with an alternate source of 
power that is insufficient to move the car to the recall 
level, the following requirements shall apply: 

(1) The visual signal [2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall extinguish. 

(2) A car that is not at a landing shall move to the 
closest landing it is capable of reaching. 

(3) A car that has automatic power-operated hori- 
zontally sliding doors or power-operated vertically slid- 
ing doors provided with automatic closing operation 
and is stopped at a landing, shall open the doors, and 
then within 15 s, initiate reclosing. 

(4) A car that is stopped at a landing shall have its 
door open button operative. 

(5) A car stopped at a landing shall not move until 
normal power, emergency power, or standby power 
becomes available. 

2.27.3.2 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation by Fire 
Alarm Initiating Devices 

(07) 2.27.3.2.1 In jurisdictions not enforcing the 

NBCC, fire alarm initiating devices used to initiate Phase 
I Emergency Recall Operation shall be installed in con- 
formance with the requirements of NFPA 72, and shall 
be located 

(a) at each floor served by the elevator 

(b) in the associated elevator machine room, control 
space, or control room 

(c) in the elevator hoistway, when sprinklers are 
located in those hoistways 

(07) 2.27.3.2.2 In jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC, 

smoke detectors, or, if applicable, the building fire alarm 
system (fire alarm initiating devices), used to initiate 
Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, shall be installed 
in conformance with the requirements of the NBCC, and 
shall be located in 

(a) each elevator lobby 

(b) the machine room 

NOTE (2.27.3.2.2): Fire alarm initiating devices are referred to as 
fire detectors in the NBCC. 



2.27.3.2.3 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation 
to the designated level shall conform to the following: 

(a) The activation of a fire alarm initiating device 
specified in 2.27.3.2.1 or 2.27.3.2.2(a) at any floor, other 
than at the designated level, shall cause all elevators 
that serve that floor, and any associated elevator of a 
group automatic operation, to be returned nonstop to 
the designated level. 

(b) The activation of a fire alarm initiating device (07) 
specified in 2.27.3;2.1(b) or 2.27,3.2.2(b) shall cause all 
elevators having any equipment located in that machine 
room, and any associated elevators of a group automatic 
operation, to be returned nonstop to the designated 
level. If the machine room is located at the designated 
level, the elevator(s) shall be returned nonstop to the 
alternate level. 

(c) In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, the activation (07) 
of a fire alarm initiating device specified in 2.27.3.2.1(c) 

or in jurisdictions enforcing NBCC, the initiation of a 
fire detector in the hoistway shall cause all elevators ' 
having any equipment in that hoistway, and any associ- 
ated elevators of a group automatic operation, to be 
returned nonstop to the designated level, except that 
initiating device(s) installed at or below the lowest land- 
ing of recall shall cause the car to be sent to the upper 
recall level. 

(d) The Phase I Emergency Recall Operation to the (ED) 
designated level shall conform to 2.27.3.1.6(a) through 

(n). 

2.27.3.2.4 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation 
to an alternate level (see 1.3) shall conform to the fol- 
lowing: 

(a) the activation of a fire alarm initiating device spec- 
ified in 2.27.3.2.1(a) or 2.27.3.2.2(b) that is located at the 
designated level, shall cause all elevators serving that 
level to be recalled to an alternate level, imless Phase I 
Emergency Recall is in effect 

(b) the requirements of 2.27.3.1.6(f), (j), (m), and (n) (ED) 

(c) the requirements of 2.27.3.1.6(a), (b), (c), (d), (e), 
(g), (h), (i), (k), and (1), except that all references to the 



112 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



"designated level" shall be replaced with "alternate 
level" 

2.27.3.2.5 The recall level shall be determined 
by the first activated fire alarm initiating device for that 
group (see 2.27.3.2.1 or 2.27.3.2.2). 

If the car(s) is recalled to the designated level by the 
"FIRE RECALL" switch(es) [see also 2.27.3. L6(j)], the 
recall level shall remain the designated level. 

(05S) 2.27.3.2.6 When a fire alarm initiating device 

in the machine room, control space, control room, or 
hoistway initiates Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, 
as required by 2.27.3.2.3 or 2.27.3.2.4, the visual signal 
[see 2.27.3.1.6(h) and Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall illuminate 
intermittently only in a car(s) v^ith equipment in that 
machine room, control space, control room, or hoistway. 
When activated, a heat detector [2.27.3.2.1(d)] in the 
machine room, control space, or control room shall cause 
the visual signal [see 2.27.3.1.6(h) and Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] 
to illuminate intermittently only in a car(s) with equip- 
ment in that machine room, control space, or control 
room. 

(07) 2.27.3.3 Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation. A 

three-position ("OFF," "HOLD/' and "ON," in that 
order) key-operated switch that will not change position 
without a deliberate action by the user, shall be labeled 
"FIRE OPERATION"; provided in an operating panel 
in each car; and shall be readily accessible. The label 
"FIRE OPERATION" lettering shall be a minimum of 
5 mm (0.25 in.) high in red or a color contrasting with 
a red background. It shall become effective only when 
Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is in effect and the 
car has been returned to the recall level. The switch shall 
be rotated clockwise to go from "OFF" to "HOLD" to 
"ON." 

The key shall only be removable in the "OFF" and 
"HOLD" position. For elevators with power-operated 
doors, the "OFF," "HOLD," and "ON" positions shall 
not change the mode of operation within Phase n Emer- 
gency In-Car Operation until the car is at a landing with 
the doors in the normal open position, except as required 
by 2.27.3.3.4 and 2.27.3.4. The three modes of operation 
within Phase II In-Car Operation ("OFF," "HOLD," and 
"ON") are specified by 2.27.3.3.1 through 2.27.3.3.4. 

For elevators with manual doors, after the car and 
hoistway doors have been opened at least once at the 
recall level, the "OFF," "HOLD," and "ON" positions 
shall then change the mode of operation in accordance 
with 2.27.3.3.1 through 2.27.3.3.4. 

2.27.3.3.1 When the "FIRE OPERATION" switch 
is in the "ON" position, the elevator shall be on Phase 
II Emergency In-Car Operation, for use by emergency 
personnel only, and the elevator shall operate as follows: 
(a) The elevator shall be operable only by a person 
in the car. 



(b) The car shall not respond to landing calls. Direc- 
tional lanterns, where provided, shall remain inopera- 
tive. Car position indicators, where provided, shall 
remain operative. Landing position indicators, where 
provided, shall remain inoperative, except at the desig- 
nated level and the building fire control station, where 
they shall remain operative. 

(c) Door open and close buttons shall be provided (07) 
for power-operated doors and located as required by 
2.27.3.3.7. Buttons shall be a minimum of 19 nun (0.75 in.) 

in the smallest dimension. The door open and door close 
buttons shall be labeled "OPEN" and "CLOSE." The 
door open and close buttons shall be operative when 
the elevator is stopped within an imlocking zone. 

(d) The opening of power-operated doors shall be 
controlled only by a continuous-pressure door open but- 
ton. If the button is released prior to the doors reaching 
the normal open position, the doors shall automatically 
reclose. Requirements 2.13.3.3, 2.13.3.4, 2.13.4.2.1(b)(2), 
and 2.13.4.2.1(c) do not apply 

On cars with multiple entrances, if more than one 
entrance can be opened at the same landing, separate 
door open buttons shall be provided for each entrance. 

(e) Open power-operated doors shall be closed only 
by continuous pressure on the door close button. If the 
button is released prior to the doors reaching the fully 
closed position, horizontally sliding doors shall auto- 
matically reopen, and vertically sliding doors shall auto- 
matically stop or stop and reopen. 

On cars with multiple entrances, if more than one 
entrance can be opened at the same landing, a separate 
door close button shall be provided for each entrance. 

(f) Opening and closing of power-operated car doors 
or gates that are opposite manual swing or manual slide 
hoistway doors shall conform to 2.27.3.3.1(d) and (e). 

(g) AH door reopening devices, except the door open 
button, shall be rendered inoperative. Full-speed closing 
shall be permitted. 

Landing door opening and closing buttons, where 
provided, shall be rendered inoperative. 

(h) Every car shall be provided with a button labeled (07) 
"CALL CANCEL," located as required in 2.27.3.3,7, that 
shall be effective during Phase II Emergency In-Car 
Operation. When activated, all registered calls shall be 
canceled and a traveling car shall stop at or before the 
next available landing. The button shall be a minimum 
of 19 mm (0.75 in.) in the smallest dimension, 

(i) Floor selection means shall be provided in the car (07) 
to permit travel to all landings served by the car, and 
shaU be operative at all times, except as in 2.27.3.3.2 
and 8.12.1. Means to prevent the operation of the floor 
selection means or door-operating buttons shall be ren- 
dered inoperative. The floor selection means shall be 
operable without the use of keys, cards, tools, or special 
knowledge. The floor selection means shall be permitted 
to be located behind the locked cover specified in 



113 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



22733.7, only if floor selection means for all landings 
served are included behind the locked cover. Where 
buttons not accessible to the public are provided they 
shall be a minimum of 19 mm (0.75 in.) in the smallest 
dimension. 

(j) A traveling car shall stop at the next available land- 
ing for which a car call was registered. When a car stops 
at a landing, all registered car calls shall be canceled. 
(07) (k) Means used to remove elevators from normal 
operation shall not prevent Phase 11 Emergency In-Car 
Operation, except 

(1) as specified in this Code 

(2) as controlled by elevator personnel 

(I) No device, that measures load, shall prevent opera- 
tion of the elevator at or below the capacity and loading 
required in 2.16. 
(07) (m) Every car shall be provided with a switch, con- 
forming to the requirements of 2.26.2.33 and located as 
required in 2.27.3.3.7. When the switch is in the ''STOP" 
position, all registered calls shall be canceled and power 
shall be removed from the elevator driving-machine 
motor and brake. When the switch is moved to the 
"RUN" position from the "STOP" position, the car shall 
not move, except for leveling, until a call is entered. If 
the type of switch used is a button, it shall be a minimum 
of 19 mm (0.75 in.) in the smallest dimension. 

NOTE [2.27.33.1(m)]: This requirement does not Umit the fire- 
fighters' stop switch to a specific style of switch. Toggle switches 
and push/ pull buttons are two possible styles. A switch, if pro- 
vided, should be operable to the "STOP" position by a firefighter 
wearing protective gloves (see NFPA 1971). 

(07) (n) If the normal power supply, emergency power 
supply, and standby power supply are not available and 
the elevator is equipped with an alternate source of 
power that is insufficient to move the car to all landings, 
the requirements of 2.27.3. 1.6(n)(l) through (5) shall 
apply 

(07) 2.27.3.3.2 For elevators with power-operated 

doors, when the car is at a landing, with the doors open, 
and the 'TIRE OPERATION" switch is in the "HOLD" 
position, the car shall remain at the landing with the 
doors open. The door close buttons shall be inoperative, 
and car calls shall not be registered. 

For elevators with manual doors, when the car is at 
a landing and the "FIRE OPERATION" switch is in the 
"HOLD" position, the car shall remain at the landing 
and car calls shall not be registered. 

2.27.3.3.3 When the car is at a landing other 
than the recall level, with the doors in the normal open 
position, and the "FIRE OPERATION" switch is in the 
"OFF" position, power-operated doors shall operate as 
follows: 

(a) Horizontal sliding doors shaU close automatically. 
All door reopening devices shall remain inoperative. 
Door open buttons shall remain operative. FuU-speed 



closing is permitted. If the "FIRE OPERATION" switch 
is turned to the "ON" or "HOLD" position prior to the 
completion of door closing, the doors shall reopen. 

(b) Elevators having vertically sliding doors shall 
have corridor "DOOR OPEN" and "DOOR CLOSE" but- 
tons rendered operative. All door reopening devices 
shall remain inoperative. Door closing shall be in accor- 
dance with 2.27.3.3.1(e). Full-speed closing is permitted. 
If the "FIRE OPERATION" switch is turned to the "ON" 
or "HOLD" position prior to the completion of door 
closing, the doors shall reopen. 

2.27.3.3.4 When the doors are in the closed posi- (07) 
tion and the "FIRE OPERATION" switch is placed in 

the "OFF" position, the car shall return to the recall 
level in conformance with 2.27.3.1.6(a) through (n) and 

2.27.3.2.5. 

2.27.3.3.5 Elevators shall be removed from Phase 
n Emergency In-Car Operation only when the "FIRE 
OPERATION" switch is in the "OFF" position and the 
car is at the designated level and the doors are in the 
normal open position. 

2.27.3.3.6 The occurrence of an accidental 
ground or short circuit in elevator electrical equipment 
located on the landing side of the hoistway enclosure 
and in associated wiring, as a result of exposure to water, 
shall not disable Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation 
once it has been activated. 

2.27.3.3.7 The "FIRE OPERATION" switch 
(2.27.3.3), the "CALL CANCEL" button [2.27.3.3.1(h)], 
the "STOP" switch [2.27.3.3.1(m)], the door open but- 
ton(s), the door close button(s), the additional visual 
signal (2,27.3.3.8), and the operating instructions shown 
in Fig. 2.27.7.2 shall be grouped together at the top of 
a main car operating panel behind a locked cover. 

The firefighters' operation panel cover shall be open- 
able by the same key that operates the "FIRE OPERA- 
TION" switch. The cover shall be permitted to open 
automatically when the car is on Phase I Emergency 
Recall Operation and at the recall level. When the key 
is in the "FIRE OPERATION" switch, the cover shall 
not be capable of being closed. When closed, the cover 
shall be self-locking. 

Where rear doors are provided, buttons for both the 
front and rear dobrs shall be provided in the firefighters' 
operation panel. The door open and door close buttons 
for the rear entrance shall be labeled "OPEN REAR" 
and "CLOSE REAR." 

All buttons and switches shall be readily accessible, 
located not more than 1 800 mm (72 in.) above the floor 
and shall be arranged as shown in Fig. 2.27.3.3.7. 
Requirement 2.26-12 does not apply to these buttons and 
switches. The front of the cover shall contain the words 
"FIREFIGHTERS' OPERATION" in red letters at least 
10 mm (0.4 in.) high. 



114 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Fig. 2.27.3.3.7 Panel Layout 

Additional 
visual signal 



Call 
cancel 




Fire operation 

key switch 



Stop 
switch 



Door 
close 
button 



Door 
close 
button 
(rear), 
when 
required 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) Switches and buttons show only the location not the labeling. 

(b) When manually operated doors are provided, door open and 
close buttons and instructions for their use are not required. 

(c) Not to scale. 



2.27.3.3.8 An additional visual signal shall be 
provided and located as required by 2.27.3.3.7. The addi- 
tional visual signal shall be one of the symbols shown 
in Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h). The entire circular or square area 
shown in Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h) shall be illuminated. This 
additional visual signal shall be activated whenever the 
visual signal in 2.27.3.1.6(h) is activated. 

(07) 2.27.3.4 Interruption of Power. Upon the resump- 

tion of power (normal, emergency, or standby), the car 
shall be permitted to move to reestablish absolute car 
position. Restoration of electrical power following a 
power interruption shall not cause any elevator to be 
removed from Phase I Emergency Recall Operation or 
Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation. 

The failure and subsequent restoration of electrical 
power (normal, emergency, or standby) shall not cause 
any elevator to be removed from Phase I Emergency 
Operation or Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation. 

(a) Elevators on Phase I Emergency Operation shall 
be permitted to move only to the next floor in the direc- 
tion of the recall level to reestablish absolute car position 
prior to conforming to 2.27.3.1 and 2.27.3.2. 

(b) Elevators on Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation 
with the key in the ''OFF" position shall be permitted 
to move only to the next floor in the direction of the 
recall level to reestablish absolute car position prior to 
conforming to 2.27.3.3.3 and 2.27.3.3.4. If the key is 
moved to the "ON" or "HOLD" position before the 
doors are fully closed, 2.27.3.4(c) or (d) shall apply, and 



automatic power-operated doors shall open if in a 
level zone. 

(c) Elevators on Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation 
with the key in the "HOLD" position shall not move, 
except for leveling within a leveling zone. Automatic 
power-operated doors shall open if the doors are not 
fully closed and the car is in a level zone. 

(d) Elevators on Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation 
with the key in the "ON" position shall not move, except 
for leveling within a leveling zone, until a car call is 
entered. Automatic power-operated doors shall not 
move until a door open or close button is pressed; after 
which they shall conform to 2.27.3.3.1(d) and (e). After 
a car call is entered, the car shall be permitted to move 
only to the next floor in the direction of the recall level 
to reestablish absolute car position prior to answering 
car calls. 

2.27.3.5 Multicompartment Elevators. Multicom- (07) 
partment elevators shall also conform to 2.27.3.5.1 and 
2.27.3.5.7. 

2.27.3.5.1 The "FIRE RECALL" switch (2.27.3.1) 
shall be located at the designated level served by the 
upper compartment. 

2.27.3.5.2 The "FIRE OPERATION" switch (see 
2.27.3.3) shall be located in the upper compartment. 

2.27.3.5.3 A means to display the entire floor 
area in the lower compartment shall be located in the 
upper compartment. The means shall display the lower 
compartment only when Phase I and Phase 11 is in effect. 

2.27.3.5.4 A switch labeled "LOWER 
CAR LOCKOUT" with two positions marked "OFF" 
and "ON" shall be located behind the firefighters' opera- 
tion panel cover (see 2.27.3.3.7). 

NOTE (2.27.3.5.4): The switch should be operable by a firefighter 
wearing protective gloves (see NFPA 1971). 

(a) The "LOWER CAR LOCKOUT" switch shall only 
be functional when Phase II is in effect. 

(b) When placed in the "ON" position, the "LOWER 
CAR LOCKOUT" switch shall 

(1) disable all door reopening devices in the lower 
compartment, and 

(2) initiate closing of the lower compartment doors 
in accordance with 2.13.4.2.1(c). 

(c) When the car is stopped at a landing and the 
"LOWER CAR LOCKOUT" switch is in the "OFF" posi- 
tion, the lower compartment doors shall be opened. 

2.27.4 Firefighters* Emergency Operation: 
Nonautomatic Elevators 

Firefighters' Emergency Operation shall apply to all 
nonautomatic elevators, except as follows: 

(a) where the hoistway or a portion thereof is not (ED) 
required to be fire-resistive construction (see 2.1.1.1), the 



115 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



rise does not exceed 2 000 mm (80 in.), and the hoistway 
does not penetrate a floor 

(b) in jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC where the 
NBCC does not require Firefighters' Emergency 
Operation 

(c) where Firefighters' Emergency Operation is pro- 
vided voluntarily these requirements shall also apply 

(055) 2.27.4.1 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation. A 

three-position key-operated switch shall be provided at 
the designated level for each single elevator or for each 
group of elevators. The three-position switch shall be 
labeled "FIRE RECALL" and its positions marked 
"RESET/' "OFF/' and "ON" (in that order), with the 
"OFF" position as the center position. The "FIRE 
RECALL" letters shall be a minimum of 5 mm (0.25 in.) 
high in red or a color contrasting with a red background. 
The three-position switch shall be located in the lobby 
within sight of the elevator or all elevators in that group 
and shall be readily accessible. 

An additional "FIRE RECALL" switch with two-posi- 
tions, "OFF" and "ON" (in that order), shall be permitted 
only at the building fire control station. 

The switch(es) shall be rotated clockwise to go from 
the "RESET" (designated level switch only), to the 
"OFF" and to the "ON" positions. 

All keys shall be removable only in the "OFF" and 
"ON" positions. 

Only the "FIRE RECALL" switch(es) or fire alarm 
initiating devices located at floors that are served by the 
elevator, in the hoistway, or in an elevator machine room, 
or a control space, or a control room (see 2.27.3.2) shall 
initiate Phase I Emergency Recall Operation. 

All "FIRE RECALL" switches shall be provided with 
an illuminated visual signal to indicate when Phase I 
Emergency Recall Operation is in effect. 

When all switches are in the "OFF" position, normal 
elevator service shall be in effect and the fire alarm 
initiating devices required by 2.27.4.2 shall be operative. 

When a "FIRE RECALL" switch is in the "ON" posi- 
tion, a visual and audible signal shall be provided to 
alert the attendant to return nonstop to the designated 
or alternate level. The visual signal shall read "FIRE 

RECALL — RETURN TO " [insert level to which 

the car should be returned (the designated or alternate 
level)]. The signal system shall be activated when Phase 
I Emergency Recall Operation is in effect. 

Where an additional "FIRE RECALL" switch is pro- 
vided, both "FIRE RECALL" switches must be in the 
"ON" position to recall the elevator to the designated 
level if the elevator was recalled to the alternate level. 

Where an additional "FIRE RECALL" switch is pro- 
vided, it shall not affect the visual signal if the designated 
level fire alarm initiating device (see 2.27.3.2.4) has been 
activated. 

To extinguish the audible and visual signals, the "FIRE 
RECALL" switch shall be rotated first to the "RESET" 



and then to the "OFF" position, provided that: 

(a) the additional two-position "FIRE RECALL" 
switch, where provided, is in the "OFF" position 

(b) no fire alarm initiating device is activated (see also 
2.27.3.2.4) 

No device, that measures load, shall prevent operation 
of the elevator at or below the capacity and loading 
required in 2.16. 

2.27.4.2 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation by Fire (07) 
Alarm Initiating Devices. Fire alarm initiating devices 
shall be installed at each floor served by the elevator, 
and in the associated machine room, control space, or 
control room, and elevator hoistway, in compliance with 
the requirements in NFPA 72 or NBCC, whichever is 
applicable (see Part 9). In jurisdictions enforcing the 
NBCC, compliance with 2.27.4.2 is not required where 
the NBCC specifies manual Emergency Recall opera- 
tions only. 

Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, conforming to 
2.27.4.1, shall be initiated when any Phase I Emergency 
Recall Operation fire alarm initiating device at the eleva- 
tor lobbies, machine room, control space, control room, 
or hoistway is activated. 

Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, when initiated 
by a Phase I Emergency Recall Operation fire alarm 
initiating device, shall be maintained until canceled by 
moving the "FIRE RECALL" switch to the "RESET" 
position. 

When a fire alarm initiating device in the machine 
room, control space, control room, or hoistway initiates 
Phase I Emergency Recall Operation as required by 
2.27.3.2.3 or 2.27.3.2.4, the visual signal [see 2.27.3.1.6(h) 
and Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall illuminate intermittently 
only in a car(s) with equipment in that machine room, 
control space, control room, or hoistway. When acti- 
vated, a heat detector [2.27.3.2.1(d)] in the machine room, 
control space, or control room shall cause the visual 
signal [see 2.27.3.1.6(h) and Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] to illumi- 
nate intermittently only in a car(s) with equipment in 
that machine room, control space, or control room. 

2.27.5 Firefighters' Emergency Operation: Automatic 
Elevators Witli Designated-Attendant 
Operation 

2.27.5.1 When designated-attendant operation is 
not in effect, elevators shall conform to 2.27.3. 



2,27.5.2 When operated by a designated attendant 
in the car, except hospital service: 

(a) elevators parked at the recall level shall conform 
to 2.27.3 without delay; elevators parked at a floor other 
than the recall level shall conform to 2.27.3.1.6(h). At 
the completion of a time delay of not less than 10 s and 
not more than 30!; s, elevators parked at a floor away 
from the recall level shall coriform to 2.27.3. 

(b) A moving car shall conform to 2.27.3. 



(07) 



116 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B4A-07 



Fig. 2.27.7.1 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation 
Instructions 



FIREFIGHTERS' OPERATION 

To recall elevators 
Insert fire key and turn to "ON" 



2.27.5.3 When an elevator that is provided with 
firefighters' emergency operation is on hospital service, 
a visual signal as shown in Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h) shall illiuni- 
nate and a continuous audible signal, audible within 
the car, shall sound when the "FIRE RECALL" switch(es) 
(see 2.27.3.1) is in the "ON" position, or when a fire 
alarm initiating device (see 2.27.3.2) is activated to alert 
the operator of an emergency. A means located in the 
car shall be permitted for manually silencing the audible 
signal, after the signal has been active for at least 5 s. 
The signal shall be automatically reactivated when the 
doors open. 

The car shall remain undei: control of the operator 
until removed from hospital service. An elevator on 
firefighters' emergency operation shall not be placed on 
hospital service. 

2.27.6 Firefighters' Emergency Operation: Inspection 
Operation 

When an elevator that is provided with firefighters' 
service is on inspection operation (see 2.26.1.4 and 
2.26.1.5) or when the hoistway access switch(es) has been 
enabled [see 2.12.7.3.3(a)], a continuous audible signal, 
audible at the location where the operation is activated 
shall soimd when the "FIRE l^CALL" switch(es) (see 
2.27.3.1) is in the "ON" position or when the fire alarm 
initiating device (see 2.27.3.2) is activated to alert the 
operator of an emergency. The car shall remain under 
the control of the operator until removed from inspection 
operation or hoistway access oj^eration. Inspection oper- 
ation or hoistway access operation shall take precedence 
over Phase I Emergency Recall Operation and Phase 11 
Emergency In-Car Operation. 

2.27.7 Firefighters* Emergency Operation: Operating 
Procedures 

2.27.7.1 Instructions for operation of elevators 
under Phase I Emergency Recall Operation shall be 
incorporated with or adjacent to the "FIRE RECALL" 
switch at the designated level. The instructions shall 
include only the wording shown in Fig. 2.27.7.1. 

2.27.7.2 A sign containing instructions for opera- 
tion of elevators under Phase II Emergency In-Car Oper- 
ation shall be incorporated with or adjacent to the switch 



in each car and shaU be visible only when the cover 
(2.27.3.3.7) is open. The sign shall include only the word- 
ing and graphics shown in Fig. 2.27.7.2, except 

(a) for elevators with manually operated doors, the 
instructions for opening and closing the doors shall be 
permitted to be replaced with short phrases such as 
"PUSH DOOR" or "PULL DOOR UP" 

(b) for elevators with vertically sliding doors, the 
instructions for returrung the car to the recall floor shall 
be permitted to be expanded to include instructions for 
closing the door 

2.27.7.3 Instructions shall be in letters not less 
than 3 nm\ (0.125 in.) in height and shall be permanently 
installed and protected against removal or defacement. 

2.27.7.4 In jurisdictions that enforce the NBCC, a 
symbol showing a red firefighters' hat on a contrasting 
background, as shown in Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h) (figure not to 
scale), shall be used exclusively to identify elevators that 
comply with 2.27.3 and additional NBCC requirements. 
This identification shall be located on the elevator 
entrance frame or adjacent to it at each emergency recall 
level. The identification on the entrance frame, or adja- 
cent to it, shall be a minimum of 50 mm (2 in.) in height. 

2.27.8 Switch Keys 

The key switches required by 2.27.2 through 2.27.5 for 
all elevators in a building shall be operable by the same 
key. The keys shall be Group 3 Security (see 8.1). There 
shall be a key for each switch provided. 

These keys shall be kept on the premises in a location 
readily accessible to firefighters and emergency person- 
nel, but not where they are available to the public. This 
key shall be of a tubular, 7 pin, style 137 construction 
and shall have a bitting code of 6143521. The key shall 
be coded "FEO-Kl." The possession of the "FEO-Kl" 
key shall be limited to elevator personnel, emergency 
persormel, and elevator equipment manufacturers. 

Where provided, a lock box, including its lock and 
other components, shall conform to the requirements of 
UL 1037 (see Part 9). 

NOTE (2.27.8): Local authorities may specify additional require- 
ments for a uniform keyed lock box and its location to contain the 
necessary keys. 

2.27.9 Elevator Corridor Call Station Pictograph 

When the building code requires a sign be posted 
adjacent to hall call fixtures instructing occupants not 
to use the elevator in case of fire, the sign shown in 
Fig. 2.27.9 shall be provided. The sign shall include only 
the wording and graphics shown in Fig. 2.27.9, When 
the building code specifies a different design, 2.27.9 shall 
not apply. 



(07) 



117 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Fig. 2.27.7.2 Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation 





FIRE OPERATION 


When A 


> \ flashing, exit elevator 


To operate car 


Insert fire key and turn to "ON." 




Enter floor selection. 


To cancel 
floor selection 


Press "CALL CANCEL" button. 


To close door 


Press and hold "CLOSE" button. 


To open door 


Press and hold "OPEN" button. 


To hold car 
at floor 


With doors open, turn key to "HOLD." 


For emergency stop 


Use "STOP" switch. 


To automatically return 
to recall floor 


Turn key to "OFF." 



(055) 



SECTION 2.28 
LAYOUT DRAWINGS 

2.28.1 Information Required on Layout Drawings 

Elevator layout drawmgs shall, in addition to other 

data, indicate the following: 
(a) the maximum bracket spacing (see 2.23) 
(})) the estimated maximum vertical forces on the 

guide rails on application of the safety or other retarding 

device (see 2.23 and 2.19.3) 

(c) in the case of freight elevators for Class B or C 
loading (see 2.16.2.2), the horizontal forces on the guide- 
rail faces during loading and unloading, and the esti- 
mated maximum horizontal forces in a post-wise direc- 
tion on the guide-rail faces on the application of the 
safety device (see 2.23) 

(d) the size and Hnear weight kg/m (lb /ft) of any rail 
reinforcement, where provided (see 2.23) 

(e) the total static and impact loads imposed on 
machinery and sheave beams, supports, and floors or 
foundations (see 2.9) 

if) the impact load on buffer supports due to buffer 
engagement at the maximum permissible speed and 
load (see 8.2.3) 



(g) where compensation tie-down is applied (see 
2.21.4.2), the load on the compensation tie-down sup- 
ports 

(h) the total static and dynamic loads from the gover- 
nor, ropes, and tension system 

{{) the horizontal forces on the building structure stip- 
ulated by 2.11.11.8 and 2.11.11.9 



SECTION 2.29 
IDENTIFICATION 



2.29.1 Identification of Equipment 

In buildings with more than one elevator, each eleva- 
tor in the building shall be assigned a unique alphabeti- 
cal or numerical identification, a minimum of 50 mm 
(2 in.) in height unless otherwise specified. The 
identification shall be painted on, engraved, or securely 
attached to 

(a) the driving machine 

{h) MG set 



118 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



£ 
d 

00 

E 

e 

o 
o 

CM 



Fig. 2.27.9 Elevator Corridor Call Station Pictograph 



125 mm (5 in.) min. 



(07) 



♦ . ..-,.■ 



• '■. • 



EI^V^lOFiS: 



(it SetViiJife 



. . . • 

.. . • 





White 




Black 




Red 




Color contrasting 
with black and red 



(c) controller 

(d) selector 

(e) governor 

(f) main line disconnect switch 

(g) the crosshead, or where there is no crosshead, the 
car frame, such that it is visible from the top of the car 

(h) the car operating panel, minimum of 13 nmi 
(0.5 in.) in height 



(i) adjacent to or on every elevator entrance at the 
designated level, minimum of 75 mm (3 in.) in height 

2.29.2 Identification of Floors 

Hoistways shall have floor nimibers, not less than 
100 mm (4 in.) in height, on the hoistway side of the 
enclosure or hoistway doors. 



119 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Part 3 
Hydraulic Elevators 



SCOPE 

Part 3 applies to direct-acting hydraulic elevators and 
the roped-hydraulic types. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
hydraulic elevators. 

SECTION 3.1 

CONSTRUCTION OF HOISTWAYS AND HOISTWAY 

ENCLOSURES 

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construc- 
tion shall conform to 2.1.1 through 2.1.6 and 2.29.2, 
except 2.1.2.3 and 2.1.3.1.2. 

3.1.1 Strength of Pit Floor 

The pit equipment, beams, floor, and their supports 
shall be designed and constructed to meet the applicable 
building code requirements and to withstand the follow- 
ing loads in the manner in which they occur: 

(a) the impact load due to car buffer engagement (see 
8.2.3 and 3.22.2) 

(b) where a plunger gripper, or car, or counterweight 
safety is furrushed, the part of the load transmitted by 
the application of such gripper(s) or safety(s) 

(c) loads imposed by the hydraulic jack 

(1) to the cylinder during normal operation 

(2) to the buffer when resting on the buffer or dur- 
ing conditions described in 3.1.1(a) 

(d) hoist rope up-pull, where applicable, for indirect 
roped-hydraulic elevators 

3.1.2 Floors Over Hoistways 

The floor shall be located entirely above the horizontal 
plane required for hydraulic elevator top car clearance. 

When a hydraulic pump unit and /or control equip- 
ment is located on a floor over the hoistway, access shall 
comply with 2.7.3. 

SECTION 3.2 
PITS 

Pits shall conform to 2.2, except 2.2.7. 

3.2.1 Minimum Pit Depths Required 

The pit depth shall not be less than is required for the 
installation of the buffers, hydraulic jack, platform guard 
(apron), and all other elevator equipment located 



therein, and to provide the minimum bottom clearance 
and runby required by 3.4.1 and 3.4.2, respectively. 

SECTION 3.3 
LOCATION AND GUARDING OF COUNTERWEIGHTS 

The location and guarding of cotmterweights, where 
provided, shall conform to 2.3. 

SECTION 3.4 

BOTTOIVI AND TOP CLEARANCES AND RUNBYS FOR 

CARS AND COUNTERWEIGHTS 

Requirement 2.4 does not apply to hydraulic elevators. 

3.4.1 Bottom Car Clearance 

3.4.1.1 When the car rests on its fully compressed 
buffers or bumpers, there shall be a vertical clearance 
of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the pit floor 
and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, 
or device installed beneath the car platform, including 
a plimger-foUower guide, if provided, except as specified 
in 3.4.1.2. 

3.4.1.2 The 600 mm (24 in.) clearance does not 
apply to the following: 

(a) any equipment on the car within 300 mm (12 in.) 
horizontally from any side of the car platform 

(b) any equipment located on or traveling with the 
car located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from 
either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the 
guide rails 

(c) any equipment mounted in or on the pit floor 
located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either 
side of the car frame centerline parallel to the guide rails 

3.4.1.3 In no case shall the available refuge space 
be less than either of the following: 

(a) a horizontal area 600 mm x 1 200 mm (24 in. x 
47 in.), with a height of 600 mm (24 in.) 

(b) a horizontal area 450 mm x 900 mm (18 in. x 
35 in.), with a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.) 

3.4.1.4 Trenches and depressions or foundation 
encroachments permitted by 2.2.2 shaU not be consid- 
ered in determining these clearances. 

3.4.1.5 When the car is resting on its fully com- 
pressed buffers or bumpers, no equipment traveling 



• 



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ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



with the car, including a plunger-follower guide, if pro- 
vided, shall strike any part of iiie pit or any equipment 
mounted therein. 

3.4.1.6 Where the vertical clearance outside the 
refuge space is less than 600 mm (24 in.), that area shall 
be clearly marked on the pit floor. Markings shall not 
be required in the area under the apron and guiding 
means. The marking shall consist of alternating 100 mm 
(4 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addition, a sign 
with the words "DANGER LOW CLEARANCE" shall 
be prominently posted on the hoistway enclosure and 
shall be visible from within the pit and at the entrance 
to the pit. The sign shall conform to ANSI Z535.2 or 
CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). 
The sign shall be of such material and construction that 
the letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or other- 
wise applied to the face remain permanently and readily 
legible. 

3.4.2 Minimum Bottom and Top Car Runby 

3.4.2.1 Bottom Car Runby. The bottom car nmby 
shall be 

(a) not less than 75 mm (3 in.) for operating speed(s) 
in the down direction up to 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min) 

(h) increased from 75 mm (3 in.) to 150 mm (6 in.) in 
proportion to the increase in operating speed(s) in the 
down direction from 0.50 m/s (100 ft /rain) to 1 m/s 
(200 ft/min) 

(c) a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) for operating 
speed(s) in the down direction exceeding 1 m/s 
(200 ft/min) 

3.4.2.2 Car Top Minimum Runby. The top runby of 
the car shall be 

(a) not less than 75 mm (3 in.) for rated speeds up to 
0.50 m/s (100 ft/min) 

(h) increased from 75 mm (3 in.) to 150 mm (6 in.) in 
proportion to the increase in rated speed from 0.50 m/s 
(100 ft/min) to 1 m/s (200 ft/min) 

(c) a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) for rated speeds 
exceeding 1 m/s (200 ft/min) 

3.4.3 Car Top and Bottom Maximum Runby 

Neither the top nor the bottom runby of the car shall 
be more than 600 nun (24 in.). 

3.4.4 Top Car Clearance 

The top car clearance shall be not less than the sum 
of the following two items (see Normiandatory Appen- 
db(G): 

(a) the top car runby 

(h) the height of the refuge space on top of the car (see 
3.4.7) or the clearance required for equipment projecting 
above the car top or crosshead (see 3.4.5), whichever is 
greater 



3.4.5 Equipment Projecting Above the Car Top 

When the car reaches its maximum upward movement 

(a) all equipment attached to and projecting above 
the car top, otiier than equipment mentioned in 3.4.5(b) 
shaU be at least 150 mm (6 in.) from striking any part 
of the overhead structure or any equipment located in 
the hoistway 

(h) guide-shoe assemblies or gate posts for vertically 
sliding gates shall not strike any part of the overhead 
structure 

(c) the car crosshead shall have a minimum of 300 mm 
(12 in.) vertical clearance to the horizontal plane 
described by the lowest point of the overhead structure 
(see 1.3) 

3.4.6 Top Clearance and Bottom Runby of 
Counterweight 

Where a counterweight is provided, the top clearance 
and the bottom runby of the counterweight shall con- 
form to 3.4.6.1 and 3.4.6.2. 

3.4.6.1 Top Clearance. The top clearance shaU be 
not less than the sum of the following: 

(a) the bottom car runby 

(h) the stroke of the car buffers used 

ic) 150 mm (6 in.) 

3.4.6.2 Bottom Runby. The bottom rimby shall be 
not less than the sum of the following: 

(a) the distance the car can travel above its top termi- 
nal landing until the plunger strikes its mechanical stop 

(h) 150 mm (6 in.) 

The minimum runby specified shall not be reduced 
by rope stretch (see 3.22.2 prohibiting counterweight 
buffers). 

3.4.7 Refuge Space on Top of Car Enclosure 

An unobstructed horizontal area of not less than 
0.51 m^ (5.49 ft^) shall be provided on top of the car 
enclosure for refuge space. It shall measure not less than 
600 mm (24 in.) on any side. The area shall be permitted 
to include the space utilized for top emergency exit 
[see 2.14.1.5.1(f)]. The mirumum vertical distance in the 
refuge area between the top of the car enclosure and 
the horizontal plane described by the lowest point of 
the overhead structure or other obstruction shaU be not 
less than 1 100 mm (43 in.) when the car has reached its 
maximum upward movement. 

3.4.8 Vertical Clearances Witli Underslung Car 
Frames 

Where an underslung car frame is used, the clearances 
between the overhead car rope dead-end hitch, or over- 
head car sheave, and the portions of the car structure 
vertically below them, when the car floor is level with the 
top terminal landing, shall be not less than the following: 



121 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(a) where no counterweight is used, the sum of the 
following items: 

(1) the car top runby 

(2) 200 mm (8 in.) 

(b) where a coimterweight is used, the sum of the 
following items: 

(1) the bottom counterweight runby (see 3.4.6.2) 

(2) 150 mm (6 in.) 



SECTION 3.5 

HORIZONTAL CAR AND COUNTERWEIGHT 

CLEARANCES 

The horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall 
conform to 2.5. 



SECTION 3.6 
PROTECTION OF SPACES BELOW HOISTWAY 

Requirement 2.6 does not apply to hydraulic elevators. 

Where there is space below the hoistway that is acces- 
sible to persons, requirements of 3.6.1 through 3.6.4 shall 
be conformed to. 

3.6.1 Jack-Supporting Structure 

The hydraulic jack shall be supported by a structure 
of sufficient strength to support the entire static load at 
rated capacity that is capable of being imposed upon it. 
The design factor of safety shall be not less than 5, based 
on ultimate strength for static loads transmitted. 

3.6.2 Counterweight Safety Actuation 

Where the space referred to in 3.6 falls imderneath 
the counterweight and /or its guides, the counterweight 
shall be provided with a safety device that functions as a 
result of the breaking or slackening of the counterweight 
suspension ropes. 

3.6.3 Buffer Types 

The car shall be provided with buffers of either of the 
following types: 

(a) oil buffers conforming to 3.22.1 

(b) spring buffers of a design that will not be fully 
compressed when struck by a car with rated load at the 
operating speed in the down direction (see 3.22.1) 

3.6.4 Buffer Supports 

Car buffer supports shall be provided that will with- 
stand, without permanent deformation, the impact 
resulting from buffer engagement by a car with rated 
load at the operating speed in the down direction. The 
design factor of safety shall conform to 2.22.4.3. 



SECTION 3.7 

MACHINERY SPACES^ MACHINE ROOMS, CONTROL 

SPACES, AND CONTROL ROOMS 

A machinery space outside the hoistway containing 
a hydraulic machine and a motor controller shall be a 
machine room. 

3.7.1 

Machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and 
control rooms shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.1 
through 2.7.7 and 2.7.9. 

3.7.1.1 In 2.7,5.1.1, 2.7.5.2, and 2.7.5.2.4, replace the 
words "elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency 
brake" with the words "hydraulic machine." 

3.7.1.2 In 2.7.5.1 and 2.7.5.1.2(a), replace the words 
"elevator driving-machine brake, emergency brake" 
with the words "hydraulic machine." 

3.7.1.3 In 2.7.5.1.2(b), replace the wording with 
the following: "for a roped-hydraulic elevator support 
not less than twice the unbalanced weight of the system 
with no load and up to rated load in the car and all 
suspension ropes in place; and for a direct-acting 
hydraulic elevator support not less than twice the weight 
of the car with rated load." 

3.7.1.4 In 2.7.5.1.2(c), 2.7.5.3.1, and 2.7.5.5(a), 
replace the words "elevator driving-machine motor and 
brake" with the words "hydraulic machine." 

3.7.1.5 In 2.7.5.1.2(e) and 2.7.5.2.1(b)(4), replace 
the words "before maintaining or inspecting brake, 
emergency brake" with the words "before maintaining 
or inspecting the hydraulic machine." 

3.7.1.6 In 2.7.5.2.1(b)(1) and 2.7.5.5(d), replace the 
words "115% of rated speed" with the words "operating 
speed in the down direction." 

3.7.1.7 In 2.7.6.3.1, replace the words "electric driv- 
ing machine" with the words "hydraulic machine." 

3.7.1.8 In 2.7.6.4, replace the wording with the 
following: "Where hydraulic machine, or an elevator 
motion controller or motor controller is located in the 
hoistway or pit, means necessary for tests that require 
movement of the car shall be provided and arranged so 
that they can be operated from outside the hoistway 
and shall conform to 2.7.6.4.1 through 2.7.6.4.2. These 
means are also permitted to be used by elevator person- 
nel for passenger rescue." 

3.7.1.9 In 2.7.6.4.1, replace the first paragraph with 
the following: "Where direct observation of the elevator 
or ropes in the case of a roped-hydraulic elevator is not 
possible from the location of the means necessary for 
tests that require movement of the car, display devices 
or the equivalent shall be provided. They shall be visible 
from the location of the means and shall convey the 



(05S). 



• 



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ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



# 



following information about the elevator 
simultaneously: ". 

3o7.1.10 Requirement 2.7.6.4.3 does not apply to 
hydraulic elevators. 



(055) SECTION 3.8 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING, PIPES, AND 

DUCTS IN HOISTWAY, MACHINERY SPACES, 

MACHINE ROOMS, CONTROL SPACES, AND 

CONTROL ROOMS 

Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts shall 
conform to 2.8. 



SECTION 3.9 

MACHINERY AND SHEAVE BEAMS, SUPPORTS, AND 

FOUNDATIONS 

Machinery and sheave beams, supports, and founda- 
tions shall conform to 2.9. 



SECTION 3.10 
GUARDING OF EXPOSED AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT 

Guarding of exposed auxiliary equipment shall con- 
form to 2.10. 



SECTION 3.11 
PROTECTION OF HOISTWAY LANDING OPENINGS 

Protection of hoistway landing openings shall con- 
form to 2.11, except as excluded by 3.11.1. 

3.11.1 Emergency Doors 

Emergency doors, where required by 2.11.1, are 
required only when car safeties are provided. 



SECTION 3.12 

HOISTWAY DOOR LOCKING DEVICES, CAR DOOR 

OR GATE ELECTRIC CONTACTS, AND HOISTWAY 

ACCESS SWITCHES 

3.12.1 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Electric 
Contacts, and Hoistway Access Switches 

Hoistway door locking devices and electric contacts, 
and hoistway access switches shall conform to 2.12. 

3.12.2 Car Door or Gate Electric Contacts and Car 
Door Interlocl^s 

Car door or gate electric contacts and car door inter- 
locks shall conform to 2.14.4.2. 



SECTION 3.13 

POWER OPERATION, POWER OPENING, AND 

POWER CLOSING OF HOISTWAY DOORS AND CAR 

DOORS OR GATES 

Power operation, power opening, and power closing 
of hoistway doors and car doors or gates shall cortform 
to 2.13. 



SECTION 3.14 

CAR ENCLOSURES, CAR DOORS AND GATES, AND 

CAR ILLUMINATION 

Car enclosures, car doors and gates, and car illumina- 
tion shall conform to 2.14 except 2.14.2.3.3(b) does not 
apply where the elevator conforms to the requirements 
of 3.26.10. 



SECTION 3.15 
CAR FRAMES AND PLATFORMS 

3.15.1 Requirements 

3.1 5.1 .1 Direct-acting hydraulic elevators shall be 
provided with car frames and platforms conforming to 
2.15, subject to the modification hereinafter specified. 
(See 3.18.2.3 for connection between plunger and plat- 
form or car frame.) 

A car frame shall not be required, provided 3.15.1.1.1 
through 3.15.1.1.6 are conformed to. 

3.15.1.1.1 The platform frame shall be of such 
design and construction that all eccentric loads are car- 
ried through the structure and plunger attachment into 
the hydraulic jack (see 3.18.2.3). 

3.15.1.1.2 The platform frame shall be guided 
on each guide rail by single-guiding members attached 
to the frame. 

3.15.1.1.3 The platform frame shall be designed 
to withstand the forces resulting from the class of load- 
ing for which the elevator is designed without exceeding 
the stresses and deflections in 2.15.10 and 2.15.11 (see 
8.2.2.6). 

3.15.1.1.4 The hydraulic jack connection to the 
car shall be designed to transmit the full eccentric 
moment into the plunger with a factor of safety of not 
less than 4 (see 3.18.2.3). 

3.15.1.1.5 The hydraulic jack shall be designed 
to withstand the stresses due to bending during the 
loading and unloading of the platform based on the 
type of loading for which the elevator is designed (see 

8.2.8.1.2). 

3.15.1.1.6 Car safeties shall not be provided. 

3.15.1.2 Roped-hydraulic elevators shall be pro- 
vided with car frames and platforms conforming to 2.15. 



(07) 



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ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



3.15.2 Maximum Allowable Stresses and Deflections 
in Car Frame and Platform Members 

3.15.2.1 Direct-Acting Hydraulic Elevators. The 

stresses and deflections in car frame and platform mem- 
bers and their connections, based on the static load 
imposed upon them, shall be not more than those per- 
mitted by 2.15, provided that the maximum stresses 
in the car frame uprights that are normally subject to 
compression shall conform to 8.2.9.1.1. 

3.15.2.2 Roped-Hydraulic Elevators. The stresses 
and deflection in car frame and platform members and 
their connections, based on the static load imposed upon 
them, shall be not more than those permitted by 2.15, 
and shall conform to 8.2.2. 

3.15.3 Calculations of Stresses and Deflections in 
Car Frame and Platform Members 

3.15.3.1 Direct-Acting Hydraulic Elevators. The cal- 
culations of the stresses and deflections in side-post car 
frame and platform members shall be based on the for- 
mulas and data in 8.2.9. 

For cars with comer-post or sub-post car frames, the 
formulas and specified methods of calculations do not 
generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific 
conditions and requirements in each case. 

3.15.3.2 Roped-Hydraulic Elevators. The calcula- 
tions of the stresses and deflections in side-post car 
frame and platform members shall be based on the for- 
mulas and data in 8.2.2. 

For cars with corner-post or sub-post car frames, or 
where the rope hitches are not on the crosshead, the 
formulas and specified methods of calculations do not 
generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific 
conditions and requirements in each case. 

SECTION 3.16 
CAPACIT\r AND LOADING 

3.16.1 Minimum Rated Load for Passenger Elevators 

The requirements of 2.16.1 shall apply. 

3.16.2 Minimum Rated Load for Freight Elevators 

The requirements of 2.16.2 shall apply, except, in 
2.16.2.2.4(c) the wording "hydraulic jack, hydraulic 
machine, pressure piping and fittings" shall be substi- 
tuted for the wording ''driving-machine motor, brake 
and traction relation." 

3.16.3 Capacity and Data Plates 

The requirements of 2.16.3 shall apply, except: 

(a) requirement 2.16.3.2.1(a) shall not apply to 
hydraulic elevators. 

(b) on data plates (see 2.163.2.2), the weight of the 
plunger is not to be included in the weight of the com- 
plete car, even though it is attached. The plunger weight 



is to be indicated independently. The operating speed 
in the down direction shall also be indicated. 

3.16.4 Carrying of Passengers on Freight Elevators 

The requirements of 2.16.4 shaU apply, except 2.16.4.3 
shall not apply to hydraulic elevators. 

3.16.3 Signs Required in Freight Elevators 

The requirements of 2.16.5 shall apply. 

3.16.6 Overloading of Freight Elevators 

The requirements of 2.16.6 shaU apply, except 2.16.6(b) 
shall not apply to hydraulic elevators. 

3.16.7 One-Piece Loads Exceeding the Rated Load 

Requirement 2.16.7 shall not apply One-piece loads 
exceeding rated load shall not be carried on hydraulic 
elevators. 

3.16.8 Additional Requirements for Passenger 
Overload 

Requirement 2.16.8 shall not apply. Hydraulic passen- 
ger elevators shall be designed based on 100% of 
rated load. 

3.16.9 Special Loading Means 

The requirerrients of 2.16.9 shall apply. 

SECTION 3.17 

CAR SAFETIES, COUNTERWEIGHT SAFETIES, 

PLUNGER GRIPPER, AND GOVERNORS 

3.17.1 Car Safeties 

Car safeties shall be provided for, roped-hydraulic ele- 
vators and shall be permitted to be provided for direct- 
acting hydraulic elevators. When provided, car safeties 
shall conform to 2.17, and to 3.17.1.1 through 3.17.1.3. 

3.17.1.1 The slack-rope device required by 3.18.1.2 
shall be permitted to be an additional means of activat- 
ing the car safety on roped-hydraulic elevators using 
hydraulic jacks equipped with plungers. The slack-rope 
device required by 3.18.1.2.7 shall be an additional 
means of activating the car safety on roped-hydraulic 
elevators using hydraulic jacks equipped with pistons. 

3.17.1.2 The safety shall be of a type that can be 
released only by moving the car in the up direction. To 
return a car to normal operation after a safety set, the 
car shall be moved hydraulically in the up direction. 
For repairs of obvious or suspected malfunction, the car 
shall be permitted to be raised by other means capable 
of holding the entire car weight. Prior to releasing the 
other means, the car shall be nm hydraulically in the 
up direction. 

If an auxiliary pump is used to move the car in the 
up direction to release the safeties, it shall 



(07) 



124 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(a) have a relief valve that limits the pressure to not 
more than 2.3 times the working pressure 

(b) be connected between the check valve or control 
valve and the shutoff valve 

(ED) 3.17.1.3 The switches required by 2.17.7 shall, 

when operated, remove power from the hydraulic 
machine motor and control valves before or at the time 
of application of the safety. 

3.17.2 Counterweight Safeties 

Counterweight safeties, where provided in accor- 
dance with 3.6.2, shall conform to 2.17, provided that 
safeties shall be operated as a result of the breaking 
or slackerung of the counterweight suspension ropes, 
irrespective of the rated speed of the elevator. 

3.17.3 Plunger Gripper 

A plunger gripper shall be permitted to be provided 
for direct-acting hydraulic elevators using hydraulic 
jacks equipped with plungers. A plunger gripper shall 
be capable of stopping and holding the car with its 
rated load from the actual measured tripping speed per 
Table 2.18.2.1 and shall conform to 3.17.3.1 through 
3.17.3.9. In Table 2.18.2.1 the words "rated speed" shall 
be replaced by "operating speed in the down direction." 

3.17.3.1 Limits of Application. A plimger gripper 
shall be permitted, provided that 

(a) the external pressure applied to the plunger by 
the device is symmetrically distributed at locations 
around the circumference of the plunger. The resulting 
stress in the plunger shall not exceed 67% of the yield 
strength at any point of the plunger. 

(b) the external pressure applied to the plunger by 
the device does not exceed 67% of the value that will 
cause local buckling. Where the external pressure is 
applied over substantially the full circumference of the 
plunger, the maximum value shall be permitted to be 
determined by 8.2.8.6.. 

(c) during the application, the plunger and the 
plunger gripper are capable of withstanding any vertical 
forces imposed upon them, and transfer such forces to 
the supporting structure. During the application of the 
device, any loading on the plunger shall not damage 
the cylinder. 

(d) power is removed from the hydraulic machine 
before or at the time of application. 

3.17.3.2 Means of Application. A plunger gripper 
shall mechanically grip the plunger. 

3.17.3.2.1 Hydraulic means are permitted to be 
used to hold the gripper in the retracted position. A 
loss of hydraulic pressure or fluid causing uncontrolled 
downward motion is permitted to be used to apply the 
plunger gripper. 



3.17.3.2.2 When electrical means are used to 
actuate the gripper, the following shall apply: 

(a) The plunger gripper shall be fully operational dur- 
ing a primary electrical system power failure. 

(b) The elevator shall not be permitted to restart after (07) 
a normal stop in the event of the failure within the 
electrical means used to actuate the gripper of any of 

the following: 

(1) a single mechanically operated switch 

(2) a single magnetically operated switch, con- 
tactor, or relay 

(3) a single solenoid 

(4) a single solid-state device 

(5) a software system failure 

(6) the occurrence of a single ground 

3.17.3.3 Release 

3.17.3.3.1 The plunger gripper shall be released 
by establishing at least no-load static pressure on the 
hydraulic system, or by other means capable of holding 
the entire car weight. 

3.1 7.3.3.2 The elevator shall not be permitted to 
be restarted without establishing at least no-load static 
pressure on the hydraulic system. 

3.17.3.4 Clearance. In the normally retracted posi- 
tion of the plunger gripper, any contact between the 
gripping surface and the plunger shall not cause degra- 
dation of the plunger or premature degradation of the 
gripping surface. 

3.17.3.5 Deceleration. The deceleration of the ele- 
vator upon actuation of the plunger gripper shall comply 
with the following criteria: 

(a) The average deceleration rate at rated load shall 
be not less than 0.1 gravity nor more than 1.0 gravity. 
(See Nonmandatory Appendix P for mirumum and max- 
imum stopping distances.) 

(b) Any peak deceleration rate in excess of 2.0 gravity 
shall have a duration of not greater than 0.04 s. 

3.17.3.6 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses of 
Safety Parts and Rope Connections 

3.17.3.6.1 Compliance with 2.17.12.1 and 
2.17.12.6 is required. Springs shall be permitted in the 
operation of the plunger gripper. The maximum fiber 
stress in the spring shall not exceed 85% of the elastic 
limit in the material at any time. The factor of safety of 
wire ropes, if provided in the construction of the plunger 
gripper, shall not be less than 5. Tiller-rope construction 
shall not be used. 

3.17.3.6.2 Leaf and roller chains, if provided in (07) 
the construction of the plunger gripper, shall conform 

to ASME B29.100 or ASME B29.8. 



125 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



3.17.3.6.3 The factors of safety shall be based 
upon the maximum stresses developed in the parts dur- 
ing operation of the gripper when stopping rated load 
from the tripping speed (see 3.17.3) of the speed-measur- 
ing device. 

3.1 7.3.6.4 Rope or tape used to drive an electrical 
encoder is not required to comply with the requirements 
for governor rope. 

3.17.3.6.5 If a governor is used, it must comply 
with 2.18.5.1, except lang-lay construction is permitted 
and the diameter is permitted to be less than 9.5 mm 
(0.375 in.). 

3.17.3.7 Corrosion-Resistant Bearings in Plunger 
Gripper and Gripper Operating Meciianisms. Compli- 
ance with 2.17.13 is required. 

3.17.3.8 Marlcing Plates for a Plunger Gripper. A 

permanent marking plate shall be securely attached to 
each plunger gripper so as to be readily visible, and 
shall be marked in a legible and permanent manner with 
letters and symbols not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in 
height, indicating 

(a) that it is a plunger gripper. 

(b) the maximum operating speed in the down direc- 
tion in m/s (ft/min) for which the plunger gripper shaU 
be permitted to be used. 

(c) the maximum load in Newtons (pounds) for which 
the gripper is designed and installed to stop and sustain. 

(d) the manufacturer 's name or trademark and identi- 
fication number of the device. 

(e) space for date of acceptance test. Date to be perma- 
nently marked following test. 

(f) the diameter and minimum wall thickness of the 
plimger for which the device is applicable. 

3.17.3.9 Flexible Hoses. Flexible hoses used for the 
operation of a plunger gripper shall be permitted, pro- 
vided that their failure does not cause an uncontrolled 
descent. These flexible hoses are not required to meet 
the requirements of 3.19.3.3. 

(07) 3.17.4 Governors 

Governors, when provided, shall comply with 2.18, 
except 2.18,4. In addition, governors shall conform to 
3.17.4.1 and 3.17.4.2 

3.17.4.1 The term "operating speed in the down 
direction with rated load" shall be substituted for the 
words "rated speed" whenever these words appear. 

3.17.4.2 For governors located inside the hoistway, 
see 2.7.6.3.4. 



SECTION 3.18 
HYDRAULIC JACKS 

3.18.1 Hydraulic Jacic and Connections 

Where multiple hydraulic jacks are used, they shall 
be hydraulically connected to form a single hydraulic 
system. 

3.18.1.1 Direct-Acting Hydraulic Elevators. The 

driving member of the hydraulic jack shall be attached to 
the car frame or car platform with fastenings of sufficient 
strength to support that member with a factor of safety 
of not less than 4 and shall be capable of withstanding, 
without damage, any forces resulting from a plunger 
stop as described in 3.18.4.2. 

Any plimger or cylinder head mechanical connector 
or connection shall conform to 3.18.2.1, 3.18.2.4, 3.18.4, 
and 3.18.5. 

3.18.1.2 Roped-Hydraulic Elevator 

3.18.1.2.1 The driving member of the hydraulic 
jack shall be vertical. Cars shall be suspended with not 
less than two wire ropes per hydraulic jack in confor- 
mance with 2.15.13 and 2.20. 

3.18.1.2.2 Where three or more hydraulic jacks 
are utilized, one rope per hydraulic jack shall be permit- 
ted to be used. Should one hydraulic jack become discon- 
nected, the remaining hydraulic jacks shall be capable 
of supporting the load without exceeding allowable car 
frame stresses or hydraulic jack stress. The ropes shall 
conform to 2.15.13 and 2.20. 

3.18.1.2.3 Ropes passing through seals fixed in 
cylinder heads shall be permitted to have a clear plastic 
coating applied in order to seal properly and facilitate 
rope inspection. 

3.18.1.2.4 The roping ratio that relates the driv- 
ing member of the hydraulic jack speed to the car speed 
shall not exceed 1:2. 

3.18.1.2.5 Sheaves used to transfer load from the 
hydraulic jack to the car frame through wire ropes shaU 
conform to 2.24.2, 2.24.3, and 2.24.5. 

3.18.1.2.6 Means shall be provided to prevent 
the ropes, if slack, from leaving the sheave grooves. 

3.18.1.2.7 A slack-rope device with an enclosed 
manually reset switch shall be provided that shall cause 
the electric power to be removed from the hydraulic 
machine pump motor and the control valves should any 
rope become slack. 

3.18.1.2.8 The traveling sheave shall be attached 
with fastenings having a minimum factor of safety of 
4, based upon the ultimate strength of the material used. 
The load to be used in determining the factor of safety 
shall be the resultant of the maximum tensions in the 



# 



126 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



ropes leading from the sheave with the elevator at rest 
and with rated load in the car. 

3.18.2 Plungers 

3.18.2.1 Material. The plunger and connecting cou- 
plings for the plunger shall be of materials in accordance 
with 3.18.2.1.1 and 3.18,2.1.2. 

3.18.2.1.1 Tensile, compressive, bending, and 
torsional loading shall have a factor of safety of not less 
than 5, based on ultimate strength. 

3.18.2.1.2 Pressure loadings shall have a factor 
of safety not less than that calculated per 8.2.8.5. 

3.18.2.2 Plunger Design. Plimgers made of steel 
shall be designed and constructed in compliance with 
the applicable formula in 8.2.8.1 for calculation of elastic 
stability, bending, and external pressure. For other mate- 
rials, the appropriate modulus of elasticity must be uti- 
lized. 

Plungers subject to internal pressure shall also be 
designed and constructed in accordance with cylinder 
design formula in 8.2.8.2. 

3.18.2.3 Plunger Connection 

3.18.2.3.1 When the hydraulic jack is not sub- 
jected to eccentric loading, it shall 

(a) carry in tension the weight of the plunger with a 
factor of safety not less than 4 

(b) restrict total vertical movement to less than 20% 
of the buffer stroke, where vibration damping means 
are provided 

3.18.2.3.2 In addition, when the hydraulic jack 
is subjected to eccentric loading, the following shall also 
apply: 

(a) The plunger connection to the car shall also be so 
designed and constructed as to transmit the full eccentric 
moment into the plunger with a factor of safety not less 
than 4. 

(h) The plunger and the plimger connection to the 
car shall also be so designed and constructed that the 
total vertical deflection of the loading edge of the car 
platform due to eccentric loading of the car shall not 
exceed 19 mm (0.75 in.). 

3.18.2.4 Plunger Joints. Plungers composed of 
more than one section shall have joints designed and 
constructed to 

(a) carry in tension the weight of all plunger sections 
below the joint with a factor of safety of not less than 4 

(h) transmit in compression the gross load on the 
plimger with a factor of safet)^ of not less than 5, based 
on ultimate strength 

(c) withstand without damage any forces resulting 
from a plunger stop as described in 3.18.4.2 

(d) for eccentric loading, the joints shall conform to 
3.18.2.2 and 3.18.2.3 



3.18.2.5 Plungers Subject to External Pressure. For 

plungers subjected to external pressure, the working 
pressure shall be not greater than indicated by the for- 
mula in 8.2.8.1.3. 

3.18.2.6 Plunger Heads Subject to Fluid Pressure. 

Heads of plungers subject to fluid pressure shall con- 
form to 3.18.3.6. 

3.18.2.7 Plunger-Follower Guide 

3.18.2.7.1 A plunger-follower guide shall be per- 
mitted to be used, provided it is arranged so that the 
elevator is always in a position where the unsupported 
length of the plunger conforms to the "maximum free 
length" as defined in 8.2.8.1. If this length is exceeded, 
upward movement of the car shall immediately stop, 
and it shall be permitted to allow the car to return non- 
stop to the lowest landing; power-operated doors shall 
open, and electric power shall be removed from the 
motor and the control valve. After not less than 15 s nor 
more than 60 s, the doors shall close in compliance with 
2.11.3. A manual reset of the means shall be required 
before the elevator is returned to service. The in-car door 
open button shall remain operative. 

Plunger-follower guides shall be designed and con- 
structed to comply with all applicable requirements of 
2.15. 

3.18.2.7.2 Telescopic plungers shall have each 
plunger section internally guided. If more than two 
movable sections are used, external guides shall be pro- 
vided for each plunger section. External guides shall be 
designed and constructed to comply with all applicable 
requirements of 2.15. 

3.18.3 Cylinders 

3.18.3.1 Material. The cylinder and connecting cou- 
plings for the cylinder shall be made of materials in 
compliance with 3.18.3.1.1 and 3.18.3.1.2. 

3.18.3.1.1 For tensile, compressive, bending, and 
torsional loading, the cylinder and connecting couplings 
shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on 
ultimate strength. 

3.18.3.1.2 For pressure calculations, the cylinder 
and connecting coupling shall have a factor of safety 
not less than that calculated as specified in 8.2.8.5. 

3.18.3.2 Cylinder Design. Cylinders shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with the for- 
mula in 8.2.8.2. 

3.18.3.3 Clearance at Bottom of Cylinder. Clearance 
shall be provided at the bottom of the cylinder so that 
the bottom of the plunger will not strike the safety bulk- 
head of the cylinder when the car is resting on its fully 
compressed buffer (see 3.22.1). 



127 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



3.18.3.4 Safety Bulkhead. Cylinders buried in the 
ground shall be provided with a safety bulkhead having 
an orifice of a size that would permit the car to descend 
at a speed not greater than 0.075 m/s (15 ft/min), nor 
less than 0.025 m/s (5 ft/min). A space of not less than 
25 mm (1 in.) shall be left between the welds of the 
safety bulkhead and the cylinder head. Safety bulkheads 
shall conform to 3.18.3.6. 

A safety bulkhead shall not be required where a dou- 
ble cylinder is used and where both inner and outer 
cylinders conform to 3.18.3. 

3.18.3.5 Cylinder Packing Heads. Cylinder packing 
heads shall conform to appropriate requirements of 
3.18.4 and 8.2.8.3. 

3.18.3.6 Closed Cylinder and Plunger Heads. Closed 
heads of cylinders, and heads of plungers subject to fluid 
pressure, shall conform to 3.18.3.6.1 through 3.18.3.6.3. 

3.18.3.6.1 Closed Cylinder Heads. Closed heads of 
cylinders shall be only of dished seamless construction, 
concave to pressure, except if the bottom of the cylinder 
is supported, and if the cylinder is not buried. 

3.18.3.6.2 Design Formulas. They shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with the appli- 
cable formulas in 8.2.8.3, provided that steel heads shall 
in no case have a thickness less than that required for 
the adjoining shell. 

3.18.3.6.3 Dished Seamless Heads, Convex to Pres- 
sure. Dished seamless heads, convex to pressure, if 
used on plungers, shall have a maximum allowable 
working pressure of not more than 60% of that for heads 
of the same dimensions with pressure on the concave 
side. 

3.18.3.7 Collection of Oil Leakage. Means shall be 
provided to collect for removal any oil leakage from 
the cylinder head seals or packing gland. The amount 
collected before removal shall not exceed 19 L (5 gal). 

3.18.3.8 Cylinders Buried in the Ground 

3.18.3.8.1 Cylinders buried in the ground shall 
be protected from corrosion due to galvanic or electro- 
lytic action, salt water, or other underground conditions. 

3.18.3.8.2 The methods specified in 3.18.3.8.3 
shall be considered as acceptable, provided that they 

(a) are designed and installed with means for moni- 
toring and maintaining them in accordance with recog- 
nized industry standards applicable to the methods 

(b) are effective for specific conditions where the cyl- 
inder is installed 

(c) provide means for checking ongoing compliance 
with 3.18.3.8.1 



3.18.3.8.3 

methods: 



The following are the specified 



(a) the cylinder shall be constructed of a material that 
is immvine to the stated conditions; or 

(b) the cylinder shall be completely covered or 
encased in a material that completely surrounds the 
exterior surface and is immune to the stated conditions. 
If the space between the protective casing and the cylin- 
der is empty, the casing must be designed to withstand 
a static head of water from ground level to the bottom 

, of the cylinder, based on the manufacturer's rating of 
the material used; or 

(c) the cylinder shall be protected by a monitored 
cathodic protection system; or 

(d) the cylinder -shall be protected by a means that wiU 
provide an immunity level not less than that provided by 
the above methods for the stated conditions. 

3.18.3.9 Means for Relief of Air or Gas. Cylinders 
shall be provided with a means to release air or other gas. 

3.18.4 Plunger Stops 

3.18.4.1 Metal Stops and/or Other Means. Metal 
stops and /or other means shall be provided at one end 
of the plunger and at the packing head end of the cylin- 
der to prevent the plunger from traveling beyond the 
limits of the cylinder. 

The metal stops and /or other means shall be so 
designed and constructed as to stop the plunger travel- 
ing in the up direction at maximum speed under full 
load pressure, should the normal terminal stopping 
device (see 3.25.1) fail to operate, or at a reduced speed 
when a terminal speed reducing device is provided as 
required by 3.25.2. No running test onto the stop ring 
is required [see 8.10.3.2.2(s)]. 

3.18.4.2 Hydraulic System. The connections to the 
hydraulic machine, plunger, plunger connection, cou- 
plings, plunger joints, cylinder, cylinder connecting cou- 
plings, or any other parts of the hydraulic system shall 
be designed and constructed to withstand, without dam- 
age, a plimger stop in accordance with 3.18.4.1. 

3.18.5 Welding 

All welding of hydraulic jack components shall con- 
form to 8.8. 

3.18.6 Marking of Hydraulic Jack 

The exposed portion of each hydraulic jack after 
installation shall be plainly marked in a permanent man- 
ner with the following: 

(a) the name or trademark by which the organization 
that manufactured the hydraulic jack can be identified 

(W the manufacturer's designation of the type or 
model 

(c) year of manufacture 



(07) 



128 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



SECTION 3.19 
VALVES, PRESSURE PIPING, AND FITTINGS 

3.19.1 Materials and Working Pressures 

3.19.1.1 Materials. Pressure piping, valves, fittings, 
and mufflers shall be designed and made of materials 
having properties such that a factor of safety not less 
than that calculated per 8.2.8.5 is achieved. 

Piping and fittings of a grade not subjected to listed/ 
certified testing (ASTM or equivalent) shall not be used 
for hydraulic pressure piping and fittings. 

NOTE (3.19.1.1): Examples of two acceptable pipe standards are 
ASTM A106 and ASTM A 53, Type E or S. 

3.19.1.2 Worthing Pressures. The working pressure 
(see 1.3) shall not exceed the component rated pressure 
(see 1.3) of the pipes, valves, mufflers, and fittings used 
on the pressure side of the hydraulic system. 

3.19.1.3 Component Proof Test. For elongations 
greater than or equal to 10%, the component design shall 
be substantiated either in accordance with 8.2.8.5 or by 
an unrestrained proof test of 5 times the component 
rated pressure without resulting in fracture. For elonga- 
tions of less than 10%, the test value shall be 1.5 times the 
value indicated by 8.2.8.5 multiplied by the component 
rated pressure. 

3.19.1.4 Component Marl^ings. Valves, fittings, and 
mufflers shall be pressure rated, and shall bear the man- 
ufacturer's name or trademark by which the organiza- 
tion that manufactured the product can be identified, 
and identification symbols to indicate the materials and 
service designations for which the manufacturer's rating 
applies. 

NOTE: Valves and fittings rated for a different system may be 
used in hydraulic elevator systems when substantiated in accor- 
dance with the elevator code. 

3.19.2 Pressure Piping 

3.19.2.1 Wall Thickness. The minimum wall thick- 
ness shall conform to 8.2.8.4. 

3.19.2.2 Threading. Pipe lighter than Schedule 40 
shall not be threaded. 

3.19.2.3 Pipe Supports. Piping shall be so sup- 
ported as to eliminate undue stresses at joints and fit- 
tings, particularly at any section of the line subject to 
vibration. 

3.19.2.4 Pipe, Tubing, or Fittings. Pipe, tubing, or 
fittings shall be permitted to be used for instrument 
or control purposes and shall conform to ASME B31.1, 
para. 122.3. 

3.19.2.5 Hydraulic Pipeline Identification. A mark- 
ing shall be applied, to accessible piping that is located 
outside the elevator machine room or hoistway, stating 
"Elevator Hydraulic Line" in letters that are at least 



19 mm (0.75 in.) high in a contrasting color. The marking 
shall be visible after installation and applied at intervals 
not greater than 3 000 mm (120 in.). 

3.19.2.6 Where the hydraulic machine is located (055) 
in the hoistway and any piping, tubing, or fitting permit- 
ted by 3.19.2.4 is located outside the hoistway, means 
shall be provided to 

(a) protect the specified piping, tubing, or fittings 
from damage, which would cause unsafe elevator opera- 
tion; or 

(b) prevent uncontrolled movement of the elevator in 
the event of failure of the specified piping, tubing, or 
fittings. 

3.19.3 Connections and Fittings 

3.19.3.1 Connections. All piping connections shall (07) 
be of the welded, grooved, threaded, or bolted flange 
type. Threads of valves, piping, and fittings shall con- 
form to the requirements of ASME Bl.20.1 or 
ASME Bl.20.3. Hydraulic tube fittings shall conform to 
SAE J514. 

3.19.3.2 Grooved Pipe Fittings 

3.19.3.2.1 Grooved pipe fitting assemblies shall 
be permitted to be used for hydraulic connections. They 
shall be installed in conformance with the manufactur- 
er's specifications. They shall be installed in locations 
that will permit disassembly and inspection of all of 
their component parts. 

3.19.3.2.2 Grooved pipe fittings shall be so 
designed and constructed that failure of a seaUng ele- 
ment will not permit separation of the parts connected. 
The devices or means used for preventing the separation 
of the parts connected shall be removable only with the 
use of tools. Devices or means removable with hand- 
operated quick-release levers or toggles are prohibited. 

3.19.3.3 Flexible Hydraulic Connections. Flexible 

hose and fitting assemblies, and flexible couplings, shall 
be permitted to be used for hydraulic connections. 
Where installed between the check valve or control valve 
and the cylinder, they shall conform to 3.19.3.3.1 and 
3.19.3.3.2. 

3.19.3.3.1 Flexible hose and fitting assemblies 
shall 

(a) not be installed within the hoistway, nor project 
into or through any wall. Installation shall be accom- 
plished without introducing any twist in the hose, and 
shall conform with the minimum bending radius of 
SAE 100, R2 type, high pressure, steel wire reinforced, 
rubber-covered hydraulic hose specified in SAE J517. 

(b) have a bursting strength sufficient to withstand 
not less than 10 times working pressure (see 1.3). They 
shall be tested in the factory or in the field prior to 
installation at a pressure of not less than 5 times working 



129 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



pressure and shall be marked with date and pressure 
of test. 

(c) conform to the requirements of SAE 100, R2 type 
hose specified in SAE J517 and be compatible with the 
fluid used. 

(d) be of nonreusable-type fittings. 

(e) be permanently labeled /marked, indicating 

(1) the name or trademark by which the manufac- 
turer of the hose and fittings can be identified 

(2) the type of hose and fitting 

(3) the minimum factory test pressure 

(4) the minimum bending radius of hose 

(5) the date of installation 

(6) the inspection procedure 

(7) the name of elevator contractor 

(f) have a line overspeed valve conforming to 3.19.4.7. 

3.19.3.3.2 Flexible couplings are permitted for 
hydraulic connections. Such couplings shall be so 
designed and constructed that failure of the sealing ele- 
ment will not permit separation of the connected parts. 
The devices or means used to prevent the separation of 
the connected parts shall be removable only with the 
use of tools. Any devices or means that are removable 
with hand-operated quick-released levers are pro- 
hibited. 

(05S) 3.19.4 Valves 

3.19.4.1 Shutoff Valve. A manually operated shut- 
off valve shall be provided between the hydraulic 
machines and the hydraulic jack and shall be located 
outside the hoistway and adjacent to the hydraulic 
machine. 

Where the hydraulic machine is located in the 
hoistway the manually operated shutoff valve shall be 
permitted to be located inside the hoistway, provided 
that it is accessible from outside the hoistway to elevator 
personnel only (see 8.1). 

3.19.4.2 Pump Relief Valve 

3.19.4.2.1 Each pump or group of pumps shall 
be equipped with one or more relief valve(s) conforming 
to the following requirements: 

(a) Type and Location. The relief valve shall be located 
between the pump and the check valve and shall be of 
such a type and so installed in the bypass connection 
that the valve cannot be shut off from the hydraulic 
system. 

(b) Size. The size of the relief valve and bypass shall 
be sufficient to pass the maximum rated capacity of the 
pump without raising the pressure more than 50% above 
the working pressure. Two or more relief valves shall 
be permitted to be used to obtain the required capacity 

(c) Sealing. Relief valves shall be sealed after being 
set to the correct pressure. 



3.19.4.2.2 No relief valve is required for centrifu- 
gal pumps driven by induction motors, provided the 
shut-off, or maximum pressure that the pump can 
develop, is not greater than 135% of the working pres- 
sure at the pump. 

3.19.4.3 Check Valve. A check valve shall be pro- 
vided and shall be so installed that it will hold the 
elevator car with rated load at any point when the pump 
stops and the down valves are closed or the maintained 
pressure drops below the minimum operating pressure. 

3.19.4.4 Manual Lowering Valve. A manually oper- 
ated valve, located on or adjacent to the control valves, 
shall be provided and identified, which permits low- 
ering the car at a speed not exceeding 0.10 m/s 
(20 ft/min). This valve shall be so marked to indicate 
the lowering position. Where the hydraulic machine is 
located in the hoistway, the manual lowering valve shall 
only be accessible to elevator personnel from outside 
the hoistway (see 8.1). 

3.19.4.5 Pressure Gauge Fittings. A pressure gauge 
fitting with shutoff valve shall be provided on jack side 
of the check valve or immediately adjacent to the 
hydraulic control valve. Where the hydraulic machine 
is located in the hoistway the pressure gauge fittings 
shall only be accessible to elevator personnel from out- 
side the hoistway (see 8.1). 

3.19.4.6 Type Tests, Certification, and Marldng Plates 
for Control Valves 

3.19.4.6.1 Each type or model and make of 
hydraulic control valve shall be subjected to the engi- 
neering tests and to the certification process as specified 
in 8.3.5. 

3.19.4.6.2 Hydraulic control valves shall be 
plainly marked in a permanent manner with the follow- 
ing information: 

(a) certifying organization's name or identifying 
symbol 

(b) the name, trademark, or file number by which 
the organization that manufactured the product can be 
identified 

(c) statement of compliance with ASME A17.1 or 
CSAB44 

(d) type designation 

(e) component rated pressure 

(f) electrical coil data 

3.19.4.7 Overspeed Valves. When provided, 
overspeed valves and their connections and attachments 
shall conform to 3.19.4.7.1 through 3.19.4.7,6. 

3.19.4.7.1 Overspeed Valve Tests. Each type or 
model of overspeed valve shall be subjected to the engi- 
neering tests specified in 8.3.9. 



130 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



3.19.4.7.2 Marking of Overspeed Valves. The 

overspeed valves shall be plainly marked in a permanent 
manner with the following: 

(a) the name or trademark by which the organization 
that manufactured the product can be identified 

(h) type designation 

(c) component rated pressure 

(d) maximum and minimum rated flow 

3.19.4.7.3 Installation of Overspeed Valves. 

Overspeed valves shall be installed and mounted as 
follows: 

(a) Single Jack Arrangements. Where a single valve is 
used, it shall be located in the pressure piping within 
300 mm (12 in.) of the hydraulic jack. Multiple parallel 
valves are permitted in lieu of a single valve. These shall 
be located so as to minimize the distance from the valves 
to the hydraulic jack. 

(h) Multiple jack Arrangements. Multiple jack arrange- 
ments shall cor\form with one of the following: 

(1) A single overspeed valve shall be located in the 
pressure piping within 300 mm (12 in.) of each hydraulic 
jack. Multiple parallel valves are permitted in lieu of 
single valves at each hydraulic jack. These shall be 
located so as to minimize the distance from the valves 
to each hydraulic jack. 

(2) A single overspeed valve shall be located in the 
pressure piping on the hydraulic machine side of, and 
immediately before, the tee junction, wye jimction, or 
branch junction that connects the branch pressure pipes 
to the jacks. Multiple parallel valves are permitted in 
lieu of a single valve at the junction. For dual hydraulic 
jack systems, the total length of branch pressure pipe 
between the tee or wye jxinction and the jacks shall 
not exceed the distance between the jacks, measured 
horizontally, plus 1 m (39 in.). For multiple jack systems, 
the length of branch pressure piping shall be minimized. 

3.19.4.7.4 Strength of Overspeed Valve Pressure 
Piping and Fittings Between ithe Overspeed Valve and 
the Jacl^. The factor of safety of the overspeed valve 
pressure piping and fittings shall be not less than 1.5 
times the value obtained using 8.2.8.5, provided that the 
minimum factor of safety is not less than 4.5, and the 
minimuni percentage elongation is not less than 5 for 
the overspeed valve and fittings and not less than 20 
for the pressure piping. 

3.19.4.7.5 Performance Requirements. The 

overspeed valve shall be constructed, installed, and 
adjusted to ensure that the elevator obtains the following 
performance: 

(a) The overspeed valve tripping speed shall be not 
less than 110% nor greater than 140% of the elevator 
operating speed in the down direction, but in no case 
shall exceed 0.3 m/s (60 ft/min) above the rated elevator 
speed. 



(b) The average deceleration rate shall be not less 
than 1.96 m/s^ (6.44 ft/s^) nor more than 9.81 m/s^ 
(32.2 ft/s^). 

(c) Any peak deceleration rate in excess of 24.53 m/ 
s^ (80.5 ft/s^) shall have a duration of not greater than 
0.04 s. 

3.19.4.7.6 Sealing of the Overspeed Valve. Field- 
adjustable overspeed valves shall be sealed after field 
setting. 

3.19.5 Piping Buried in the Ground 

3.19.5.1 Protection. Piping buried in the ground 
shall be provided with protection from corrosion by one 
or more of the following methods: 

(a) monitored cathodic protection 

(b) a coating to protect the piping from corrosion that 
will withstand the installation process 

(c) a protective casing, immune to galvanic or electro- 
lytic action, salt water, and other known underground 
conditions, completely surrounding the exterior sur- 
faces of the piping 

3.19.5.2 Seals. Piping buried in the ground shall 
not include seals or other elements potentially requiring 
service or replacement. 

3.19.6 Welding 

3.19.6.1 All welding of valves, pressure piping, 
and fittings shall conform to 8.8. 

3.19.6.2 Field welding of pressure piping and fit- 
tings shall also be permitted to be performed by welders 
certified to the requirements pertaining to pressure 
systems. 

3.19.7 Electrical Requirements 

Hydraulic control valves shall conform to the electrical 
requirements in Clause 4 of CSA C22.2 No. 139. 

SECTION 3.20 
ROPES AND ROPE CONNECTIONS 

Where a counterweight is provided, the counter- 
weight shall be connected to the car by not less than 
two steel wire ropes. 

The wire ropes and their connections shall conform 
to 2.20, except that the factor of safety of the wire ropes 
shall be not less than 7. 

SECTION 3.21 
COUNTERWEIGHTS 

3.21.1 Counterweights 

Counterweights, where provided, shall conform to 
2.21. In the event of the separation of the counterweight 
from the car, the static pressure shall be not more than 
140% of the working pressure. 



131 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



3.21.2 Counterweight Sheaves 

Sheaves for counterweight ropes shall conform to 
2.24.2, 2.24.3, and 2.24.5. 

SECTION 3.22 
BUFFERS AND BUMPERS 

3.22.1 Car Buffers or Bumpers 

Car buffers or bumpers shall be provided and shall 
conform to 2.22, provided that in applying the require- 
ments of 2.22 to hydraulic elevators 3.22.1.1 through 
3.22.1.5 are complied with. 

3.22.1.1 The term "operating speed in the down 
direction with rated load" shall be substituted for the 
words "rated speed" wherever these words appear. 

3.22.1.2 In place of 2.22.3.2, the requirements speci- 
fied in 3.22.1.2.1 and 3.22.1.2.2 shall be substituted. 

3.22.1.2.1 Buffers shall be capable of withstand- 
ing without being compressed solid the loading per 
8.2.3.2. 

3.22.1 .2.2 Buffers shall be compressed sohd with 
a loading of 2 times that described in 8.2.3.2. 

3.22.1.3 Requirement 2.22.4.1.2 shall not apply 
Reduced stroke buffers shall not be provided on hydrau- 
lic elevators. Car buffers or bumpers shall be so located 
that the car will come to rest on the bumper or fully 
compressed buffer, or to a fixed stop, before the plunger 
reaches its down limit of travel. 

3.22.1 .4 When multiple buffers are used, each shall 
be identical and designed for an equal proportion of the 
loading described in 3.22.1.2. 

3.22.1.5 Plunger weight, less buoyant effects of 
the plungers at the buffer strike point, shall be added, 
if applicable, and used in buffer calculations. 

3.22.1 .6 Solid bumpers are permitted on hydraulic 
elevators having an operating speed in the down direc- 
tion of 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min) or less. See 2.22.2 for solid 
bumper material. 

3.22.2 Counterweight Buffers 

Where counterweights are provided, counterweight 
buffers shall not be provided. (See 3.4.6 for required 
counterweight runby.) 

SECTION 3.23 

GUIDE RAILS, GUIDE-RAIL SUPPORTS* AND 

FASTENINGS 

3.23.1 Direct-Acting Hydraulic Elevators 

Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings 
shall conform to 2.23, with the exceptions specified in 
3.23.1.1 through 3.23.1.4. 



3.23.1.1 Requirement 2.23.4.1 shall apply only 
where car safeties are used and the maximum load on 
the car side for direct-acting hydraulic elevators is the 
maximum weight of the car and its rated load plus the 
weight of the plunger or cylinder as applicable. 

3.23.1.2 Requirement 2.23.4.2 shall apply only 
where safeties are used, 

3.23.1.3 Requirement 2.23.9.1.1(a) shall apply only 
where safeties are used. 

3.23.1.4 Requirement 2.28 shall not apply. 
3.23.2 Roped-Hydraulic Elevators 

3.23.2.1 Car and counterweight guide rails, guide- 
rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to 2.23. 

3.23.2.2 The traveling sheave, if provided, shall 
be guided by means of suitable guide shoes and guide 
rails adequately mounted and supported. 

SECTION 3.24 
HYDRAULIC MACHINES AND TANKS 

3.24.1 Hydraulic Machines (Power Units) 

3.24.1.1 Marking Plates. The working pressure that 
is developed in the system shall be measured at the 
acceptance inspection and test. This pressure shall be 
legibly and permanently labeled /marked on a data plate 
that shall be moimted on the hydraulic machine. 

3.24.2 Tanks 

3.24.2.1 Capacity. Tanks shall be of sufficient capac- 
ity to provide for an adequate liquid reserve in order 
to prevent the entrance of air or other gas into the system. 

3.24.2.2 Minimum Level Indication. The permissible 
minimum liquid level shall be clearly indicated. 

3.24.3 Atmosphere Storage and Discharge Tanks 

3.24.3.1 Covers and Venting. Tanks shall be covered 
and suitably vented to the atmosphere. Where tanks are 
located in the hoistway, they shall be vented to prevent 
accumulation of fumes in the hoistway and their covers 
shall be of sufficient strength to resist falling objects. 

3.24.3.2 Factor of Safety. Tanks shall be so designed 
and constructed that when completely filled, the factor 
of safety shall be not less than 4, based on the ultimate 
strength of the material. 

3.24.3.3 Means for Checking Liquid LeveL Tanks 
shall be provided with means for checking the liquid 
level. Such means shall be accessible without the 
removal of any cover or other part. 

3.24.4 Welding 

All welding of hydraulic machine components shall 
conform to 8.8. 



(055) 



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ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



SECTION 3.25 
TERMINAL STOPPING DEVICES 

(05S) 3.25.1 Normal Terminal Stopping Devices 

3.25.1.1 Where Required and Function. Upper and 
lower normal terminal stopping devices shall be pro- 
vided and arranged to slow down and stop the car 
automatically, at or near the top and bottom terminal 
landings, with any load up to and including rated load 
in the car from any speed attamed in normal operation. 
Such devices shall fiinction independently of the opera- 
tion of the normal stopping means and the terminal 
speed reducing device, where provided. The device shall 
be so designed and installed that it will continue to 
function until the car reaches its extreme limits of travel. 

The device shall be permitted to be rendered inopera- 
tive during recycling operation (see 3.26.7). 

3.25.1.2 Location of Stopping Devices. Stopping 
devices shall be located on the car, in the hoistway, in 
the machine room or control room, or in overhead 
spaces, and shall be operated by movement of the car. 

3.25.1.3 Requirements for Stopping Devices on the 
Car or in the Hoistway. Stopping devices located on 
the car or in the hoistway and operated by cams on the 
car or in the hoistway shall conform to 2.25.1. 

3.25.1.4 Requirements for Stopping Devices in a 
Machine Room, Control Room, or Overhead Space. Stop- 
ping devices located in a machine room, control room, 
or in an overhead space shall conform to 2.25.2.3, except 
that the device required by 2.25.2.3.2 shall cause the 
electric power to be removed from the main control 
valve or from its control switch operating magnets and, 
in the case of electrohydraulic elevators, where stopping 
the car is effected by stopping the pump motor, from 
the pump motor and associated valves. 

3.25.2 Terminal Speed Reducing Devices 

3.25.2.1 Where Required. Terminal speed reducing 
devices shall be installed for the up direction where the 
car speed exceeds 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), to ensure that 
the plunger does not strike its solid limit of travel at a 
speed in excess of 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min) (see 3.18.4.1). 

(07) 3.25.2.2 General Requirements. Terminal speed 
reducing devices shall conform to 3.25.2.2.1 and 
3.25.2.2.2. 

(07) 3.25.2.2.1 They shall operate by mechanical, 

hydraulic, or electrical means independently of the nor- 
mal terminal stopping device and function to reduce 
the speed of the car if the normal terminal stopping 
device fails to cause the car to slow down at the top 
terminal as intended. 

3.25.2.2.2 They shall provide retardation not in 
excess of 9.81 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^). 



3.25.2.2.3 They shall be so designed and 
installed that a single short circuit caused by a combina- 
tion of groimds or by other conditions shall not render 
the device ineffective. 

3.25.2.3 Requirements for Mechanical or Hydraulic (07) 
iVleans. Where the terminal speed reducing devices 

are implemented by mechanical or hydraulic means, a 
means shall be provided to prevent overheating of the 
drive system (pump and motor). The mechanical or 
hydraulic means shall not cause permanent deformation 
to any part upon which the means act. 

3.25.2.4 Requirements for Electrical Means. Where (07) 
the terminal speed reducing devices are implemented by 
electrical means, they shall conform to 3.25.2.4.1 through 

3.25.2.4.5. 

3.25.2.4.1 They shall be so designed and (07) 
installed that a single short circuit caused by a combina- 
tion of grounds or by other conditions shall not render 

the device ineffective. 

3.25.2.4.2 Where magnetically operated, optical, 
or solid-state devices are used for position sensing, a 
single short circuit caused by a combination of grounds 
or by other conditions, or the failure of any single mag- 
netically operated, optical, or solid-state device, shall not 

(a) render the terminal speed reducing device inoper- 
ative 

(b) permit the car to restart after a normal stop 

3.25.2.4.3 Mechanically operated switches, 
where located on the car or in the hoistway, shall con- 
form to the following: 

(a) be operated by the movement of the car 

(b) have metal operating cams 

(c) have contacts that are positively opened mechani- 
cally 

(d) be of the enclosed type 

(e) be securely mounted in such a manner that hori- 
zontal movement of the car shall not affect operation of 
the device 

3.25.2.4.4 Electrohydraulic elevators with two 
means to control upward movement (e.g., pump motor 
and valve) shall conform to the following: 

(a) One or both means to control upward movement 
of the elevator shall be controlled by the terminal speed 
reducing device, either directly or through an intermedi- 
ate device. 

(1) Where an intermediate device is implemented 
with a solid-state device or software system to satisfy 
3.25.2.4.4(a), the failure of any single solid-state device 
or a software system failure in the intermediate device 
shall not render the terminal speed reducing device inef- 
fective. 

(2) Redundant devices used to satisfy 
3.25.2.4.4(a)(1) shall be checked prior to each start of the 



133 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



elevator from a landing, when on automatic operation. 
When a failure as specified occurs the car shall not be 
permitted to restart. 

(b) The other means or both means to control upward 
movement of the elevator are to be controlled by the 
normal terminal stopping device, either directly or 
through an intermediate device. 

3.25.2.4.5 Electrohydraulic elevators with one 
means to control upward movement (e.g., pump motor 
only). One or both of the devices required in 3.26.6.4(a) 
shall be controlled by the terminal speed reducing device 
and the other device or both devices by the normal 
terminal stopping device. 

3.25.3 Final Terminal Stopping Devices 

Final terminal stopping devices are not required. 

SECTION 3.26 
OPERATING DEVICES AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT 

3.26.1 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

Operating devices and control equipment shall con- 
form to 2.26, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.3 does not apply. 

(b) Requirement 2261 A applies as specified by 3.26.2. 

(c) Requirement 2.26.1.6 applies as specified by 3.26.3. 

(d) Requirement 2.26.2 applies as specified by 3.26.4. 

(e) Requirement 2.26.6 does not apply. 

(f) Requirement 2.26.8 does not apply. 

(g) Requirements 2.26.9.1, 2.26.9.2, 2.26.9.5, 2.26.9.6, 
and 2.26.9.7 do not apply 

(h) Requirement 2.26.10 does not apply. 

(OSS) 3.26.2 Inspection Operation 

Top-of-car operating devices shall be provided and 
shall conform to 2.26.1.4. In-car and those inspection 
operations conforming to 2.26.1.4.4 shall be permitted. 

The bottom normal terminal stopping device shall be 
permitted to be made ineffective while the elevator is 
under the control of the inspection operation device. 

3.26.3 Anticreep and Leveling Operation 

3.26.3.1 Anticreep Operation. Each elevator shall 
be provided with an anticreep operation to correct auto- 
matically a change in car level. It shall conform to 
2.26.1.6.2 and 2.26.1.6.3, and 3.26.3.1.1 through 3.26.3.1.5. 

3.26.3.1.1 The anticreep device shall operate the 
car at a speed not exceeding 0.125 m/s (25 ft/min). 

3.26.3.1.2 The anticreep device shall maintain 
the car within 25 mm (1 in.) of the landing, irrespective 
of the position of the hoistway door. 

3.26.3.1.3 For electrohydraulic elevators, the 
anticreep device shall be required to operate the car only 
in the up direction. 



3.26.3.1.4 Operation dependent on the availabil- 
ity of the electric power supply is permitted, provided 
that 

(a) the mainline power disconnecting means is kept 
in the closed position at all times except during mainte- 
nance, repairs, and inspection 

(b) a sign is placed on the switch stating, "KEEP 
SWITCH CLOSED EXCEPT DURING MAINTE- 
NANCE, REPAIRS, AND INSPECTIONS" 

(c) the sign shall be made of durable material and 
securely fastened and have letters with a height of not 
less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) 

3.26.3.1.5 Only the following, when activated, 
shall prevent operation of the anticreep device: 

(a) the electrical protective devices listed in 3.26.4.1 

(b) recycling operation (see 3.26.7) 

(c) inspection transfer switch 

(d) hoistway access switch 

(e) low on protection means 

(f) oil tank temperature shutdown devices 

3.26.3.2 Operation in Leveling or Trucl^ Zone. Oper- 
ation of an elevator in a leveling or truck zone at any 
landing by a car-leveling or truck-zoning device, when 
the hoistway doors, or the car doors or gates, or any 
combination thereof, are not in the closed position, is 
permissible, subject to the requirements of 2.26.1.6.1 
through 2.26.1.6.5. A leveling or truck-zoning device 
shall operate the car at a speed not exceeding 0.125 m/s 
(25 ft/min). 

3.26.4 Electrical Protective Devices 

Electrical protective devices shaU be provided in con- 
formance with 2.26.2, and the following requirements, 
except the words "driving-machine motor and brake" 
in 2.26.2 shall be replaced with "hydraulic machine," 
and shall conform to 3.26.4.1 and 3.26.4.2. 

3.26.4.1 When in the open position, the electrical 
protective devices shall prevent operation by all 
operating means, except as specified in 3.26.4.2. 

3.26.4.2 When in the open position, the following 
devices shall initiate removal of power from the hydrau- 
lic machine in such a manner as to produce an average 
deceleration rate not greater than 9.8 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^) 
and shall prevent operation by all operating means 
except the anticreep device: 

(a) emergency stop switches, where required by 
2.26.2.5 

(b) broken rope, tape, or chain switches provided in (055) 
connection with normal stopping devices, when such 
devices are located in the machine room, control room, 

or overhead space 

(c) hoistway door interlocks or hoistway door con- 
tacts 



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ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(d) car door or gate electric contacts; or car door inter- 
locks 

(e). hinged car platform sill electric contacts 

(f) in-car stop switch, where required by 2.26.2.21 

3.26.5 Phase Reversal and Failure Protection 

Hydraulic elevators powered by a polyphase AC 
motor shall be provided with the means to prevent over- 
heating of the drive system (pump and motor) due to 
phase rotation reversals or failure. 

3.26.6 Control and Operating Circuits 

The design and installation of the control and 
operating circuits shall conform to 3.26.6.1 and 3.26.6.2. 

3.26.6.1 Springs, where used to actuate switches, 
contactors, or relays to stop an elevator at the terminals 
or to actuate electrically operated valves, shall be of the 
compression type. 

(07) 3.26.6.2 The completion or maintenance of an 

electric circuit shall not be used to interrupt the power 
to the control valve, or to the pump driving motor of 
electrohydraulic elevators, or both imder the following 
conditions: 

(a) to stop the car at the terminals 

(b) to stop the car when any of the electrical protective 
devices operate 

(07) 3.26.6.3 For electrohydraulic elevators where there 
are two means of controlling upward movement of the 
elevator (e.g., a pump motor <md a valve), at least one 
means shall be directly controlled by an electromechani- 
cal contactor or relay unless the terminal speed reducing 
device (see 3.25.2) directly removes power from one of 
the control means. 

(07) 3.26.6.4 For electrohydraulic elevators where the 

only means of controlling upward movement of the ele- 
vator is the pump motor, the pump motor control shall 
conform to the following: 

(a) Two devices shall be provided to remove power 
independently from the pump motor. At least one device 
shall be an electromechanical contactor. 

(b) The contactor shall be arranged to open each time 
the car stops. 

(c) The electrical protective devices shall control both 
devices [see 3.26.6.4(a)] in accordance with 3.26.4. 

3.26.7 Recycling Operation for Multiple or 
Telescopic Plungers 

Recycling operation shaU permit the car to be lowered 
more than 25 mm (1 in.) below the bottom landing, 
but not require lowering in order to restore the relative 
vertical position of the multiple plunger sections, pro- 
vided that 

(a) the car is at rest at bottom landing 

(b) the doors and gates are closed and locked 



(c) no car calls are registered 

(d) the speed during recycling does not exceed normal 
down leveling speed but in no case shall be more than 
0.10 m/s (20 ft/min) 

(e) normal operation cannot be resumed until car is 
returned to bottom landing and normal terminal stop- 
ping devices are restored to normal operation 

3.26.8 Pressure Switch 

When cylinders are installed with the top of the cylin- 
der above the top of the storage tank, a pressure switch 
shall be provided in the line between the cylinder and 
the valve, which shall be activated by the loss of positive 
pressure at the top of the cylinder. The switch shall 
prevent automatic door opening and the operation of 
the lowering valve or valves. The door(s) shall be permit- 
ted to open by operation of the in-car open button, when 
the car is within the unlocking zone. 

3.26.9 Low Oil Protection 

3.26.9.1 A means shall be provided to render the 
elevator on normal operation inoperative if for any rea- 
son the liquid level in the tank falls below the permissible 
minimum. Suitable means include, but are not limited 
to, the following: 

(a) direct sensing of liquid level 

(b) a pump-run timer 

Actuation of the means shall automatically bring the 
car down to the lowest landing, when the doors are 
closed. 

3.26.9.2 When at the lowest landing, the doors 
shall comply with the following: 

(a) For elevators with power-operated doors that 
automatically close, the door(s) shall open and shall 
initiate automatic closing within 15 s. 

(b) For elevators with manual doors or with doors 
that do not automatically close, they shall be provided 
with a signal system to alert an operator to close the 
doors. 

3.26.9.3 The car shall then shut down. The means 
shall require manual reset before returning the car to 
service. For elevators with power-operated doors, the 
in-car door open button(s) shall remain operative, but 
the doors shall not be able to be power-opened from 
the landing. 

3.26.10 Auxiliary Power Lowering Operation 

Where the auxiliary power supply is provided solely 
for the purpose of lowering the car, in the case of main 
power supply failure, the auxiliary lowering operation 
shall conform to 3.26.10.1 through 3.26.10.3. 

3.26.10.1 Auxiliary lowering shall be permitted 
to be initiated, provided that all operating and control 
devices, including door open and close buttons, function 
as with normal power supply, except that the following 



135 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



devices shall be permitted to be bypassed or made inop- 
erative: 

(a) landing and car floor registration devices (or call 
buttons) 

(b) devices enabling operation by designated atten- 
dant (hospital service, attendant operation) 

(c) devices initiating emergency recall operation to 
the recall level, unless otherwise specified in 3.27 

(d) 'TIRE OPERATION" switch, unless otherwise 
specified in 3.27 

3.26^10.2 When the auxiliary lowering operation 
has been initiated, the car shall descend directly to the 
lowest landing, except that the operating system shall 
be permitted to allow one or more intermediate stops, 
and then, after a predetermined interval, the car shaU 
proceed to the lowest landing, provided the auxiliary 
power supply is of sufficient capacity to open and close 
doors at each intermediate stop. 

3.26.10.3 If the car and landing doors are power 
operated, and if the auxiliary power supply is of ade- 
quate capacity, the doors shall open when the car stops at 
the lowest landing and shall close after a predetermined 
interval. 

NOTE (3.26.10): For the main disconnect switch auxiliary contact, 
see ANSI/NPPA 70 and CSA-C22.1 requirements, where applicable 
(see Part 9). 



SECTION 3.27 
EMERGENCY OPERATION AND SIGNALING DEVICES 

Emergency operation and signaling devices shall con- 
form to 2.27, except as modified by the following: The 
requirements of 3.26.9 and 3.18.2.7 shall be modified 
when Phase I Emergency Recall Operation and Phase 
n Emergency In-Car Operation are in effect, as specified 
in 3.27.1 through 3.27.4. 

(07) 3.27.1 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation After 
Device Actuation 

If Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is activated 
while the elevator is responding to any of the following 
devices, the car shall return to the recall level: 

(a) low oil protection (see 3.26.9) 

(b) plunger-follower guide protection, provided the 
car is capable of being moved (see 3.18.2.7) 

(c) auxiliary power lowering device (see 3.26.10) 

If the elevator is incapable of returning to the recall 
level, the car shall descend to an available floor. Upon 
arrival, automatic power-operated doors shall open, and 
then reclose within 15 s. The door open button shall 
remain operative. The visual signal [2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall 
extinguish. 



3.27.2 Phase I Emergency Recall Operation Prior to (07) 
Device Actuation 

If any of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a), (b), or (c) 
is activated, while Phase I Emergency Recall Operation 
is in effect, but before the car reaches the recall level, 
the car shall do one of the following: 

(a) complete Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, if 
the car is above the recall level 

(b) descend to an available floor, if the car is below 
the recall level 

Upon arrival, automatic power-operated doors shall 
open, and then reclose within 15 s. The door open button 
shall remain operative. The visual signal [2.27.3.1.6(h)] 
shall extinguish. 

3.27.3 Device Actuation at Recall Level 

If either of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a) or (c) is 
activated while the car is stationary at the recall level 
and Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is in effect, the 
following shall apply: 

(a) automatic power-operated doors shall close 
within 15 s 

(b) the door open button shall remain operational 

(c) the visual signal [see Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall illumi- 
nate intermittantly 

3.27.4 Device Actuation With Phase II Emergency In- 
Car Operation in Effect 

If any of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a), (b), or (c) 
activate while the elevator is on Phase II Emergency In- 
Car Operation, a traveling car shall stop and all calls 
shall be canceled. The visual signal [see Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] 
shall illuminate intermittently. The elevator shall accept 
calls only to landings below its location and respond in 
compliance with the requirements for Phase 11 Emer- 
gency In-Car Operation. 

SECTION 3.28 
LAYOUT DATA 

3.28.1 Information Required on Layout Drawing 

Elevator layout drawings shall, in addition to other 
data, indicate the following: 

(a) required clearances and basic dimensions 

(b) the bracket spacing (see 3.23) 

(c) the estimated maximum vertical forces on the 
guide rails on application of the safety, where provided 
(see 3.23) 

(d) in the case of freight elevators for Class B or Class 
C loading (see 2.16.2.2), the horizontal forces on the 
guide-rail faces during loading and imloading, and the 
estimated maximum horizontal forces in a post-wise 
direction on the guide-rail faces on the application of 
the safety device, where provided (see 3.23) 

(e) the size and weight per meter (foot) of any rail 
reinforcement, where provided (see 3.23) 



136 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(/) the impact loads imposed on machinery and 
sheave beams, supports, and floors or foundations 
(see 2.9) 

(g) the impact load on buffer supports due to buffer 
engagement at the maximum permissible load and 
operating speed in the down direction (see 8.2.3) 

(h) the net vertical load from the elevator system, 
which includes the total car weight and rated load; 
plxmger, cylinder, and oil; and any structural supports 

(i) the outside diameter and wall thickness of the cyl- 
inder, plunger, and piping, and the working pressure 

(j) the total static and dynamic loads from the gover- 
nor, ropes, and tension system 

(k) rated speed and operating speed in the down 
direction 



(/) the minimum "grade" of pipe (ASTM or recog- 
nized standard) required to fulfill the installation 
requirements for pressure piping, or in lieu of a specific 
"grade" of pipe, the minimum tensile strength of pipe 
to be used for the installation (see 3.19) 

(tn) the horizontal forces on the building structure 
stipulated by 2,11.11.8 

(n) the length of the plimger and cylinder 

(o) the clearance between the bottom of the plimger 
and the bottom head of the cylinder as required by 
3.18.3.3 

SECTION 3.29 
IDENTIFICATION 

Identification of equipment and floors shall conform 
to 2.29, as applicable. 



137 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Part 4 
Elevators With Other Types of Driving Machines 



(07) 



SCOPE 

Part 4 applies to elevators with other types of driving 
machines. 

(a) Requirement 4.1 applies to rack-and-pinion ele- 
vators. 

(b) Requirement 4.2 applies to screw-column ele- 
vators. 

(c) Requirement 4.3 applies to hand elevators. 

SECTION 4.1 
RACK-AND-PINION ELEVATORS 

This Section applies to an elevator with a car raised 
and lowered by a pinion(s) on a rack. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
rack-and-pinion elevators. 

4.1.1 Hoistways, Hoistway Enclosures, and Related 
Construction 

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construc- 
tion shall conform to Part 2, except 2.7 (see 4,1.2) and 
2.8 (see 4.1.3). 

4.1.2 Machine Rooms and Machinery Spaces 

4.1.2.1 Motors, electrical control equipment, and 
other equipment used in conjunction with the elevator 
shall be permitted to be located within the hoistway 
and /or on the car. If it is in a separate machine room 
and /or machinery space, it shall conform to 2.7. 

4.1.2.2 In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, the 
controller shall be permitted to be located on the exterior 
of the hoistway wall or other approved location apart 
from the hoistway, elevator machine room, or elevator 
machinery space. A controller so located shall be avail- 
able to and used only by inspectors, maintenance per- 
sonnel, and repair personnel. 

In jurisdictions enforcing NBCC, the controller shall 
be permitted to be located on the exterior of the hoistway 
wall or other approved location apart from the hoistway, 
elevator machine room, or elevator machinery space. If 
the controller is located outside the hoistway, machine 
room, and machinery spaces, it shall be made accessible 
only to elevator personnel. 

4.1.2.3 A rack-and-pinion machine and its con- 
trols, if located on the car, shall be protected by a non- 
combustible enclosure to prevent accidental contact. 



Openwork noncombustible enclosure material shall be 
permitted to be used for rack-and-pinion machines 
located on top of the car, provided the openwork mate- 
rial rejects a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter. 

4.1.2.4 Access shall be provided to the rack-and- 
pinion machine for maintenance. Access panels to rack- 
and-pinion control equipment located in the car shall 
be provided with an electric contact and lock. The access 
panel shall be kept closed and locked. The electric con- 
tact shall be designed to prevent operation of the rack- 
and-pinion machine when the access panel is open. The 
lock shall not be operable by a key that will operate 
locks or devices for other purposes in the building. The 
key shall be available to, and used only by, inspectors, 
maintenance personnel, and repair personnel (see 8.1). 

4.1.3 Equipment in Hoistways or Machine Rooms 

Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts in the 
hoistway shall conform to 2.8, except that the main 
feeder of a rack-and-pinion machine located on the car 
shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway. 

4.1.4 Supports and Foundations 

The supports and foundations shall be designed to 
support all loads imposed by the elevator (including 
impact loading in the event of a safety application, stop 
by a speed-limiting device, or drive nut failure) in accor- 
dance with the building code. Allowable stresses for 
machinery and sheave beams or floors and their sup- 
ports shall be in accordance with 2.9,4. 

4.1.5 Emergency Doors 

Emergency doors meeting the requirements of 2.11.1 
shall be installed in the blind portion of the hoistway, 
except in elevators having a manually operated device 
that permits lowering the car at an automatically con- 
trolled speed to the nearest landing. 

4.1.6 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car 
Illumination 

The car enclosure, car doors and gates, and car illumi- 
nation shall conform to 2.14. 

4.1.7 Car Frames and Platforms 

The car frame and platform shall conform to the 
design and performance requirements of 2.15. 



138 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



4.1.8 Capacity and Loading 

The elevator shall conform to the capacity and loading 
requirements of 2.16. 

4.1.9 Car Safeties and Speed Governor 

The car shall be provided with a safety identified in 
2.17.5 or a rack-and-pinion safety. The safety shall be 
attached to the car frame or supporting structure. All 
car safeties shall be mounted on a single car frame and 
shall operate on one pair of guide members or on one 
vertical rack. 

The safety shall be located as required by 2.17.1, or if 
it is a rack-cind-pinion safety, shall be permitted to be 
located above or in the car, provided that the members 
to which they are fixed are part of the car frame and 
are designed to withstand the forces imposed. 

Rack-and-pinion safeties are safeties in which a freely 
rotating safety pinion, a governor, and a safety device 
shall be permitted to form an integral imit mounted in 
the car. The freely rotating pinion travels on a stationary 
rack mounted vertically on the hoist structure. The rotat- 
ing pinion drives the governor. When the speed of the 
car reaches the tripping value, the rotating governor 
actuates the safety device that, in turn, brings the car 
to a gradual stop. 

(07) 4.1.9.1 Stopping Distances. In jurisdictions not 
enforcing NBCC, stopping distances for rack-and-pinion 
safeties and the travel of the car measured from the 
governor tripping time to the full stop time shall not 
exceed the values based on rated speed given in Table 
4.1.9.1. 

In jurisdictions enforcing NBCC, stopping distances 
for rack-and-pinion safeties and the travel of the car 
measured from the governor tripping time to the full 
stop time shall not exceed the values based on rated 
speed given in Table 4.1.9.1. When calculating stopping 
distances, the kinetic energy from the driving imit shall 
be taken into account. 

4.1.10 Counterweights 

Counterweights, where provided, shall conform to 
2.21. 

4.1.11 Car Buffers 

Buffers shall conform to 2.22. Kinetic energy from 
the drive unit shall be taken into account in the design 
calculations. 

4.1.12 Guide Rails, Guide-Rail Supports, and 
Fastenings 

Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings 
shall conform to 2.23. 

4.1.13 Raclc-and-Pinion Driving JVIaciiine 

Rack-and-pinion-type drives shall conform to 2.24 
(except 2.24.1), and 4.1,13.1 through 4.1.13.6. 



4.1.13.1 The rack-and-pinion drive shall consist 
of one or more power-driven rotating pinions mounted 
on the car and arranged to travel on a stationary rack 
mounted on the supporting structure. The drive shall 
have at least one pinion, one rack, and two backup 
rollers, which shall act on the same section of rack as 
the drive pinion. Driving machines utilizing a two-sided 
rack, where two drive pinions are located so that they 
are opposite each other and act as backup rollers, shall 
be deemed to have met this requirement. 

4.1.13.2 The pinions and racks shall be of steel or 
of material having equivalent mechanical properties or 
better with a minimum factor of safety of 8 based on 
ultimate stress for the pinion and the rack. They shall be 
designed to corvform to AGMA 218.01, including surface 
hardening and an assumption of a minimum of 200 000 
life cycles. 

4.1.13.3 All moving parts of the driving machine 
shall be properly protected with solid or perforated 
metal that will reject a baU of 13 mm (0.5 in.) diameter 
and shall be securely fastened. 

4.1.13.4 The rack and pinion shall be so designed 
that the separation of the pinion from the rack in all 
directions in excess of 25% of the tooth depth of 6 mm 
(0.25 in.), whichever is the lesser, cannot occur. A guard 
shall be provided to prevent foreign material from lodg- 
ing between the teeth, and clearance between the mov- 
ing parts and the guard shall not exceed 5 mm 
(0.1875 in.). 

4.1.13.5 Rack sections shall be fastened to the 
supporting structure with a factor of safety of 5 based 
on ultimate stress, and with dowels at each joint. 

4.1.13.6 The manufacturer shall provide the mea- 
surement for checking tooth wear on pinion and rack. 
The measuring instruction shall be indicated on a metal 
plate securely fastened and conspicuously displayed on 
top of the car with letters not less than 3 mm 
(0.125 in.) high. 

4.1.14 Terminal Stopping Devices 

4.1.14.1 Normal and Final Terminal Stopping 
Devices. Normal and final terminal stopping devices 
shall be provided conforming to 2.25.1, 2.25.2, and 2.25.3, 
except 2.25.3.3. Normal and final terminal stopping 
devices shall be permitted to be located on the car and 
operated by cams attached to the hoistway structure. 

4.1.14.2 Emergency Terminal Speed-Limiting 
Devices. Emergency terminal speed-limiting devices 
shall conform to 2.25.4. 

4.1.15 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

4.1.15.1 Applicable Requirements. Operating 
devices and control equipment shall conform to 2.26 and 
to the following: 



139 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 4.1.9.1 


Maximum and Minimum Stopping Distances for Rack-and-Pinion Safeties Witli Rated Load 




SI Units 








Imperial Units 




Rated 


Maximum 
Governor 


Stopping Distance, 


Rated 


Maximum 
Governor 


Stopping Distance, 


Speed, 


Trip Speed, 




mm 


Speed, 
ft/min 


Trip Speed, 
ft/min 




n. 


m/s 


m/s 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


0.63 


0.88 


80.5 


1 639.3 


125 


175 


3.17 


64.54 


0.76 


1.06 


116.0 


1 703.5 


150 


210 


4.57 


67.07 


0.89 


1.37 


164.3 


1 791.2 


175 


250 


6.47 


70.52 


1.01 


1.42 


206.2 


1 866.9 


200 


280 


8.12 


73.50 


1.14 


1.56 


249.4 


1 945.3 


225 


308 


9.82 


76,59 


1.27 


1.71 


298.7 


2 034.2 


250 


337 


11.76 


80.09 


1.52 


2.00 


410.7 


2 236.4 


300 


395 


16.15 


88.05 


1.77 


2.29 


537.2 


2 466.5 


350 


452 


21.15 


97.11 


2.03 


2.59 


684,0 


2 731.0 


400 


510 


26.03 


107.52 


2.28 


2.86 


848.3 


3 029.9 


450 


568 


33.40 


119,29 


2.54 


3.17 


1027.1 


3 098.8 


500 


625 


40.44 


' 122.00 


3.04 


3.75 


1 439.9 


4 101.5 


600 


740 


56.69 


161.48 


3.55 


4.34 


1 922.3 


4 975.0 


700 


855 


75.68 


195.87 


4.06 


4.92 


2 473.9 


5 974.5 


800 


970 


97.40 


235.22 


4.57 


5.51 


3 095.4 


7 100.0 


900 


1.085 


121.87 


279.53 


5.06 


6.09 


3 786.3 


8 305.8 


1,000 


1.200 


149.07 


327.00 


5.58 


6.70 


4 581.4 


9 791.7 


1,100 


1,320 


180,37 


385.50 


6.09 


7.31 


5 452.3 


11 379.2 


1,200 


1.440 


214.66 


448.00 


6.60 


7.92 


6 400.8 


13 083.5 


1,300 


1,560 


252.00 


515.10 


7.11 


8.53 


7 421.1 


14 935.2 


1,400 


1,680 


292.17 


588.00 


7.62 


9.14 


8 068.3 


16 924.0 


1,500 


1.800 


333.40 


666.30 


8.12 


9.75 


9 642.8 


19 050.0 


1,600 


1,920 


381.61 


750.00 


8.63 


10.36 


10 942.3 


21313.1 


1,700 


2,040 


430.80 


839.10 


9.14 


10.97 


12 266.4 


23 713.4 


1,800 


2.160 


482.98 


933.60 


9.65 


11.58 


13 668.7 


26 750.9 


1.900 


2.280 


538.14 


1,053.50 


10.16 


12.19 


15 145.2 


28 925.5 


2,000 


2.400 


596.27 


1,138.80 



Where the rack-and-pinion machine and its controller 
are located on the car, the disconnecting means shall be 
located adjacent to the controller. Auxiliary disconnect 
means shall be provided at the main landing whenever 
the main power supply disconnect means (required by 
NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, as applicable; see Part 9) is 
mounted adjacent to the controller on the car. Auxiliary 
disconnect means shall be accessible to authorized per- 
sonnel only in order to be available for their protection 
and emergency use. 

4.1.15.2 Permitted Voltage. Voltage permitted in 
control and operating circuits shall not exceed 300 V on 
rack-and-pinion equipment. 

4.1.16 Emergency Operation and Signal Devices 

Emergency operation and signal service shall conform 
to 2.27. 

4.1.17 Layout Drawings 

Elevator layout drawings shall, in addition to the other 
data required by 2.28, indicate 



(a) the dimensions of the rack and location with 
respect to the guide rail 

(b) the magnitude of the loads on the rack imposed 
on the building structure 

4.1.18 Welding 

Welding shall conform to 8.8. 

SECTION 4.2 
SCREW-COLUMN ELEVATORS 

This Section applies to an elevator having an uncoun- 
terweighted car that is supported by a screw column 
and is raised and lowered by screw thread means. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
screw-column elevators. 

4.2.1 Hoistways» Hoistway Enclosures, and Related 
Construction 

Hoistways, hoistvyay enclosures, and related construc- 
tion shall conform to 2.1, 2.2, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, and 2.13. 



140 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



• 



4.2.2 Vertical Clearance and Runby for Cars 

4.2.2.1 Bottom Car Clearance. The bottom car clear- 
ance shall conform to 2.4.1, provided that, in the determi- 
nation of the required clearance, any undercar 
machinery and bracing that is located within 150 mm 
(6 in.) horizontally from the edge of the car platform or 
75 mm (3 in.) horizontally from the centerline of the 
guide rails is not considered. 

4.2.2.2 Minimum and Maximum Bottom and Top Car 
Runby. The minimum bottom and top car runby shall 
be not less than 

(a) 75 mm (3 in.) for rated speeds not exceeding 
0.5 m/s (100 ft/min) 

(b) 150 mm (6 in.) for rated speeds exceeding 0.5 m/s 
(100 ft/min) 

The maximum bottom and top car runby shall be not 
more than 600 mm (24 in.), 

4.2.2.3 Top Car Clearance. The top car clearance 
shall be not less than the sum of the following two items: 

(a) the top car runby 

(h) the height of the refuge space on top of the enclo- 
sure (see 4.2.2.4) or the clearance required for equipment 
projecting above the top of the car to prevent its striking 
any part of the overhead structure or equipment located 
in the hoistway, but in no case less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) 

4.2.2.4 Refuge Space on Top-of-Car Enclosure. A 

refuge space shall be provided on top of the car enclosure 
conforming to 2.4.12. 

4.2.3 Horizontal Car Clearance 

The horizontal car clearances shall conform to 2.5, 
except 2.5.1.2. 

4.2.4 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistway 

Where the space below the hoistway is used for a 
passageway, is occupied by persons, or if unoccupied, 
is not secured against unauthorized access, the require- 
ments specified in 4.2.4.1 through 4.2.4.3 shall be con- 
formed to. 

4.2.4.1 The screw column, and any associated 
framing, shall be supported by a structure of sufficient 
strength to support the entire load imposed upon it, 
including the impact if the drive nut should fail. 

4.2.4.2 The guide rails shall be supported by a 
structure of sufficient strength to withstand, without 
permanent deformation, the impact of a safety applica- 
tion with a fully loaded car. 

4.2.4.3 The buffers shall be supported by a struc- 
ture of sufficient strength to withstand, without perma- 
nent deformation, the impact resulting from buffer 
engagement by the car with its rated load at the maxi- 
mum speed in the down direction. 



4.2.5 Machine Rooms and Machinery Spaces 

The machine rooms, machinery spaces, and location 
of elevator components shall conform to 4.2.5.1 through 
4.2.5.6. 

4.2.5.1 Motors and other integral mechanical or 
electrical equipment shall be permitted to be located in 
machinery space within the hoistway, on the car, in the 
pit, or in a separate machine room or machinery space. 

4.2.5.2 The controller shall be permitted to be 
located on the car or on the exterior of the hoistway 
wall or other location apart from the hoistway, machine 
room, or machinery space. A controller so located shall 
be readily accessible for maintenance and inspection at 
all times. Controllers located apart from the hoistway, 
machine room, or machinery space shall be housed in 
a locked metal cabinet. The key shall be Group 1 Security 
(see 8.1). 

4.2.5.3 A separate machine room or machinery 
space, apart from the hoistway, shall conform to 2.7. 

4.2.5.4 A screw machine and its controls, if located 
on the car, shall be protected by a noncombustible enclo- 
sure to prevent accidental contact. Openwork enclosures 
of noncombustible material shall be permitted to be used 
for screw machines located on top of the car, provided 
the openwork material rejects a ball 13 mm (0,5 in.) in 
diameter. 

4.2.5.5 Access shall be provided to the screw 
machine for maintenance. Access panels to screw 
machines located on the car shall be provided with an 
electric contact and lock. The electric contact shall be 
designed to prevent operation of the screw machine 
when the access panel is open. The access panel shall 
be kept closed and locked. The key shall be Group 1 
Security (see 8.1). 

4.2.5.6 Where the screw machine is located in the 
pit, means shall be permanently provided in the pit for 
supporting the car and its frame or platform during 
repairs or adjustments. Clear headroom under the plat- 
form shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) when the 
car is landed on the supports. 

4.2.6 Equipment in Hoistways and Machine Rooms 

Electrical wiring, pipes, and ducts in hoistways, 
machine rooms, and machinery spaces shall conform to 
2.8, except, the main feeder of a screw-column elevator 
shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway if the 
screw machine is located in the hoistway, provided there 
is no intermediate access to the conductors between the 
disconnecting means and the termination at the motor 
or controller. 

4.2.7 Supports and Foundations 

4.2,7.1 The supports and foundations shall be 
designed to support all loads imposed by the elevator 



141 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



in accordance with the building code, including impact 
loading in the event of a car safety application, stop by 
a safety nut, or controlled descent by a speed-limiting 
device. The unit stresses in elevator-supporting mem- 
bers and their supports, based on two times the normal 
loading, shall not exceed those permitted for static load- 
ing in accordance with the requirements of the following 
standards: 

(a) AISC Book No. S326 or CAN/CSA-S16.1, which- 
ever is applicable (see Part 9) for structural steel 

(b) ANSI/ACI 318 or CAN3-A23.3, whichever is 
applicable (see Part 9) for reinforced concrete 

4.2.7.2 Where stresses due to loads, other than 
elevator loads supported on the beams, floor, or struc- 
ture, exceed those due to the elevator loads, 100% of the 
permitted stresses shall be permitted to be used. 

NOTE: In determining unit stresses, the maxinfium normal load- 
ing is doubled to take care of impact, accelerating stresses, etc. 

4.2.8 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car 
Illumination 

The car enclosure, car doors and gates, and car illumi- 
nation shaU conform to 2.14. 

4.2.9 Car Frames and Platforms 

The car frame and platform shall conform to 2.15, 
except 2.15.12 and 2.15.13. 

4.2.10 Capacity and Loading 

The capacity and loading shall conform to 2,16. 

4.2.11 Car Safeties and Speed Governor 

A car safety device and speed governor shall be pro- 
vided, which shall conform to the design and perform- 
ance requirements of 2.17 and 2.18, except as specified 
in 4.2.11.1 and 4.2.11.2. 

4.2.11.1 For elevators driven by an alternating- 
current squirrel cage induction motor and having a 
down speed of not more than 0.37 m/s (75 ft/min), the 
car safety and governor are not required if another safety 
device is provided to either 

(a) limit the down speed of the car with rated load 
to not over 0.87 m/s (175 ft/min) in the event of failure 
of the driving means; or 

(b) limit the fall of the elevator in the event of failure 
of the driving nut to a distance not exceeding 13 mm 
(0.5 in.), by utilizing a safety nut or other equivalent 
means. 

4.2.11.2 The capability of the alternate safety 
devices described in 4.2.11.1(a) and (b) to function as 
required shall be verified by engineering tests as 
described in 8.3.10. 

4.2.12 Safety Nut and Data Tag 

4.2.12.1 A safety nut is required on all screw 
machines that utilize a driving nut made of a material 



other than metal and shall be permitted to be provided 
on all screw machines. The safety nut shaU be made of 
metal and designed to withstand the impact without 
damage if the driving nut should fail. 

4.2.1 2.2 A metal data tag shaU be securely attached 
to each screw machine equipped with a safety nut bear- 
ing the following data: 

(a) date of installation of driving and safety nuts 

(b) spacing between driving and safety nuts 

4.2.12.3 The material and markings of the safety 
nut spacing data tag shall conform to 2.16.3.3, except 
that the height of the letters and figures shall be not less 
than 1.6 mm (0.0625 in.). 

4.2.13 Car Buffers 

Car buffers shall be provided, which conform to 2.22, 
except that solid bumpers shall be permitted to be used 
for elevators provided with a safety nut [see 4.2.11.1(b)] 
and having a maximum speed in the down direction of 

0.25 m/s (50 ft/min). 

4.2.14 Guide Rails, Guide-Rail Supports, and 
Fastenings 

Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings 
shall conform to 2.23, except 2.23.4.2, 2.23.4.3, 2.23.9.1, 
and 2.23.10. 

The fastening of guide rails to brackets or to the eleva- 
tor-supporting frame shall be by clips, welds, or bolts. 
The rail structure and the structural members to which 
it is attached shall withstand the forces specified in 
2.23.5.2, and the application of the car safety shall be 
within the deflection limits specified. 

4.2.15 Driving Machine and Screw Column 

The screw machine shall function to raise or lower 
the elevator car acting in conjunction with a screw col- 
umn that directly supports the elevator car. 

The screw column and machine shall conform to 
2.24.4, 2.24.5, 2.24.6, 2.24.8, 2.29, and 4.2.15.1 through 
4.2.15.11. 

4.2.15.1 Screws shall be made of steel. Nuts shall 
be made of bronze or other materials having an elonga- 
tion of at least 14% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.). 

4.2.15.2 Means shall be provided to maintain the 
screw in its vertical position under all conditions of 
operation. Screws suspended from their upper end shall 
be restrained at their lower end. 

4.2.15.3 A vertical casing, closed at the end, shall 
be provided to enclose and protect the screw column 
in cases where the screw column extends outside the 
hoistway and machine room. 

4.2.15.4 The screw column and nut and their 
attachments to the car frame, car platform, or other struc- 
ture shall provide sufficient strength to support the loads 



# 



142 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



imposed on these connections with a factor of safety of 5. 4.2.1 6 Terminal Stopping Devices 



4.2.15.5 Factors of safety for the driving machine, 
excluding the screw column and nut, their attachments 
to the car frame, car platform, or other structure, shall 
conform to 2,24.3, except that the load used in determin- 
ing the factor of safety shall be based on the total weight 
supported with rated load in the car. 

4.2.1 5.6 Screw machines of the indirect drive type 
shall conform to 2.24.9. The elevator shall be so designed 
that the elevator car, while carrying 125% of rated load 
and traveling at rated speed, shall decelerate and stop 
in the event the driving-belt: system or driving-chain 
system should break. 

4.2.15.7 Means shall be provided to prevent the 
disengagement of the nut from the screw column. This 
means shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent 
disengagement in the event of overtravel at full speed 
and without damage to any part of the elevator installa- 
tion. Any additional loads inriposed by this action shall 
also be considered in the computations made in accor- 
dance with 4.2,15.8. 

4.2.1 5.8 Where the screw column is a compression 
member, column formulas of 8.2.8.1.1 shall be used in 
the design with the words "screw colunm" substituted 
for the word "plunger" and: 

A = net cross-sectional area of screw at root of 
thread, mm^ (ii^.^) 

L = maximum free length of screw, mm (in.) 

K = radius of gyration of screw at root of thread, 
mm (in.) 

W = the total weight with rated load plus one- 
half the weight of the screw column, kg (lb) 
W/A = maximum allowable fiber stress 

4.2.15.9 Where the screw column is a tension 
member, the unit stress (considering the root dimension 
and any associated stress concentration and /or the 
reduced section at any joints in the screw) shall not 
exceed one-fifth of the ultimate strength of the material 
with a maximuni fiber stress not to exceed 124 MPa 
(18,000 psi). 

4.2.1 5.1 Positive mechanical means shall be pro- 
vided to prevent rotation or separation of sections of a 
multiple section screw column. 

4.2.15.11 Means shall be provided to permit 
authorized personnel from a position outside the eleva- 
tor car to raise or lower the car manually in the event 
of a power failure, unless emergency or standby power 
is provided, except that for private residence elevators 
and special purpose personnel elevators, means to allow 
a passenger within a stalled car to manually move the 
car to a landing is acceptable and no other means of 
moving the stalled car is required. 



4.2.16.1 Normal Terminal Stopping Devices. Nor- 
mal terminal stopping devices shall conform to 2.25.1 
and 2.25.2. 

4.2.16.2 Final Terminal Stopping Devices. Final ter- 
minal stopping devices, conforming to 2.25.3.1 and 
2.25.3.3, shall be provided for elevators having a rated 
speed exceeding 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min). Final terminal 
stopping devices shall be located in the hoistway and 
operated by cams attached to the car. 

Elevators having a rated speed of 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min) 
or less shall be designed so that the elevator car will be 
brought to a stop without damage to the elevator system 
in the event of overtravel of the elevator at either termi- 
nal due to a malfunction. 

4.2.16.3 Emergency Terminal Speed-Limiting 
Devices. Emergency terminal speed-limiting devices 
shall be installed where reduced stroke buffers are used 
(see 2.22.4.1.2). These devices shall conform to 2.25.4. 

4.2.17 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

4.2.17.1 Applicable Requirements. Operating 
devices and control equipment shall conform to the fol- 
lowing: 

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.1, Types of Operating Devices. 

(h) Requirement 2.26.1.4, Inspection Operation, 
except that a top-of-car operating devices are not 
required on private residence elevators and special pur- 
pose personnel elevators. Top-of-car operating devices 
are not required on any screw-column elevator if there 
is no mechanical or electrical equipment that requires 
maintenance from the top of the car. 

(c) Requirements 2.26.2.5, 2.26.2.7 through ll^oll^, 
2.262A2 through 2.26.2.15, 2.26.2.18 through 2.26.2.21, 
2.26.2.25, and 2.26.2,28, Electrical Protective Devices. 

(d) Requirement 2.26.3, Contactors and Relays in Crit- 
ical Operating Circuits. 

(e) Requirement 2,26.4, Requirements of Electrical 
Equipment and Wiring. 

(f) Requirement 2.26.5, System to Monitor and Pre- 
vent Automatic Operation of the Elevators With Faulty 
Door Contact Circuits. 

(g) Where the screw machine and its controller are 
located on the car, in the hoistway, or outside the 
hoistway, the disconnecting means shall be located adja- 
cent to the controller. 

(h) Requirement 2.26.6, Phase Protection of Motors. 

(i) Requirement 2.26.7, Installation of Capacitors or 
Other Devices to Make Electrical Protective Devices Inef- 
fective. 

(;■) Requirement 2.26.8, Release and Application of 
Driving-Machine Brakes. 

(k) Requirement 2.26.9, Control and Operating Cir- 
cuits. 



143 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(I) Requirement 2.26.11, Car Platform to Hoistway 
Door Sills Vertical Distance. 

(tn) Requirement 2.26.13, Operating Device Symbols. 

4.2.18 Emergency Operation and Signaling Devices 

Emergency operation and signaling devices shall con- 
form to 2.27. 

4.2.19 Layout Drawings 

Elevator layout drawings shall, in addition to the other 
data required by 2.28, indicate the following: 

(a) the material and dimensions of the screw column, 
including thread dimensions 

(h) the location and amovmt of the maximum loadings 
on the building structure 

4.2.20 Welding. All welding shall conform to 8.8. 

SECTION 4.3 
HAND ELEVATORS 

This Section applies to hand-operated elevators. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
hand elevators, 

4.3.1 Hoistways, Hoistway Enclosures, and Related 
Construction 

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construc- 
tion shall conform to Part 2, except for the following, 
which do not apply: 

2.1.3 Floor Over Hoistways 

2.1.6 Projections, Recesses, and Setbacks in 

Hoistway Enclosures 

2.2 Pits 

2.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweights 

2.4 Vertical Clearances and Runbys for Cars 
and Counterweights 

2.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clear- 
ances 

2.7.1.1 Fire- Resistive Construction 

2.7.1.2 Non-Fire-Resistive Construction 

2.7.2 Equipment in Machine Rooms 

2.7.4 Headroom in Machine Rooms and Over- 
head Machinery Spaces 

2.7.5.2 Temperature and Humidity 

2.8 Equipment in Hoistways and Machine 

Rooms 
2.10 Guarding of Equipment and Standard 

Railing 

2.11.2.1 Passenger Elevators 

2.1 1 .2.2 Freight Elevators 

2.11.3 Closing of Hoistway Doors 

2.11.7 Glass in Hoistway Doors 

2.11.9 Hoistway-Door Locking Devices and Power 
Operation 

2.12 Hoistway-Door Locking Devices and Elec- 

tric Contacts, and Hoistway Access Switches 



2.13 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and 

Car Doors 

4.3.2 Pits 

Pits are not required. 

4.3.3 Top Clearances 

4.3.3.1 Top Car Clearance. The top car clearance 
shall be not less than the sum of the following: 

(a) the bottom counterweight runby, if any 

(b) the stroke of the coimterweight buffer where a 
spring-type buffer is used (buffer not required for side- 
walk elevators) 

(c) 300 mm (12 in.) 

4.3.3.2 Top Counterweiglit Clearance. The top coun- 
terweight clearance shall be not less than the sum of the 
following: 

(a) the bottom car runby, if any 

(b) the stroke of the car buffer where a spring-type 
buffer is used (buffer not required for sidewalk elevators) 

(c) 150 mm (6 in.) 

4.3.4 Enclosures for Macliines and Control 
Equipment 

Elevator machines and their control equipment shall 
be permitted to be located inside the hoistway enclosure 
at the top or bottom without intervening enclosures or 
platforms. 

Machines of sidewalk elevators having a rise of not 
more than one floor, and having an opening into the 
building at the bottom terminal landing only, are not 
required to be enclosed. 

4.3.5 Overhead Beams and Supports, and Access to 
Machines and Sheaves 

4.3.5.1 Overhead Beams and Supports. Overhead 
beams and their supports shall conform to 2.9. 

4.3.5.2 Access to Machines and Sheaves. Adequate 
and permanent means of access shall be provided to 
machines and sheaves for maintenance and inspection 

(see 2.7.3). 

4.3.6 Hoistway Entrances 

4.3.6.1 Types of Entrances. Entrances will be of the 
following types: 

(a) self-closing or manually operated horizontally 
sliding or swinging, single section 

(b) self-closing or manually operated horizontally 
swinging, two section (Dutch type) with one section 
above the other and the lower section extending not less 
than 1 070 mm (42 in.) above the floor, and arranged to 
be opened only when the car is in the landing zone and 
after the upper section has been opened, and to be closed 
by the closing of the upper section 



(ED) 



144 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



• 



(c) manually operated vertically sliding counter- 
weighted single- or multi-section 

(d) manually operated vertically sliding biparting 
couj:\terbalanced 

(e) for sidewalk elevator doors in sidewalks or other 
areas exterior to the building, see 5.5.1.11.2 

4.3.6.2 Closing of Hoistway Doors. All doors shall 
be kept closed, except the door at the floor where the 
car is being operated or is being loaded or unloaded. 

Manually operated doors shall be equipped with 
approved devices to close them automatically when 
released by the action of heat. Self-closing doors 
equipped with hold-open devices shall be equipped 
with fusible links that will release the door in case of 
excessive heat. 

Landing doors shall be provided with mechanical 
locks so arranged that the car cannot leave the landing 
imless the door is closed. The lock or latch shall be 
arranged to ensure that the door is in a position to be 
locked when or before the car leaves the landing. 

These requirements do not apply to bottom landing 
doors of sidewalk elevators. 

4.3.6.3 Signs on Hoistway Doors. Every hoistway 
door shall have conspicuously displayed on the landing 
side in letters not less than 50 mm (2 in.) high the words: 
"DANGER-ELEVATOR-KEEP CLOSED." 

4.3.7 Hoistway Gates for Landing Openings 

Hoistway landing openings equipped with horizon- 
tally sliding or swinging doors shall also be provided 
with vertically sliding semiautomatic gates, not less than 
1 070 mm (42 in.) high and of a design that will reject 
a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter. Gates shall be so con- 
structed and guided as to withstand a lateral force of 
445 N (100 Ibf) concentrated at the center of the gate 
without being deflected beyond the line of the landing 
sill, and a force of 1 112 N (250 Ibf) without forcing the 
gate from its guides or without causing it to break or 
be permanently deformed. 

4.3.8 Hoistway Door and Hoistway Gate Locking 
Devices 

Hoistway doors and hoistway gates, where required, 
shall be provided with locking devices as specified in 
4.3.8.1 and 4.3.8.2. 

4.3.8.1 Door Latches. Hoistway doors shall be pro- 
vided with spring-type latches to hold them in the closed 
position. Such latches shall be capable of being released 
from both the hoistway and landing side, irrespective 
of the position of the car. 

4.3.8.2 Gate Locks. Hoistway gates required with 
horizontally sliding or swinging type hoistway doors 
(see 4.3.7) shall be provided with hoistway gate separate 
mechanical locks. 



(a) Type Required. Hoistway gate separate mechanical 
locks shall be of a type actuated only when the car is 
within the landing zone by a cam attached to the car. 

(b) General Design Requirements. The lock shall hold 
the gate in the closed position by means of gravity or 
by a restrained compression spring, or by both. 

(c) Closed Position. Hoistway gates provided with 
hoistway gate separate mechanical locks shaU be consid- 
ered to be in the closed position when the gate is within 
10 mm (0.375 in.) of contact with the landing sill. 

4.3.9 Car Enclosures 

Cars shall be enclosed on the sides not used for 
entrance. The deflection of the enclosure shall be not 
more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) when subjected to a force of 
334 N (75 Ibf) applied perpendicularly to the car enclo- 
sure at any point. The enclosure shall be secured to the 
car platform or frame in such a manner that it cannot 
work loose or become displaced in ordinary service. 

These requirenients do not iapply to sidewalk ele- 
vators. 

4.3.10 Use of Glass in Cars 

Glass shall not°be used in elevator cars, except as 
permitted in 2.14.1.8. 

4.3.11 Car Frames and Platforms 

Car frames and platforms shall be of metal or soimd 
seasoned wood designed with a factor of safety of not 
less than 4 for metal and 6 for wood, based on the rated 
load uniformly distributed. Connection between frame 
members of the car frame and the platform shall be 
riveted, bolted, or welded. 

Sidewalk elevator platforms shall be provided with 
steel bow irons or stanchions to open sidewalk doors 
or covers (see 5.5.1.15.2). 

4.3.12 Car Compartments 

Elevator cars upon which an operator is permitted to 
ride shall have not more than one compartment. 

4.3.13 Cars Counterbalancing One Another 

Elevator cars upon which persons are permitted to 
ride shall not be arranged to counterbalance each other. 

4.3.14 Capacity and Loading 

4.3.14.1 Minimum Rated Load. The rated load of 
hand elevators shall be not less than 240 kg/m^ 
(50 Ib/ft^) of inside net car area. 

4.3.14.2 Capacity Plate. A metal plate shall be fas- 
tened in a conspicuous place in the elevator car and 
shall bear the following information in not less than 
6 mm (0.25 in.) letters or numerals, stamped, etched, or 
raised on the surface of the plate: 

(a) rated load in kg (lb) 



145 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(b) the maximum nimiber of passengers to be carried 
based on 68 kg (150 lb) per person (if passenger elevator) 

(c) suspension data required by 4.3.16.5 

(ED) 4.3.15 Car Safeties 

Elevators having a rise of more than 4.6 m (15 ft) shall 
be provided with a car safety, attached to the underside 
of the car frame, capable of stopping and sustaining the 
car with rated load. 

The car safety device is not required to be operated 
by a speed governor, and is permitted to be of the instan- 
taneous type operated as a result of the breaking or 
slackening of the suspension members. 

Where the rise exceeds 12.5 m (40 ft), driving machines 
having hand-operated brakes shall also be equipped 
with an automatic speed retarder. 

4.3.16 Suspension Means 

4.3.16.1 Type and Number Required. Suspension 
means shall consist of not less than two wire ropes or 
chains. 

4.3.16.2 Factor of Safety. The factor of safety used 
in determining the size and number of the suspension 
members shall be not less than 5, based on the weight 
of the car and its rated load. 

4.3.16.3 Length of Suspension Members. The 

length of suspension members shall be such as to pro- 
vide the mirumum top car and counterweight clearances 
specified in 4.3.3. 

4.3.16.4 SecuringofDrum Ends, and Turns on Drum. 

Drum ends of suspension members shall be secured to 
the inside of the drum by clamps or babbitted sockets, 
and there shall be not less than one complete turn of 
the suspension members around the winding drum 
when the car or counterweight is resting on its buffers. 

4.3.16.5 Suspension Member Data. The capacity 
plate required by 4.3.14.2 shall show the size, rated ulti- 
mate strength, and material of the suspension members. 
The date of installation of the suspension members shall 
be shov^m on a metal tag attached to the suspension 
fastening. 

4.3.17 Counterweights 

4.3.17.1 Counterweight Construction. Sections of 
counterweights, whether carried in frames or not, shall 
be secured by at least two tie-rods passing through holes 
in the sections. The tie-rods shall have locknuts at each 
end, secured by cotter pins. 

4.3.18 Guide Rails and Fastenings 

4.3.18.1 Material and Finish. Car and counter- 
weights shall be provided with guide rails of steel or 



straight-grained seasoned wood free from knots, shakes, 
dry rot, or other imperfections. 

Guide rails for sidewalk elevators shall be of steel. 
The guiding surfaces of the guide rails for elevators 
equipped with car safeties shall be finished smooth. 

4.3.18.2 Strength of Rails and Fastenings. Guide 
rails shall be securely fastened with through bolts or 
clips of such strength, design, and spacing that 

(a) the guide rails and their fastenings shall not deflect 
more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) imder normal operation 

(b) the guide rails and their fastenings shall withstand 
the application of the safety, where provided, when stop- 
ping the car with rated load or when stopping the coun- 
terweight 

4.3.18.3 Extension of Guide Rails at Top and Bottom 
of Hoistway. Car and counterweight guide rails shall 
rest on suitable supports and extend at the top of the 
hoistway sufficiently to prevent the guide shoes from 
running off the guide rails in case the car or coiinter- 
weight travels beyond the terminal landings. 

4.3.19 Driving Machines and Sheaves 

4.3.19.1 Factors of Safety. The factors of safety, 
based on static loads, to be used in the design of driving 
machines and sheaves shall be not less than 8 for 
wrought iron or wrought steel and 10 for cast iron or 
other materials. 

4.3.19.2 Driving-Machine Bralces. Driving machines 
shall be equipped! with a hand brake or an automatic 
brake operating in either direction of motion of the ele- 
vator, and capable of stopping and holding the car with 
its rated load. When the brake has been applied, it shall 
remain in the "ON" position until released by the 
operator. 

4.3.20 Power Attachments 

Power attachments are prohibited. Elevators shall not 
be equipped with any means or attachment for applying 
electric or other power unless the elevator is perma- 
nently and completely converted into a power elevator 
confornung to all requirements of this Code for electric 
or hydraulic elevators. 

4.3.21 Layout Data 

The information provided on layout data shall con- 
form to 2.28. 

4.3.22 Inspections and Tests 

See 8.10 and 8.11 for the testing requirements for hand 
elevators. 



# 



146 



ASME A17,l-2007/CSA B44-07 



Parts 
Special Application Elevators 



m 



(07) SCOPE 

Part 5 applies to special application elevators as speci- 
fied in the following requirenirents: 

(a) Requirement 5.1 applies to inclined elevators. 

(b) Requirement 5.2 applies to limited-use /limited- 
application elevators. 

(c) Requirement 5.3 applies to private residence ele- 
vators. 

(d) Requirement 5.4 applies to private residence 
inclined elevators. 

(e) Requirement 5.5 applies to power sidewalk ele- 
vators. 

(f) Requirement 5.6 applies to rooftop elevators. 

(g) Requirement 57 applies to special purpose per- 
sonnel elevators in jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC. 

(h) Requirement 5.8 applies to shipboard elevators. 

(i) Requirement 5.9 applies to mine elevators in juris- 
dictions not enforcing NBCC. 

(j) Requirement 5.10 applies to elevators used for con- 
struction. 

SECTION 5,1 
INCLINED ELEVATORS 

Requirement 5.1 applies to inclined elevators (see 1.3) 
at other than private residences. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
inclined elevators. 

5.1.1 General Requirements 

5.1.1.1 Hoistw^ays, hoistway enclosures, and 
related construction shall conform to 5.1.2, 2.1 through 
2.13, and 2.29, except as modified by 5.1.1 through 5.1.6 
and 5.1.8 through 5.1.10. 

5.1.1.2 Machinery and equipment shall conform 
to 2.14 through 2.28, 8.8, and 8.9, except as modified by 
5.1.7, and 5.1.11 through 5.1.22. 

5.1.2 Construction of Hoistway and Hoistway 
Enclosures 



5.1.2.1 Fire-Resistive Construction. 

sures shall conform to 2.1.1.1. 



Hoistway enclo- 



5.1.2.2 Non-Fire-Resistive Construction. Where fire- 
resistive construction of the hoistway is not required by 
the building code, the hoistway shall be enclosed as 
specified in 5.1.2.2.1 through 5.1.2.2.4. 



5.1.2.2.1 Enclosures shall be of solid construction 
or openwork at least 2 140 mm (84 in.) high. If of open- 
work, it shall reject a ball 19 mm (0.750 in.) in diameter 
and be located a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) from the 
nearest moving component, or shall reject a ball 50 mm 
(2 in.) in diameter and be located a minimum of 914 mm 
(36 in.) from the nearest moving component. Areas of 
the enclosure located adjacent to landing entrances, and 
entrances of openwork construction, shall reject a ball 
13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. All enclosures shall be sup- 
ported and braced so as to deflect not more than 50 mm 
(2 in.) when subjected to a force of 444 N (100 Ibf ) applied 
horizontally over any 101,6 mm^ (4 in.^) area of the 
enclosure, nor shall the running clearance be reduced 
to less than 25 mm (1 in.). 

5.1.2.2.2 Those portions of the hoistway where 
the lowest member of the guides or any moving compo- 
nent is at least 2 440 mm (96 in.) above the surface below 
shall not be required to have any enclosure. Adjacent 
hoistway enclosures shall be joined xmder the guides. 
The underside of any area of the hoistway that crosses 
any passageway, such as a pathway or roadway, shall 
be enclosed. The enclosure shall be of solid or openwork 
construction, shall be full width, and shall extend 
beyond the area of the passageway on each side a dis- 
tance at least equal to one-half of the vertical distance 
between the lowest member of the guides and each edge 
of the passageway, respectively. If of openwork construc- 
tion, it shall reject a ball 19 mm (0.75 in.) in diameter. 

5.1 .2.2.3 Structures used to support the hoistway, 
and located outside of the enclosure, shall be designed 
to protect against climbing. 

5.1 .2.2.4 Acrylics, laminated glass, or wired glass 
used for enclosures and doors shall be of the following 
minimum thicknesses: 

(a) acrylics, 6 mm (0.250 in.) 

(b) laminated glass, 9.5 mm (0.375 in.) 

(c) wired glass, 6 mm (0.250 in.) 

5.1.3 Pits and Worl< Spaces 

5.1.3.1 Woric Space Dimensions. If not otherwise 
provided by the pit jdesign, each inclined elevator shall 
be provided with a work space below the guides 
extending to each side a minimum of 450 mm (18 in.) 
beyond the running line of the car or counterweight 
with a length in the direction of travel of not less than 



147 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



1 830 mm (72 in.) throughout the length measured from 
the top of the guides. Such work spaces shall be provided 
with stop switches and lighting conforming to 2.2.5 and 
2.2.6 and shall be equipped with a convenience outlet. 
On exterior installations, these devices shall be weather- 
proof. 

5.1.3.2 Pit and Work Space Water Removal. In addi- 
tion to the requirements of 2.2, the means provided for 
the removal of water on exterior installations shall be 
ample for weather-caused water collection. 

5.1.4 Counterweight Pit Guards 

Requirement 2.3.2.1 does not apply. 

5.1.5 Clearances for Cars and Counterweights 

5.1.5.1 Bottom Car Clearances. Inclined elevators 
shall conform to 2.4.1 or be provided with one of the 
following refuge spaces: 

(a) a minimum of 610 mm x 610 mm x 2 134 mm 
(24 in. X 24 in. X 84 in.) high 

(b) a minimum of 610 mm x 1 220 mm x 1 220 mm 
(24 in. X 48 in. X 48 in.) 

The refuge space shall be clear of the car and coimter- 
weight resting on their fully compressed buffers. This 
space shall be located to either side of, or toward the 
downhill end of, the pit in the direction of travel 

5.1.5.2 Top Car Clearance for Uncounterweighted 
Inclined Elevators. The top car clearance for inclined 
elevators of less than 20 deg inclination from the hori- 
zontal shall include the gravity stopping distance based 
on 115% of rated speed plus the top car clearance 
required by 2.4.7. 

5.1.6 Protection of Spaces in Line With the Direction 
of Travel 

Requirement 2.6 applies, except that where it states 
"below the hoistway," it shall mean "beyond the bottom 
terminal in the direction of travel." 

(a) Where 2.6.1 states "underneath," it shall refer to 
the location stated in 5.1.6. 

(b) Where 2.6.2 states "imderneath," it shall refer to 
the location stated in 5.1.6. 

5.1.7 Equipment in Hoistways and Machine Rooms 

5.1.7.1 Protection of Traveling Cables. Traveling 
cables shall be suitably protected against abrasion and 
fouling. This protection shall be permitted to be pro- 
vided in conjunction with that protection required by 
5.1.16.1. 

5.1.7.2 Weatherproofing. Components subject to 
corrosion on installations exposed to the weather shall 
be weatherproofed with either exterior coatings, anodiz- 
ing, plating, galvanizing, or noncorrosive metals or other 
accepted forms of protection. 



5.1.8 Protection of Hoistway Openings 

5.1.8.1 Hoistway Door Vision Panels. Where the 
hoistway enclosure is not required to be fire-resistive 
construction (see 5.1.2.2), hoistway door vision panels 
are not required to conform to 2.11.7. The hoistway 
entrances of such elevators shall be permitted to be pro- 
vided with vision panels of larger size, including com- 
plete door panels, made of any materials conforming to 
5.1.2.2.4 and ANSI Z97.1 or 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/ 
CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, and CAN/CGSB-12.12, 
whichever is applicable. 

5.1.8.2 Landing Sill Guards. When a car leveling 
device is provided, the landing sills shall be guarded in 
conforniance with 2.11.10.1. The guards shall also extend 
75 mm (3 in.) beyond the horizontal leveling zone. 

5.1.9 Restricted Opening of Hoistway or Car Doors 

Inclined elevators shall conform to 2.12.5, except that 
the unlocking zone shall not exceed 152 mm (6 in.) 
beyond the landing measured in the direction of travel. 

5.1.10 Access to Hoistways for Inspection, 
Maintenance, and Repairs 

5.1.10.1 Hoistway Access Switcfies. Elevators 
installed conforming to 5.1.2.2 are not required to con- 
form to 2.12.7, provided that 

(a) the means of access provides equivalent safety to 
that provided by 2.12.7 

(b) if the means of access includes entrance through 
the hoistway guarding, it is locked under Group 1 Secu- 
rity (see 8.1) and is equipped with a contact meeting 
the requirements of 2.26.2.26 

5.1.10.2 Worl^pace Access. Where a workspace is 
required by 5.1.3.1, access to the workplace shall comply 
with 2.12,7 or 5.1.10.1, except where a separate work- 
space access door is provided. 

5.1.10.3 Special Operating Requirements 

5.1.10.3.1 The speed under 2.12.7.3.2 shall be not 
greater than 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min). 

5.1.10.3.2 The movement of the car under 

2.12.7.3.6 shall be limited to the point where the platform 
guard is even with the uphill edge of the open 
hoistway door. 

5.1.10.3.3 The movement of the car under 

2.12.7.3.7 shall be limited to the point where the upper- 
most chassis member is even with the downhill edge of 
the open hoistway door. 

5.1.11 Car Enclosures 

5.1.11.1 Car Emergency Exits 

5.1.11.1.1 Top Emergency Exits. Requirement 
2.14.1.5 applies only where installations are at an angle 



(07) 



• 



148 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



greater than 49 deg and where an unhill end emergency 
exit is not provided. 

5.1.11.1.2 Uphill End Emergency Exit. If the instal- 
lation arrangement is such that the car door cannot be 
used for an emergency exit when the car is located 
between landings, the car shall be provided with an 
emergency exit located in the uphill end of the car. The 
emergency exit door shall 

(a) be of the hinged type 

(b) open only into the car 

(c) extend from the floor or base moulding to a clear 
height of not less than 1 524 mm (60 in.) and shall pro- 
vide a clear width of not less than 356 mm (14 in.) when 
the door is open 

(d) be provided with a locking means with a nonre- 
movable handle that can be opened only from the exte- 
rior of the car. The device shall be permitted to be 
openable from the interior of the car by use of a special 
key which shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 

(e) be provided with an electric contact, which shall 
not permit the car to start or run, except londer inspection 
conditions as provided for in 5.1.10.1 and 5.1.10.3. The 
contact shall conform to the following: 

(1) it shall not be accessible from the inside of 
the car 

(2) it shall be positively opened by a lever or other 
device attached to and operated by the door 

(3) the contacts shall be maintained in the open 
position by the action of gravity or by a restrained com- 
pression spring, or both, or by positive mechanical 
means 

(f) be of the same material and construction as 
required for the car enclosure. 

5.1.11.1.3 Emergency Exit Unloading Platforms. 

An emergency exit unloading platform is not required. 
If provided, an emergency exit urJoading platform shall 
be attached to the car and shall be retractable and opera- 
ble only from the exterior of the car. It shall be located 
only on the uphill end of the car and shall be provided 
with an electric contact conforming to 5.1.11.1.2(e) and 
shall only be made in the retracted position of the 
platform. 

5.1.11.2 Car Enclosure Tops. Requirement 2.14.1.6 
does not apply. However, if equipment is placed or 
installed on inclined elevators that will require servicing 
from the top of the car or a car top emergency exit 
is provided, the car top shall conform to 2.14.1.6 and 
2.14.1.7. 

5.1.11.3 Glass and Plastic for Cars and Doors. Glass 
and safety plastic used in car or for doors shall be lami- 
nated glass or safety plastic conforming to the require- 
ments of ANSI Z97.1 or 16 CFR Part 1201.1 or 1202.2; 
or, be laminated glass or safety glass or safety plastic 
conforming to the requirements of CAN /CGSB- 12.1, 



CAN/CGSB-12.11, and CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is 
applicable. 

5.1.11.4 Collapsible Gates. Requirement 2.14.6.3 
shall not apply. Collapsible-type gates are not permitted. 

5.1.12 Car Frames and Platforms 

5.1.12.1 Materials for Car Frames and Platform 
Frames. Car frames and platform frames shall conform 
to 2.15.6.1, except that cast iron shall not be used for 
guiding supports or guide shoes. 

5.1.12.2 Platform Guards (Aprons). The entrance 
side of the platform shall be provided with smooth metal 
guard plates of not less than 1.5 mm (0.059 in.) thick 
steel, or material of equivalent strength and stiffness, 
reinforced and braced to the car platform and conform- 
ing to 5.1.12.2.1 through 5.1.12.2.5. 

5.1.12.2.1 It shall extend not less than the full 
width of the widest hoistway door opening plus the 
leveling zone in each direction. 

5.1.12.2.2 It shall have a straight vertical face in 
the direction of travel throughout the length described 
in 5.1.12.2.1 plus 75 mm (3 in.). 

5.1.12.2.3 The ends of the guard in each direction 
of travel shall be bent back at an angle of not less than 
60 deg nor more than 75 deg from the face provided for 

in 5.1.12.2.2. 

5.1.12.2.4 The straight vertical facing wall shall 
extend a minimum of 25 mm (1 in.) below the landing 
sills at any position above or below the landing to the 
extent of the leveling zones. 

5.1.12.2.5 The guard plate shall be able to with- 
stand a constant force of not less than 667 N (150 Ibf) 
applied at right angles to and at any position on its 
face without deflecting more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) and 
without permanent deformation. 

5.1.12.2.6 Platform Stringers. Platform stringers 
made of wood are not permitted. 

5.1.13 Capacity and Loading 

5.1.13.1 Benches or Seats. The inside net platform 
area (see Table 2.16.1) shall be permitted to be increased 
by an amoimt not greater than 50% of the area of the 
bench or seat, when a permanently located and nonfold- 
ing bench or seat is installed. 

5.1.13.2 Data Plates. Data plates shall be located 
on the uphill member of the car chassis (frame). 

5.1.14 Car and Counterweight Safeties 

5.1.14.1 Requirements for Safeties. Car and coun- 
terweight safeties shall meet the requirements of 2.17, 
except as modified by 5.1.14.2, 5.1.14.3, 5.1.15, and 
5.1.18.4. 



149 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA BA4-07 



Table 5.1.14.2 Minimum and Maximum Stopping Distances at Given Angles From Horizontal 



51 Units 




Governor 
Trip, 
m/s 




Minimum and Maximum 


1 Stopping Distance 


, mm, at Angle From Horizontal, deg 




Rated 

Speed, 

m/s 




30 




45 






60 


70 




Min. 


Max. 


Min. 




Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


0-0.63 


0.90 


139 


453 


114 




417 


81 


369 


55 


333 


0.75 


1.05 


201 


541 


164 




489 


116 


420 


79 


367 


0.87 


1.25 


285 


661 


232 




586 


164 


489 


113 


415 


1.00 


1.40 


357 


765 


292 




671 


206 


549 


141 


456 


1.12 


1.55 


432 


872 


353 




758 


249 


611 


171 


498 


1.25 


1.70 


517 


993 


422 




858 


299 


681 


204 


546 


1.50 


2.00 


711 


1 270 


580 




1 084 


410 


840 


281 


655 


1.75 


2.30 


930 


1 584 


760 




1 340 


537 


1 022 


368 


780 


2.00 


2.55 


1 185 


1948 


967 




1637 


684 


1 232 


468 


923 


2.25 


2.90 


1 469 


2 355 


1 200 




1970 


848 


1467 


580 


1084 


2.50 


3.15 


1 779 


2 798 


1453 




2 331 


1027 


1 723 


700 


1259 


3.00 


3.70 


2 494 


3 820 


2 036 




3 166 


1 440 


2 313 


985 


1663 


3.50 


4.30 


3 329 


5 015 


2 718 




4 141 


1 922 


3 003 


1315 


2 134 


4.00 


4.85 


4 285 


6 382 


3 499 




5 257 


2 474 


3 792 


1 692 


2 674 


Imperial Units 




Governor 
Trip, 

ft/min 




Minimum and Maximum Stopping Distance, in., at Angle From Horizontal, deg 




Rated 
Speed, 

ft/min 




30 




45 






60 


70 




Min. 


Max. 


Min. 




Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


0-125 


175 


5.5 


18.0 


4.5 




16.5 


3.5 


14.5 


2.5 


13.0 


150 


210 


8.0 


21.5 


6.5 




19,5 


5.0 


17.0 


3.5 


14.5 


175 


250 


11.5 


26.0 


9.5 




23.0 


6.5 


19.5 


4.5 


16.5 


200 


280 


14.5 


30.0 


11.5 




26.5 


8.5 


22.0 


6.0 


18.0 


225 


308 


17.5 


34.5 


14.0 




30.0 


10.0 


24.0 


7.0 


20.0 


250 


337 


20.5 


39.0 


17.0 




34.0 


12.0 


27.0 


8.5 


21.5 


300 


395 


28.0 


50.0 


23.0 




43.0 


16.5 


33.0 


11.5 


26.0 


350 


452 


37.0 


62.5 


30.0 




53.0 


21.5 


40.5 


14.5 


31.0 


400 


510 


47.0 


77.0 


38.5 




64.5 


27.0 


48.5 


18.5 


36.5 


450 


568 


58.0 


93.0 


47.5 




77.5 


33.5 


58.0 


23.0 


43.0 


500 


625 


70.5 


110.5 


57.5 




92.0 


40.5 


68.0 


28.0 


50.0 


600 


740 


98.5 


150.5 


80.5 




125.0 


57.0 


91.0 


39.0 


65.5 


700 


855 


131.5 


197.5 


107.5 




163.0 


76.0 


118.5 


52.0 


84.5 


800 


970 


169.0 


251.5 


138.0 




207.0 


97.5 


149.5 


67.0 


105.5 



• 



5.1.14.2 Functions and Stopping Distance of Safe- 
ties. The safety device, or the combined safety devices 
where furnished, shall be capable of stopping and sus- 
taining the entire car with its rated load from governor 
tripping speed (see also 2.16.8) with an average hori- 
zontal retardation, measured over the total retardation 
time, not exceeding 2.46 m/s^ (8.05 ft/s^). 

Type B safeties shall stop the car with its rated load 
from governor tripping speed within range of the mini- 
mum and maximum stopping distances as determined 
by the formulas in 8.2.11. Table 5.1.14.2 shows the mini- 
mum and maximum stopping distances for various gov- 
ernor tripping speeds, when tested in conformance with 
8.10 and 8.11. 



5.1.14.3 Limits of Use of Various Types of Safeties 

5.1.14.3.1 Type A (Instantaneous) Safeties 

(a) Type A safeties shall not be used on inclined eleva- 
tors having a rated speed in excess of 0.64 m/s 
(125 ft/min) or with a governor tripping speed in excess 
of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min). 

(b) Type A safeties that develop horizontal retarda- 
tions exceeding 2.46 m/s^ (8.05 ft/s^) shall not be used 
on inclined elevators. 

5.1.14.3.2 Type C Safeties. Type C safeties shall 
conform to 2.17.8.2, except as modified by the following: 



150 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 5.1.17.2 Spring Buffer Stroke 



Rated Car Speed* 
m/s (ft/min) 



Stroke, 
mm (in.) 



0.38 or less (75 or less) 63 (2.5) 

0.38-0.63 (75-125) 125 (5.0) 



(a) T)q?e C safeties that develop horizontal retarda- 
tions exceeding 2.46 m/s^ (8.05 ft/s^) shall not be used 
on inclined elevators. 

(b) The oil buffers shall conform to all requirements 
specified in 2.22 for oil buffers, except that the stroke 
shall be based on governor tripping speed and on an 
average horizontal retardation not exceeding 2.46 m/s^ 
(8.05 ft/s^). 

5.1.15 Speed Governor Drive 

5.1.15.1 Rope-Driven Governors. Rope-driven gov- 
ernors are not required. 

5.1.15.2 Other Driving Means of Governors. The 

means used to drive the speed governor shall be positive 
and fail-safe. 

5.1.15.3 Counterweight-Mounted Governor. Where 
a counterweight operates on guide rails, which are 
located below the car guide rails and the governor, if 
required, is located on the counterweight, the overspeed 
switch shall be permitted to be omitted. 

5.1.16 Suspension Ropes and Their Connections 

5.1.16.1 Protection of Ropes. Suspension, governor, 
and compensation ropes shall be protected against 
abrasion. 

5.1.17 Car and Counterweight Buffers 

5.1.17.1 Type and Location. The maximum rated 
speed of inclined elevators for the use of spring-type 
buffers shall be 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min). 

5.1.17.2 Spring Buffer Strolce. The stroke of a spring 
buffer shall be not less than as specified in Table 5.1.17.2. 

5.1.17.3 Vertical and Horizontal Components of 
Velocity. The speed shall be considered as having verti- 
cal and horizontal components defined as in Fig. 5.1.17.3. 

5.1.17.4 Oil Buffers. Oil buffers shall conform to 
2.22.4, except as modified by 5.1.17.4.1 through 
5.1.17.4.5. 

5.1.17.4.1 The average horizontal retardation at 
buffer engagement, with rated load in the car, measured 
over the stopping distance, shall not exceed 2.46 m/s^ 
(8.05 ft/s^). 

5.1.17.4.2 In 2.22.4.1.1, 2.22.4.1.2, and 2.22.4.2, 
the phrase "an average retardation of not more than 



Fig. 5.1.17.3 Vertical and Horizontal Components of 
Velocity 



Vy= -l/sin a 
Vf^^ l/cos a 




a = angle of travel above horizontal 
V= linear velocity of elevator in direction of travel 
Vfj = horizontal component of velocity 
Vy= vertical component of velocity 



9.81 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^)" is replaced with the phrase "an 
average horizontal retardation not in excess of 2.46 m/s^ 
(8.05 ft/s^)." 

5.1.17.4.3 In 2.22.4.2, the phrase "peak retarda- 
tion greater than 24.54 m/s^ (80.5 ft/s^)" is replaced with 
the phrase "peak horizontal retardation greater than 
6.13 m/s^ (20.1 ft/s^)." 

5.1.17.4.4 Table 2.22.4.1 is replaced with Table 
5.1.17.4.4, which indicates the minimum buffer strokes 
for the most usual rated speeds and selected angles of 
inclination. 

5.1.17.4.5 The minimum buffer strokes for 
speeds differing from the values in Table 5.1.17.4.4 shall 
be based on the formula in 8,2.10. 

5.1.18 Car and Counterweight Guide Rails, Guide- 
Rail Supports, and Fastenings 

5.1.18.1 Guide-Rail Section. The guide-rail sec- 
tions, in conjunction with the guiding members, shall 
be so designed as to retain the car and counterweights 
on the rails in case of upthrust or side thrust force, such 
as caused by foreign objects in or on the guide rail, or 
from the effects of wind, frost, or snow. 

5.1.18.2 Maximum Load on Rails. On inclined eleva- 
tors where a single system of guide rails or brackets is 
employed, the sum of the car and counterweight forces 
shall be used to determine the maximum acceptable 
rated load. The guide rails, guide-rail brackets, and their 
supports shall be capable of resisting the bending loads 
of a fully loaded car and its coimterweight with a total 
deflection not in excess of 3 mm (0.125 in.). 

5.1.18.3 Guide-Rail Surfaces. Guide rails shall con- 
form to 2.23.6, except that guide rails for inclined eleva- 
tors with Type A and Type C safeties shall not be 



151 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Table 5.1.1 7A4 Minimum Oil Buffer Strokes at Given Angle From Horizontal 







SI Units 










Imperial Units 






Rated 
Speed, 

m/s 




Minimum Strol<e, 


mm, 




Rated 
Speed, 
ft/min 




Minimum Stroke, 


in., 






at Angle From Horizontal, deg 






at Angle From Horizontal, deg 




15 


30 


45 


60 


70 


15 


30 45 


60 


70 


1.00 


269 


241 


197 


139 


95 


200 


10.58 


9.49 7.74 


5.48 


3.75 


1.12 


340 


305 


249 


176 


120 


225 


13.39 


12.00 9.80 


6.93 


4.74 


1.25 


420 


376 


307 


217 


149 


250 


16.53 


14.82 12.10 


8.56 


5.85 


1.50 


605 


542 


443 


313 


214 


300 


23.80 


21.34 17.43 


12.32 


8.43 


1.75 


823 


738 


602 


426 


291 


350 


32.40 


29.05 23.72 


16.77 


11.47 


2.00 


1075 


964 


787 


556 


380 


400 


42.32 


37.94 30.98 


21.90 


14.98 


2.25 


1360 


1 220 


996 


704 


482 


450 


53.56 


48.02 39.21 


27.72 


18.96 


2.50 


1 679 


1 506 


1 229 


869 


595 


500 


66.12 


59.28 48.40 


34.23 


23.41 


3.00 


2 418 


2 168 


1 770 


1 252 


856 


600 


95.21 


85.37 69.70 


49.29 


33.71 


3.50 


3 292 


2 951 


2 410 


1 704 


1166 


700 


129.60 


116.19 94.87 


67.08 


45.89 


4.00 


4 299 


3 855 


3 147 


2 226 


1 522 


800 


169.27 


151.76 123.91 


87.62 


59.93 



required to have finished guiding surfaces. 

5.1.18.4 Safety Guide Rail. A single guide rail shall 
be permitted to be provided for application of the safety 
and for lateral guiding. It shall be located between the 
main guide rails. 

5.1.19 Driving Machines 

Driving machines shall conform to 2.24, except as 
modified by 5.1.19.1. 

5.1.19.1 Winding Drum Machines. Winding drum 
machines without counterweights shall be permitted to 
be used for inclined elevators when the net rated load 
(sine of the angle of inclination times the gross load) 
does not exceed 454 kg (1,000 lb) and the distance of 
travel does not exceed 38 m (125 ft), and the rated speed 
does not exceed 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min). 

5.1.20 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

5.1.20.1 Inspection Operation. Requirements 
2.26.1.1 through 2.26.1.4 apply, except as referenced and 
modified in 5.1.20. Where car top is stated there, it shall 
also mean the uphill end emergency exit exterior inspec- 
tion device location. Where an inspection operating 
device is located at the uphill exit, it is permitted to 
omit one on the car top. 

5.1.20.2 Operating Requirements 

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.3. The speed shall be limited to 
not exceed 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min). 

(b) Requirement 2.26.1.4.1(d)(1). The speed shall be 
limited to not exceed 0.64 m/s (125 ft/min). 

5.1.20.3 Top-of-Car Stop Switch. The top-of -car stop 
switch is not required except where access is provided 
to the top of car. 



5.1.20.4 Machine Room Inspection. Machine room 
inspection shall not be provided. 

5.1.20.5 Slacic Rope Device. Slack rope devices shall 
be provided on traction driving machines of elevators 
having an inclination of less than 35 deg from horizontal. 
The devices shall be located on both the car and counter- 
weight sides of the driving machine and conform to 
2.26.2.1. 

5.1.20.6 Horizontal Retardations at Emergency Elec- 
trical Stopping. Horizontal retardations induced on the 
car due to the emergency stopping of an inclined eleva- 
tor, caused by the removal of electrical power, shall meet 
the requirements of 5.1.20.6.1 and 5.1.20.6.2. 

5.1.20.6.1 The average horizontal retardation, 
measured over the total retardation time, shall not 
exceed 0.98 m/s^ (3.22 ft/s^). 

5.1.20.6.2 No peak horizontal retardation value 
exceeding 0.98 m/s^ (3.22 ft/s^) shall have a time dura- 
tion exceeding 0.125 s. 

5.1.21 Emergency Operations and Signaling Devices 

5.1.21.1 Emergency Signal and/or Communica- 
tions. Each elevator shall be equipped with an alarm 
button or switch in the car operating station and an 
alarm device mounted in a location that shall be readily 
available to a person who is normally situated in the 
viciiuty when the elevator is in use; or a means of voice 
cormnunication to a receiving station always attended 
when the installation is in use. If the alarm device or 
means of voice communication is normally activated by 
utility power supply, it shall be backed up by a manual 
or battery operated device. 



152 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



• 



5.1.22 End-Loading Inclined Elevators 

5.1.22.1 Additional Requirements. Inclined eleva- 
tors that load and unload passengers through car doors 
located at the uphill and downhill ends of the car shall 
conform to the following additional requirements of 
5.1.22. 

5.1.22.2 Speed. The rated speed shall not exceed 

0.50 m/s (100 ft/min). 

5.1.22.3 Buffers. The buffers shall be oil type only, 
installed at both terminals, conforming to 5.1.17.4. 

Requirement 2.22.4.8 does not apply to end-loading 
inclined elevators. The buffer shall be compressed to 
within the overtravel distance when the car is level with 
the terminal landing. Each buffer shall be provided with 
a switch that shall prevent operation of the elevator by 
means of the normal operating device in the direction 
of travel towards that buffer unless it has returned to at 
least 90% of its stroke. 

5.1.22.4 Final Terminal Stopping Devices. The final 
terminal stopping devices shall conform to 2.25.3.1 and 
2.25.3.2, except for 2.25.3.2(a) and shall be located to 
operate within the reduced runby of end-loading 
inclined elevators. 

5.1 .22. 5 Retractable Sills. End-loading inclined ele- 
vators shall be permitted to be equipped with retractable 
siU conforming to the following: 

(a) They shall be designed so as to function without 
creating any pinching or shearing hazards. 

(b) They shall be equipped with return switches con- 
forming to 2.25.2.1.1 and 2.25.2.1.3, which shall prevent 
the operation of the car in the direction of travel toward 
that terminal unless the retractable sill returns to its 
normal position. 

5.1.22.6 Loclcing Car Doors. Car door locking 
devices on end-loading inclined elevators shall conform 

to 2.14.4.2. 

5.1.23 Special Requirements for Inclined Elevator 
Layout Drawings 

The forces and loads covered by 2.28.1(b), (c), and (f) 
shall be calculated based on the angle of inclination from 
the horizontal. 



SECTION 5.2 
LIMITED-USE/LIMITED-APPLICATION ELEVATORS 

This Section applies to limited-use /limited-applica- 
tion elevators (see 1.3). 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
Umited-use/limited-application elevators. 



5.2.1 Electric Limited-Use/Limited-Application 
Elevators 

5.2.1.1 Construction of Hoistway and Hoistway Enclo- 
sures. The construction of hoistway enclosures shall 
conform to lA, except as modified by 5.2.1.1.1 and 
5.2.1.1.2. 

5.2.1.1.1 Requirement 2.1.1.4 does not apply. Ele- 
vators shall be installed in a single hoistway. 

5.2.1.1.2 Requirement 2.1.3 applies only when a (07) 
floor is provided at the top of hoistway. 

(a) Requirement 2.1.3.1.1. If a floor is provided, it shall 
be permitted to be of wood. 

(b) Requirement 2. 1 .3.2 does not apply. The floor shall 
be designed in accordance with other floors in the build- 
ing. Where the machine is to be supported by the 
machine room floor, the floor shall be designed in accor- 
dance with 2.9.4 and 2.9.5. 

(c) Requirement 2.1.3.3. The floor shall be permitted 
to be of wood. 

5.2.1.2 Pits. Pits shall conform to 2.2. 

5.2.1.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweiglits. 

The location and guarding of counterweights shall con- 
form to 2.3, except as follows: Where counterweight 
guards conforming to 2.3.2 are not provided, Hghtweight 
chains, approximately 600 mm (24 in.) in length shall 
be attached to the bottom of the coujiterweight. These 
chains shall be spaced at 150 mm (6 in.) intervals to 
provide a warning to a person in the path of the descend- 
ing counterweight. 

5.2.1.4 Vertical Clearances and Runbys for Cars and 
Counterweights. Bottom and top car clearances and 
runbys for cars and counterweights shall conform to 2.4, 
except as specified in 5.2.1.4.1 through 5.2.1.4.4. 

5.2.1.4.1 Bottom Car Clearance. Elevators shall 
conform to 2.4.1 or 5.2.1.4.2. 

5.2.1.4.2 Alternative to Bottom Car Clearance (07) 
Requirements. When the car rests on its solid bumper 

or fully compressed buffer, no part of the car or any 
equipment attached thereto shall strike the pit or any 
part of the equipment located therein. 

5.2.1.4.2.1 Where a machinery space or control 
space is not located in the pit, a nonremovable means 
shall be provided to mechanically hold the car above 
the pit floor to provide an area in the pit for maintenance 
and inspection, conforming to the following: 

(a) It shall hold the car at a height of not less than 
900 mm (35 in.) nor more than 2 000 mm (79 in.) above 
the pit floor and not less than 300 mm (12 in.) above 
the bottom landing sill, as measured from the underside 
of the car platform. 

(b) The means shall be so designed and constructed 
as to stop and hold the car at governor tripping speed 
with rated load in the car. 



153 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(c) It shall not cause the stresses and deflections in 
car frame and platform members and their connections 
to exceed the limits specified in 2.15.10 and 2.15.11. 

(d) If the means does not automatically activate when 
the lowest hoistway door is opened with the car not at 
the landing 

(1) it shall be capable of being operated without 
complete bodily entry into the pit. 

(2) a sign conforming to ANSI Z35.1, or 
CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), 
shall be conspicuously displayed inside the hoistway, 
which shall include a warning that there is an insufficient 
bottom car clearance and instructions for operating the 
device. The letters shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.) 
in height. 

5.2.1.4.2.2 Where a machinery space or control 
space is located in the pit, 2.7.5.2 applies. 

5.2.1.4.3 Top Car Clearance Requirements. Top car 

clearance shall conform to 2.4 or 5.2.1.4.4. 

5.2.1.4.4 Alternative to Top Car Clearance Require- 
ments. In existing buildings where the top car clearance 
conforming to 5.2,1.4.3 cannot be provided, the follow- 
ing shall apply: 

(a) When the car has reached its maximum upper 
movement, no part of the car or any equipment attached 
thereto, other than as permitted by 5.2.1.4.4(b), shall 
strike the overhead structure or any part of the equip- 
ment located in the hoistway 

(b) Nonremovable means shall be provided to 
mechanically and electrically prevent upward move- 
ment of the car to provide an area above the car for 
maintenance and inspection, conforming to the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) The means shall prevent upward movement of 
the car to provide a refuge space conforming to 2.4.12. 

(2) The means shall be so designed and constructed 
as to stop upward movement of the car at governor- 
tripping speed with and without rated load in the car. 

(3) The means shall not cause the stresses and 
deflections in car frame and platform members and their 
connections to exceed the limits specified in 2.15.10 and 
2.15.11. 

(4) A sign conforming to ANSI Z35.1, or CAN/ 
CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), shall be 
conspicuously displayed inside the hoistway which shall 
include a warning that there is an insufficient top car 
clearance and instructions for operating the means. The 
letters shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.) in height. 

(5) The means shall be capable of being operated 
without complete bodily entry into the hoistway. 

(6) The force to actuate the means shall not require 
more than 90 N (20 Ibf). 

(7) The top-of-car operating device shall not allow 
car movement until the means is actuated. 



5.2.1.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweiglit Clear- 
ances. Horizontal car and counterweight clearances 
shall conform to 2.5. 

5.2.1.6 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistways. The 

protection of spaces below hoistways shall conform to 
2.6. 

5.2.1.7 Machinery Spaces, Machine Rooms, Control (07) 
Spaces, and Control Rooms. Machinery spaces, 
machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms shall 
conform to 2.7, except as modified by 5.2.1.7.1. Equip- 
ment shall be permitted to be located in rooms con- 
taining other equipment essential to the operation of 

the building. 

NOTE: See 5.2.1.1.2 for floors of machine room and machinery 
spaces over or at the i:op of hoistway. 

5.2.1.7.1 Requirement 2.7.4.1 does not apply. The 
minimum headroom shall be 2 000 mm (79 in.). 

5.2.1.8 Equipment in Hoistways, Machinery Spaces, (07) 
Machine Rooms, Control Spaces, and Control Rooms. 

Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts in 
hoistways, machu|Lery spaces, machine rooms, control 
spaces, and control rooms shall comply with 2.8. 

5.2.1.9 Machinery and Sheave Beams, Supports, and 
Foundations. Machinery and sheave beams, supports, 
and foundations shall conform to 2.9. 

5.2.1.10 Guarding. The guarding of exposed auxil- 
iary equipment shall conform to 2.10. 

5.2.1.11 Protection of Hoistway Landing Openings. 

The protection of hoistway landing openings shall con- 
form to 2.11, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.11.2. Entrances shall be of the hori- 
zontal slide or single section swing type. 

(b) Requirement 2.11.10.3 does not apply. 

(c) Requirement 2.11.12 does not apply. 

(d) Requirement 2.11.13.5 does not apply. , 
■(e) Requirement 2.11.15.3 does not apply 

5.2.1.12 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Electric (p7) 
Contacts, and Hoistway Access Switches. Hoistway 
door locking devices, hoistway door and car door elec- 
tric contacts, and hoistway access switches shall conform 

to 2.12, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.12.1.5 does not apply. Combination 
mechanical locks and electric contacts are not permitted. 

(b) Requirement 2.12.2.3(a). Truck zoning devices are 
not permitted. 

(c) Requirement 2.12.3 does not apply. 

(d) Requirement 2.12.7.3.2. The car cannot be operated 
at a speed greater than 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min). 

(e) Requirement 2.12.5. The dimension for the 
unlocking zone shall be not more than the straight verti- 
cal face of the platlform guard minus 75 mm (3 in.). 



154 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) 5.2.1.13 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and Car 
Doors. When provided, power operation, power open- 
ing, and power closing of hoistway doors and car doors 
shall conform to 2.13, except as modified by 5.2.1.13. 

(a) Requirement 2.13.1 does not apply. Both car and 
hoistway doors shall be of the horizontally sliding type 
or a power-operated swinging hoistway door with a 
power-operated horizontally sliding car door shall be 
permitted. Power operation of accordion or bifold type 
car doors shall be permitted. 

(h) Vertically sliding doors shall not be permitted. 

5.2.1.14 Car Enclosures, Car Doors, and Car lUumiina- 
tion. Car enclosures, car doors, and car illumination 
shall conform to 2.14, except as modified by the fol- 
lowing: 

(a) Requirement 2.14.1 A. Cars shall not have more 
than one compartment. 

(b) Requirement 2.14.1.5 applies only where manual 
operation (see 5.2.1.28) is not provided. If a top emer- 
gency exit is provided, it shall conform to 2.14.1.5. 

(c) Requirement 2.14.1.9.1(c) does not apply Equip- 
ment moimted to the car for freight handling shall not 
be permitted. 

(d) Requirement 2.14.3 does not apply. 

(e) Requirement 2.14.4.1 does not apply. An unperfo- 
rated door shall be provided at each entrance to the car. 

(f) Requirement 2.14.4.3 does not apply. Doors shall 
be of the horizontally sliding, accordion, or bifold type 
and so arranged to reduce the possibility of pinching. 
Material shall conform to 2.14.2.1. 

(g) Requirement 2.14.4.4 does not apply. 
(h) Requirement 2.14.4.7 does not apply. 
(i) Requirement 2.14.4.9 does not apply. 

(j) Requirement 2.14.4.11(b) does not apply. 
(k) Requirement 2.14.5.1 does not apply. There shall 
not be more than two entrances to the car. 

(I) Requirements 2.14.5.2 and 2.14.5.3 do not apply. 
(m) Requirement 2.14.6 does not apply. 

5.2.1.15 Car Frames and Platforms. Car frames and 
platforms shall conform to 2.15, except as modified by 
5.2.1.15.1 and 5.2.1.15.2. 

5.2.1.15.1 Underslung or Sub-Post Frames. 

Requirement 2.15.4 applies, except the term "guiding 
surfaces" shall be substituted for the term "guide rails." 

5.2.1.15.2 Platform Guards. Requirement 2.15.9.2 
does not apply. The platform guard shall have a straight 
vertical face, extending below the floor surface of the 
platform of not less than the depth of the unlocking 
zone plus 75 mm (3 in.). 

5.2.1.16 Capacity, Loading, Speed, and Rise 

5.2.1.16.1 Rated Load and Platform Area. The min- 
imum rated load shall conform to 2.16.1, except as 
follows: 



(a) The maximum rated load shall not exceed 635 kg 
(1,400 lb). 

(b) The inside net platform area shall not exceed 
1.67 m^ (18 ft^). 

(c) Requirements 2.16.1.2 and 2.16.1.3 do not apply. 

5.2.1.16.2 Capacity and Data Plates 

(a) Capacity plates shall indicate the rated load of the 
elevator in kilograms (kg), pounds (lb), or both. 

(b) Data plates shall conform to 2.16.3.2.2. 

(c) The material and marking of plates shall conform 
to 2.16.3.3. 

5.2.1.16.3 Additional Requirements for Passenger 
Overload. Elevators shall conform to 2.16.8. 

5.2.1.16.4 Maximum Rated Speed. The rated 
speed shall not be more than 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min). 

5.2.1.16.5 Maximum Rise. The maximum rise 
shall not be more than 7.6 m (25 ft). 

5.2.1.17 Car and Counterweight. Car and counter- 
weight safeties shall cortform to 2.17, except as modified 
by 5.2.1.17.1. 

5,2.1.17.1 Application of Safeties. The force pro- 
viding the stopping action shall conform to 2.17.9.4 or 
the following: Where guide-rail sections other than those 
specified in 2.23.3(a) are used, the application of safety 
stopping forces shall not cause deformation of the guide- 
rail section upon whose dimensional stability the stop- 
ping capability is dependent. 

5.2.1.18 Speed Governors. Speed governors shall 
conform to 2.18, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.18.2.1(b) does not apply. The trip- 
ping speed shall not exceed 0.38 m/s (75 ft/min). On 
the breakage of the suspension means, the safety shall 
operate without delay and independently of the gover- 
nor's speed action. 

(b) Requirement 2.18.4 does not apply. 

(c) Requirement 2.18.5. Governor ropes shall be not 
less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. 

5.2.1.19 Ascending Car Overspeed and Unintended 
Car Movement Protection. Ascending car overspeed 
and unintended car movement protection shall conform 
to 2.19. 

5.2.1.20 Suspension Ropes and Their Connections. 

Suspension ropes and their connections shall conform 
to 2.20, except for 2.20.1 and 2.20.3. Suspension ropes 
and their connections shall also conform to 5.2.1.20.1 
and 5.2.1.20.2. 

5.2,1.20;1 Suspension Means. Cars shall be sus- 
pended by ropes attached to the car frame or passing 
around sheaves attached to the car frame specified in 
2.15.1. Ropes that have previously been installed and 
used on another installation shall not be reused. Only 



155 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



rope having the following classifications shall be used 
for the suspension of limited-use /limited-application 
elevator cars and for the suspension of counterweights: 

(a) Iron (low-carbon steel) or steel wire rope, having 
the commercial classification "Elevator Wire Rope/' or 
wire rope specifically constructed for elevator use. The 
wire material for these wire ropes shall be manufactured 
by the open-hearth or electric furnace process or their 
equivalent. 

(b) Aircraft cable rope of 7 x 19 construction, classi- 
fied as Mil Spec 83420, shall be permitted in those appli- 
cations where aircraft cable rope is not subjected to 
crushing pressures, with the following exceptions per- 
mitted: 

(1) nonjacketed, carbon steel, tin- or zinc-coated 
(Type lA) 7 x 19 construction (Section 3.2.4 of Mil Spec 
83420) 

(2) identifying color tracer filaments are not 
required (Section 3.5.2 of Mil Spec 83420) 

5.2.1.20.2 Factor of Safety. The factor of safety 
shall be specified in accordance with the following: 

(a) ''Elevator Wire Rope" [see 5.2.1.20.1(a)] shall com- 
ply with 2.20.3. 

(b) "Aircraft Cable Rope" [see 5.2.1.20.1(b)] shall have 
a factor of safety of not less than 73. 

5.2.1.21 Counterweights. Counterweights shall 
conform to 2.21, except as modified by 5.2.1.21.1. 

5.2.1.21.1 Independent Car Counterweights. 

Requirement 2.21.1.4 applies, except that the counter- 
weight shall be permitted to utilize the same guide rails 
as the car. 

5.2.1.22 Buffers and Bumpers. Buffers and bumpers 
shall conform to 2.22, except as modified by 5.2.1.22.1. 

5.2.1.22.1 Bumpers. Elastomeric bumpers capa- 
ble of absorbing the energy of a fully loaded car shall 
be permitted to be used. The average deceleration shall 
be less than 9.81 m/s^ (32.2 ft/s^) with any load between 
61 kg (135 lb) and rated load. 

5.2.1.23 Car and Counterweight Guide Rails, Guide- 
Rail Supports, and Fastenings. Car and counterweight 
guide rails, guide-rail supports, and fastenings shall con- 
form to 2.23, except as modified by 5.2.1.23.1 and 
5.2.1.23.2. 

5.2.1.23.1 Use of Common Guide Rails. The same 
set of guide rails shall be permitted to be used for both 
the car and counterweight. 

5.2.1.23.2 Guide-Rail Sections. Requirements 
2.23.3(a) and 2.23.3(b)(1) do not apply. Guide rails, sup- 
ports, joints, fishplates, and fastenings that do not con- 
form to 2.23 are permitted, provided that the strengths 
and stresses are consistent with 2.23 for the loads 
imposed. 



Where guide-rail sections other than those specified 
in 2.23.3(a) are used 

(a) requirement 2.23.10.2 does not apply. 

(b) the rail joints shall be designed in accordance with 
2.23.5.1 and shall adequately maintain the accuracy of 
the rail alignment. 

(c) the deflections shall comply with 2.23. The allow- 
able deflection of the guide rail shall be limited to pre- 
vent the safety device from disengaging the rail during 
the application of the load. 

5.2.1.24 Driving Machine and Sheaves. Driving 
machines and sheaves shall conform to 2.24, except for 
2.24.1, 2.24.2.1, and 2.24.2.2. Driving machines and 
sheaves shall also conform to 5.2.1.24.1 through 

5.2.1.24.3. 

5.2.1.24.1 Type of Driving Machines. AU driving 
machines shall be of the traction type, except that wind- 
ing drum machines that do not have multiple cable lay- 
ers on the drum shall be permitted for elevators, subject 
to the following: They shall not be provided with coun- 
terweights. 

5.2.1.24.2 Material and Grooving. Sheave material 
and grooving shall be subject to the following: 

(a) Sheaves and drums used with "Elevator Wire 
Rope" [see 5.2.1.2p.l(a)] shall be of metal and provided 
with finished grooves for ropes or shall be permitted to 
be lined with norunetallic groove material. 

(b) Sheaves and drums used with "Aircraft Cable 
Rope" [see 5.2.1.20.1(b)] shall be of metal and provided 
with finished "U" grooves that do not subject the aircraft 
cable rope to crushing pressure, 

5.2.1.24.3 Minimum Pitch Diameter. Sheaves and 
drums used with suspension and compensating ropes 
shall have a pitch diameter of not less than the following: 

(a) For all "Elevator Wire Rope," the diameter shall 
not be less than 30 times the diameter of the rope, where 
used with suspension ropes. 

(b) For all "Elevator Wire Rope," the diameter shall 
not be less than 30 times the diameter of the rope, where 
used with compensating ropes. 

(c) For "7 X 19 Aircraft Cable Rope," the diameter 
shall not be less than 21 times the diameter of the rope, 
where used with either suspension ropes or compensat- 
ing ropes. 

5.2.1.25 Terminal Stopping Devices. Terminal stop- 
ping devices shall conform to 2.25, except as follows: 

(a) Requirement 2.25.4 does not apply. 

(b) If the driving machine is of the winding drum 
type, a lower fin^l terminal stopping device shall be 
used in addition to the slack-rope switch, and two inde- 
pendent upper final terminal stopping devices shall be 
provided. A separate device shall be used to operate 
the lower final terminal and one upper final terminal 



156 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



stopping device. All final terminal stopping and slack- 
rope devices shall operate independently of one another. 
The power feed lines to the driving machine and brake 
shall be opened by one or both of the upper final termi- 
nal stopping devices and either the slack-rope switch or 
the lower terminal stopping device, or both. 

5.2.1.26 Operating Devices and Control Equipment. 

Operating devices and control equipment shall conform 
to 2.26, except as modified b}^ the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.3 does not apply. 

(b) Requirement 2.26.2.5 does not apply. 

(c) Requirement 2.26.2.10 does not apply. 

(d) Requirement 2.26.2.12 does not apply. 

(e) Requirement 2.26.2.16 does not apply. 

(07) 5.2.1.27 Emergency Operations and Signaling 
Devices. Emergency operation and signaling devices 
shall conform to 2.27, except 2.27.3 through 2.27.8 do 
not apply. However, if firefighters' emergency operation 
is provided, it shall conform to 2.27. 

5.2.1.28 Manual Operation. Elevators shall be per- 
mitted to be arranged for manual operation in case of 
power failure. The manual operating device shall con- 
form to the following: 

(a) It shall not be accessible from inside the car. 

(b) It shall not release the brake. 

(c) Upon removal of the device, the car shall not move. 

(d) It shall be actuated by mechanical means only. 

(e) Instructions shall be posted at or near the manual 
operating device. 

5.2.1.29 Layout Data. The information provided on 
layout data shall conform to 2.28. 

5.2.1.30 Welding. Welding shall conform to 8.8. 

5.2.1.31 Identification. Identification shall conform 

to 2.29. 

(07) 5.2.2 Hydraulic Limited-Use/Limited-Application 
Elevators 

Hydraulic limited-use /limited-application elevators 
shall conform to 5.2.1, except as modified by 5.2.2.1 
through 5.2.2.15. 

5.2.2.1 Bottom and Top Clearances and Runbys. 

Bottom and top clearances and nmbys for cars and coun- 
terweights shall conform to 3.4, except as follows: 

(a) Bottom car clearances shall conform to 3.4.1 or 
5.2.1.4.2. 

(b) Requirement 3.4.2.1 does not apply. The bottom 
car runby shall not be less than 50 mm (2 in.). 

(c) The top car clearances shall conform to 3.4.4 or 
5.2.1.4.4. 

5.2.2.2 JVIachinery Spaces, Macliine Rooms, Control 
Spaces, and Control Rooms. Machinery spaces, 
machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms shall 



comply with 3.7, except as modified by 5.2.1.7. 

5.2.2.3 Car Frames and Platforms. Car frames and 
platforms shall conform to 3.15, except as modified by 

5.2.1.15.2. 

5.2.2.4 Capacity and Loading. The capacity and 
loading shall conform to 3.16, except as modified by 
5.2.1.16.1 and 5.2.1.16.2. Requirement 5,2.1.16.3 does not 
apply 

5.2.2.5 Alternative to Speed Governor for 
Roped-Hydraulic Elevators. Car and counterweight 
safeties and plunger gripper shall conform to 3.17, 
except as modified by 5.2.2.5.1 and 5.2.2.5.2. 

NOTE: ,See also 5.2.1.18. 

5.2.2.5.1 The safeties on roped-hydraulic eleva- 
tors shall be operated by a speed governor or shall be 
permitted to be operated by inertia where an overspeed 
valve conforming to 3.19.4.7 is provided. 

5.2.2.5.2 Upon the parting of the suspension 
ropes, the safeties shall apply without appreciable delay 
and their application shall be independent of the loca- 
tion of the break in the ropes and shall be permitted to 
be accomplished by the use of restrained compression 
springs or by the action of gravity, or by both, or by 
positive mechanical means. 

5.2.2.6 Hydraulic Jacl(s and Slieaves. Hydraulic 
jacks and sheaves shall conform to 3.18. The reference 
in 3.18.1.2.1 and 3.18.1.2.2 to 2.20 shall be modified by 
5.2.1.20. The reference in 3.18.1.2.5 to 2.24.2 shall be mod- 
ified by 5.2.1.24.2 and 5.2.1.24.3. 

5.2.2.7 Valves, Pressure Piping* and Fittings. 

Valves, pressure piping, and fittings shall conform to 
3.19. Requirement 5.2.1.28 does not apply. 

5.2.2.8 Counterweights. Counterweights shall con- 
form to 3.21. 

5.2.2.9 Buffers and Bumpers. Buffers and bumpers 
shall conform to 3.22, except as modified by 5.2.1.22.1. 

5.2.2.10 Guide Rails, Guide-Rail Supports, and Tlieir 
Fastenings. Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their 
fasterungs shall conform to 2.23, except as modified by 
3.23 and 5.2.1.23.2. 

5.2.2.11 Hydraulic iVIachines and Tanlcs. Hydraulic 
machines and tanks shall conform to 3.24. Requirement 

5.2.1.24 does not apply, except as modified by 5.2.2.6. 

5.2.2.12 Terminal Stopping Devices. Requirement 

5.2.1.25 does not apply. Terminal stopping devices shall 
conform to 3.25.1 and 3.25.3. 

5.2.2.13 Operating Devices and Control Equipment. 

Requirement 5.2.1.26 does not apply. Operating devices 
and control equipment shall conform to 3.26. 



157 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



5.2.2.14 Emergency Operations and Signaling 
Devices. Requirement 5.2.1.27 does not apply. Emer- 
gency operations and signaling devices shall conform 
to 3.27, except firefighters' emergency operations (2.27.3 
through 2.27.8) does not apply. When firefighters' emer- 
gency operation is provided, it shall conform to 3.27.1 
through 3.27.4. 

5.2.2.15 Layout Data. Requirement 5.2.1.29 does not 
apply. The information provided on layout data shall 
conform to 3.28. 

SECTION 5.3 
PRIVATE RESIDENCE ELEVATORS 

Requirement 5.3 applies to elevators installed in or 
at a private residence. Requirement 5.3 also applies to 
similar elevators installed in buildings as a means of 
access to private residences within such buildings pro- 
vided the elevators are so installed that they are not 
accessible to the general public or to other occupants in 
the building. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
private residence elevators. 

5.3.1 Private Residence Electric Elevators 

(07) 5.3.1.1 Construction of Hoistway and Hoistway Enclo- 
sures. The hoistway shall be solidly enclosed through- 
out its height without grillwork or openings other than 
for landing or access doors, except that any exterior 
windows within the hoistway shall be protected by 
metal grillwork. Grillwork shall reject a ball 76 mm (3 in.) 
in diameter and shall be securely fastened from the 
inside of the hoistway. Enclosures shall be of sufficient 
strength to support in true alignment the hoistway doors 
and gates and their locking equipment. The ifire resist- 
ance rating shall be in accordance with the requirements 
of the building code. 

(07) 5.3.1.1.1 The enclosure shall be permitted to be 

omitted on the lowest landing served, provided the ele- 
vator 

(a) does not open directly into a garage 

(b) has continuous-pressure operation 

(c) car platform is equipped with a device that, if the 
platform is obstructed in its downward travel by a force 
of 18 N (4 Ibf) or more applied anywhere at its lower 
surface, will open an electric contact in the control circuit 
and thus stop the downward travel of the car within 
75 mm (3 in.). The stroke of the device shall be not less 
than the stopping distance of the platform. This device 
shall be of a type that will not reset unless it has been 
returned to its normal position. The elevator shall be 
permitted to operate in the up direction. 

(07) 5.3.1.1.2 The enclosure shall be permitted to be 

omitted on the upper landing on continuous-pressure 
operation elevators serving only adjacent landings 



(one-floor rise) conforming to one of the following: 

(a) the floor opening at the upper landing is protected 
by a partial enclosure and gate at least 910 mm (36 in.) 
high with openings that will reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) 
in diameter and the gate is provided with a combination 
mechanical lock and electric contact 

(b) the floor opening is provided with a vertically 
lifting hatch cover which is automatically raised and 
lowered vertically by the ascending and descending car, 
provided this cover meets the following requirements: 

(1) It is fitted with guides to ensure its proper 
seating. 

(2) It is designed and installed to sustain a total 
load of 3.6 kPa {75 lb/if) or 135 kg (300 lb) at any one 
point. 

(3) It is equipped with an electric contact that will 
prevent the upward travel of the car when a force of 
90 N (20 Ibf) is placed at any point on the top of the 
hatch cover. 

5.3.1.2 Pits 

5.3.1.2.1 Guarding of Pits. A pit provided in other 
than a fully enclosed hoistway shall be guarded by a 
solid enclosure at least 2 130 mm (84 in.) high. The 
entrance shall be provided with a door conforming to 
5.3.1.7. When the enclosure does not extend from floor 
to ceiling, only solid car doors or gates rejecting a 13 mm 
(0.5 in.) diameter ball shall be used. 

5.3.1.2.2 Pit Maintenance. Where a pit is pro- 
vided, it shall be kept clean and free from dirt and 
rubbish and the accumulation of water. It shall not be 
used for storage purposes. 

5.3.1.3 Top Car Clearance. The top car clearance 
shall be not less tlian 152 mm (6 in.) plus 25 mm (1 in.) 
for each 0.017 m/s (3.3 ft/min) of the rated speed in 
excess of 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min). Where the machine or 
its controls are located on the top of the car, a refuge 
space on top of the car enclosure shall be provided in 
conformance with 2.4.12. 

5.3.1.4 Horizontal Car Clearances 

5.3.1.4.1 Between Car and Hoistway Enclosures or 
Counterweight. There shall be a clearance of not less 
than 20 mm (0.75 in.) between the car and the hoistway 
enclosure, and between the car and its counterweight. 

5.3.1.4.2 Between Car and Landing Sill. The clear- 
ance between the car platform and the landing sill shall 
be not less than 13 mm (0.5 in.) nor more than 38 mm 
(1.5 in.). 

5.3.1 .5 Pipes in Hoistways. Pipes conveying steam, 
gas, or liquids, which if discharged into the hoistway 
would endanger life, shall not be installed in the 
hoistway. 

5.3.1.6 Guarding of Suspension Means 



158 



ASME Al 7.1-200 7/CSA B44-07 



5.3.1.6.1 Suspension Means Passing Through 
Floors or Stairs. Ropes and chains passing through a 
floor or stairway outside the hoistway enclosure shall 
be enclosed with a solid or openwork enclosure. If of 
openwork, the enclosure shall reject a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) 
in diameter. Means for inspection shall be provided. The 
floor openings shall not be larger than is necessary to 
clear the suspension means. 

5.3.1.6.2 Suspension or Support Means Having an 
Opening Facing Away From the Stair. Suspension or 
support means that operate within a guide or track 
whose segments total a minimum of 270 deg shall be 
considered suitably guarded, provided that the center- 
line of the opening in the guide or track is 180 deg 
from the closest point of the stair. See Nonmandatory 
Appendix H, Fig. H-1. 

5.3.1.7 Protection of Hoistway Openings 

(07) 5.3.1.7.1 Where Required. Where a hoistway 

enclosure is required, landing openings shall be pro- 
tected by swinging or horizontally sliding doors or 
gates. Landing openings in solid hoistway enclosures 
shall be protected the full height by solid swinging or 
horizontally sliding doors. Their fire-protection rating 
shall be not less than required by the building code (see 
1.3). The doors or gates shall be designed to withstand 
a force of 670 N (150 Ibf ) applied horizontally over an 
area 100 mm x 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.) in the center of 
the doors or gates without permanent displacement or 
deformation. 

5.3.1.7.2 Clearance Between Hoistway Doors or 
Gates and Landing Sills and Car Doors or Gates. The 

clearance between the hoistway doors or gates and the 
hoistway edge of the landing sill shall not exceed 75 mm 
(3 in.). The distance between the hoistway face of the 
landing door or gate and the car door or gate shall not 
exceed 125 mm (5 in.). 

5.3.1.7.3 Projection of Hoistway Doors or Gates Into 
the Hoistway. The hoistway face of the hoistway door 
or gate shall not project into the hoistway beyond the 
line of the landing sill. No hardware, except that required 
for door-locking and door-operating or signaling 
devices, shall project into the hoistway beyond the line 
of the landing sill. 

5.3.1.7.4 Locking Devices for Hoistway Doors and 
Gates. Hoistway doors or gates shall be provided with 
locking devices. 

The locking device shall be of a type that will 
(a) either prevent car movement unless the door is 
locked in the closed position; or 

(h) permit the car to start if the door or gate is in the 
closed position but not locked, provided that the device 
stops the car if the door or gate fails to lock before the 
car has moved 150 mm (6 in.) away from the landing. 
The device shall also prevent the opening of the hoistway 



door or gate unless the car is within 150 mm (6 in.) of 
the landing. 
The locking device shall conform to 2.12.4. 

5.3.1.7.5 Opening of Hoistway Doors or Gates. 

Hoistway doors or gates shall be so arranged that it will 
not be necessary to reach behind any panel, jamb, or 
sash to operate them. 

5.3.1.7.6 Hangers and Stops for Hoistway Sliding 
Doors. Means shall be provided to prevent a sliding 
hoistway door from disengaging from its track. 

5.3.1.7.7 Access to the Hoistway for Emergency Pur- 
poses. Hoistway door unlocking devices shall be pro- 
vided for all hoistway doors and gates, conforming to 
2.12.6. 

5.3.1.7.8 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and (07) 
Gates. Power opening shall be permitted for hoistway 
doors and gates and shall conform to 2.13,2.2.1 and 
2.13.2.2.2. Power closing shall be permitted for hoistway 
doors and gates and shall conform to 2.13.3.2 through 
2.13.4, and 2.13.6. 

5.3.1.7.9 Landing-Sill Guards. Where the elevator (07) 
is equipped with a two-way leveling device or anticreep 
device, and the hoistway landing sill projects into the 
hoistway, a landing-sill guard shall be provided con- 
forming to the following: 

(a) it shall have a straight vertical face extending 
below the sill not less than the depth of the zone where 
the hoistway door is unlocked below the landing sUl 
plus 50 mm (2 in.) 

(h) it shall extend not less than the width of the clear 
car opening exposed to the landing sill 

(c) it shall be securely braced and fastened in place 
to withstand a force of 670 N (150 Ibf) applied horizon- 
tally over an area 100 mm x 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.) in 
the center of the guard without permanent displacement 
or deformation 

5.3.1.8 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car 
Illumination 

5.3.1.8.1 Car Enclosure 

(a) Car Enclosure Required. Except at entrances, cars 
shall be enclosed on all sides and on the top. The enclo- 
sure shall be constructed of solid or of openwork mate- 
rial that will reject a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. 

(h) Securing Enclosures. Car enclosures shall be 
secured in conformance with 2.14.1.2 and 2.14.1.3. 

(c) Glass, Plastic, or Acrylics in Elevator Cars. Glass, 
plastic, or acrylics, where used in elevator cars, shall 
conform to the following: 

(1) if of glass, it shall meet the requirements of 
2.14.1.8 

(2) if of plastic or acrylic, it shall meet the require- 
ments of ANSI Z97.1, 16 CFR Part 1201, or 



159 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, and CAN/CGSB- 
12.12, whichever is applicable 
(07) (d) Access Panels for Elevator Equipment Outside of the 
Car. Equipment access panels in the car for access to 
equipment outside the car shall comply with 2.7.5.1.4. 
(e) Number of Compartments. The car shall not have 
more than one compartment. 

5.3.1.8.2 Car Doors and Gates. A car door or gate 
that, when closed, will guard the opening to a height 
of at least 1 675 mra (66 in.) shall be provided at each 
entrance to the car. Car doors shall be permitted to be 
of solid or openwork construction that will reject a ball 
75 mm (3 in.) in diameter. 

Collapsible car gates shall be of a design that, when 
fully closed (extended position), will reject a ball 75 mm 
(3 in.) in diameter. 
(07) (a) Power Operation of Car Doors and Gates. Power 
opening shall be permitted for car doors and gates, and 
shall conform to 2.13.2.1 and 2.13.6. Power closing shall 
be permitted for car doors and gates, and shall conform 
to 2.13.3 through 2.13.6. 

(b) Car Door or Gate Locking Devices. Where the 
hoistway enclosure is not continuous for the full travel 
of the car, the car door or gate shall be provided with 
a mechanical lock that will lock the car door or gate if 
the car is more than 150 mm (6 in.) away from a landing. 

(c) Car Door or Gate Electric Contacts. Every car door 
or gate shall be provided with an electric contact con- 
forming to 2.14.4.2.3 and 2.14.4.2.5. 

The design of the car door or gate electric contacts 
shall be such that for a sliding door or gate, the car 
cannot move unless the door or gate is within 50 mm 
(2 in.) of the closed position. If the door or gate swings 
outward to open, the car door or gate must be closed 
and locked before the car can move. 

5.3.1.8.3 Light in Car. The car shall be provided 
with an electric light. The light shall be controlled by a 
switch located in the car and near the car entrance, or 
by automatic means in conformance with 2.14.7.2.2. The 
minimum illumination at the car threshold, with the 
door closed, shall be not less than 50 Ix (5 fc). 

5.3.1.9 Car Frames and Platforms 

5.3.1.9.1 Car Frame 

(a) Where Required. Every elevator shall have a car 
frame to which the suspension or support means and 
the safeties are attached. 

(b) Material Permitted. Car frames shall be made of 
metal. 

(c) Factor of Safety. The factor of safety shall be not 
less than 5 based on the rated load. 

(d) Use of Cast Iron. Cast iron shall not be used in any 
member other than for guides or guide shoe brackets. 

(e) Location of Guiding Means. Primary guiding means 
shall be attached to the car frame. 



5.3.1.9.2 Platforms 

(a) Construction. Platforms shall be of non-perforated 
metal or wood. If constructed of wood, they shall be 
laminated. 

Platforms shall be supported by a platform frame or 
formed metal support pan attached to the car frame. 
Platforms and platform frame assemblies shall have a 
safety factor of 5. 

(b) Platform Guards (Aprons). Where the elevator is 
equipped with a two-way leveling device, the entrance 
side(s) of the platform shall be provided with a guard 
conforming to 2.15.9, except as modified by the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Requirement 2.15.9.2 does not apply The plat- 
form guard shall have a straight vertical face, extending 
below the floor surface of the platform not less than the 
depth of the zone where the hoistway door is unlocked 
above the landing sill plus 50 mm (2 in.). The platform 
guard shall not strike the pit floor or any obstruction 
when the elevator is at its lowest point of travel. 

5.3.1.10 Capacity, Loading, Speed, and Rise 

5.3.1.10.1 Capacity. The maximum inside net 
platform area shall not exceed 1.4 m^ (15 ft^). The mini- 
mum rated load shall be not less than the following: 

(a) For net platform areas up to and including 1.1 n\^ 
(12 ft^), the rated load shall be not less than 195 kg/m^ 
(40 Ib/ft^) or 159 kg (350 lb), whichever is greater. 

(b) For net platform areas greater than 1.1 m^ (12 ft^), 
the rated load shall be based upon 305 kg/m^ 
(62,5 Ib/ft^). 

5.3-1.10.2 Speed. The rated speed shall not 
exceed 0.20 m/s (40 ft/min). 

5.3.1.10.3 Rise. The rise shall not exceed 15 m 

(50 ft). 

5.3.1.11 Safeties and Governors 

5.3.1.11.1 Safeties Required. Each elevator shall 
be provided with a car safety. Where the space below 
the hoistway is not permanently secured against access, 
the counterweight shall be provided with a safety con- 
forming to 5.3.1.11.2. 

5.3.1.11.2 Operation of Safeties. The car safety 
shall be of the inertia, rack and pinion, or other type 
operated by the breakage of the suspension means or 
by the action of a speed governor. If of the speed- 
governor type, the governor shall operate the safety at 
a maximum tripping speed of 0.38 m/s {75 ft/min). On 
the breakage of the suspension means, the safety shall 
operate without delay and independently of the speed 
governor action. 

5.3.1.11.3 Application of Safeties. The application 
of safeties shall conform to 2.17.9.1, 2.17.9.2, and 2.17.9.3. 
The forces providing the stopping action shall conform 
to 2.17.9.4 or the following: 



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ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(a) Where guide-rail sections other than those speci- 
fied in 2,23.3(a) are used, the application of safety stop- 
ping forces shall not cause deformation of the guide-rail 
section upon whose dimensional stability the stopping 
capability of the safeties is dependent. 

(b) Where the car safety is of the rack-and-pinion type, 
it shall conform to 4.1.9. 

5.3.1.11.4 Materials Used in Safeties. The miru- 
mum factors of safety and stresses of safety parts and 
rope cormections shall conform to 2.17.12. 

5.3.1.11.5 Location of Speed Governor. Where a 
speed governor is used, it shall be located where it is 
readily accessible from outside the hoistway and it can- 
not be struck by any moving object in normal operation 
or under conditions of overtravel, and where there is 
sufficient space for full movement of the governor parts. 

5.3.1.11.6 Opening of tlie Motor and Bralce Circuit 
on Safety Application. Where a speed governor is used, 
the motor circuit and the brake circuit shall be opened 
before or at the time that the safety applies. 

5.3.1.11.7 Governor Ropes. The governor ropes, 
where used, shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, or phos- 
phor bronze not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. 
Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

5.3.1.12 Suspension Means 

5.3.1.12.1 Types Permitted 

(a) Suspension means shall be not less than two wire 
ropes or two steel roller-type chains conforming to 
ASME B29.1. 

(b) Aircraft cable rope of 7 x 19 construction, classi- 
fied as Mil Spec 83420, shall be permitted in those appli- 
cations where aircraft cable rope is not subjected to 
crushing pressures. The following exceptions to Mil Spec 
83420 are permitted: 

(1) nonjacketed carbon steel, tin-, or zinc-coated 
(Type 1-A) 7 x 19 construction (Section 3.2.4 of Mil Spec 
83420) 

(2) identifying color tracer filaments are not 
required (Section 3.5.2 of Mil Spec 83420) 

5.3.1.12.2 Suspension Ropes. On elevators hav- 
ing a rated load of 230 kg (500 lb) or less and operating at 
a rated speed of 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min) or less, suspension 
ropes shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. 
Where the rated load exceeds 230 kg (500 lb) or the rated 
speed exceeds 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min), the ropes shall be 
not less than 9 mm (0.375 in.) in diameter. 

5.3.1.12.3 Factor of Safety of Suspension Means. 

The factor of safety of the suspension means shall be 
not less than 7 for cars with less than or equal to 1.1 m^ 
(12 ft^) of net platform area, and not less than 7.5 for 
cars with more than 1.1 m^ (12 ft^) of net platform area, 
based on the manufacturer's rated breaking strength. 



When the car and counterweight are suspended by 
steel ropes and the driving means is an endless steel 
roller-type chain, the factor of safety of such chain with 
the rated load in the car shall be not less than 8 based 
on the ultimate tensile strength. 

5.3.1.12.4 Arc of Contact of Suspension Means on 
Sheaves and SprocJ^ets. The arc of contact of a wire 
rope on a traction sheave shall be sufficient to produce 
traction under all load conditions up to rated load. The 
arc of contact of a chain with a driving sprocket shall 
not be less than 140 deg. 

5.3.1.12.5 Spare Rope Turns on Winding Drums. 

The spare rope turns on winding drums shall conform 
to 2.20.7. 

5.3.1.12.6 Securing of Wire Suspension Ropes to 
Winding Drums. The securing of wire suspension ropes 
to winding drums shall conform to 2.20.6. 

5.3.1.12.7 Fastening of Wire Rope Suspension 
Means to Car or to the Counterweight. The fastening of 
a wire rope suspension means to a car or to a counter- 
weight shall conform to 2.20.9, or by properly attached 
fittings as recommended by wire rope manufacturers. 

5.3.1.13 Counterweights 

5.3.1.13.1 General Requirements. Counter- 
weights, where used, shall conform to the following: 

(a) Counterweights shall run in guide rails. 

(b) Where a car counterweight is used, it shall not be 
of sufficient weight to cause slackening of any rope dur- 
ing acceleration or retardation of the car. 

(c) The counterweight sections, whether carried in a 
frame or not, shall be fastened together and shall also 
be secured to prevent shifting by an amount that will 
reduce the running clearance to less than 19 mm (0.75 in.) 
between the coimterweight and hoistway. 

5.3.1.13.2 Location and Guarding of Counter- 
weights 

(a) Counterweight on Cars Operating Through Hatch Cov- 
ers. If a car operates through a hatch cover, the counter- 
weight runway shall be enclosed throughout its height. 

(b) Counterweight Coming Down to Floors or Passing 
Floors or Stairs. Where the counterweight rimway comes 
down to a floor or passes floors or stairs, it shall be 
guarded to a height of at least 2 130 mm (84 in.) above 
the floor or the stair treads by a solid or openwork 
enclosure. Openwork enclosures shall reject a baU 13 mm 
(0.5 in.) in diameter. 

(c) Access to Enclosed Counterweights and Ropes. Access 
shall be provided for inspection, maintenance, and 
repair oi an enclosed counterweight and its ropes. Doors 
on the counterweight enclosure shall be self-closing and 
self -locking and openable from the outside only with a 
suitable key. If the enclosure is of such size that the 
door can be closed when the enclosure is occupied by 



161 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



a person, the door shall be easily openable from the 
inside without the use of a key or other instrument. 
A stop switch conforming to 2.26.2.5 shall be located 
adjacent to and inside the opening and operable without 
entering the enclosure. 

5.3.1.14 Buffers and Buffer Supports 

5.3.1.14.1 The car and counterweight shall be 
provided with spring buffers, except as specified in 
5.3.1.14.3. They shall be so designed and installed that 
they will not be fully compressed when struck by car 
with its rated load or by the counterweight traveling at 
125% of the rated speed, or at governor tripping speed 
where a governor-operated safety is used. 

5.3.1.14.2 Car and counterweight buffer sup- 
ports shall be of sufficient strength to withstand without 
failure the impact resulting from buffer engagement at 
125% of the rated speed, or at governor tripping speed 
where a governor-operated safety is used. 

5.3.1.14.3 Buffers shall be permitted to be omit- 
ted when the striking speed is 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min) or 
less if the space below the car and counterweight consists 
of a nonoccupiable area, and the floor below the car 
and counterweight has sufficient strength to withstand, 
without failure, the impact of the car with rated load 
and counterweight descending at 125% of rated speed 
or governor tripping speed if a governor is provided. 

5.3.1.15 Car and Counterweight Guide Rails and 
Guide Fastenings. Car and counterweight guide rails 
and their fastenings shall conform to 2.23.2, 2.23.5, 2.23.6, 
2.23.8, and 2.23.9. Where guide-rail sections other than 
those specified in 2.23.3(a) are used, the allowable deflec- 
tion of the guide rail shall be limited to prevent the 
safety device from disengaging the rail during the appli- 
cation of the load. 

5.3.1.16 Driving Machines, Slieaves, and Tlieir Sup- 
ports 

5.3.1.16.1 Overhead Machinery Beams and Sup- 
ports 

(a) Securing of Machinery Beams and Types of Supports. 
All machinery and sheaves shall be so supported and 
secured as to prevent any part from becoming loose or 
displaced. 

Beams supporting machinery shall be of steel, sound 
timber, or reinforced concrete. 

(h) Overhead Beams and Their Supports. Overhead 
beams and their supports shall be designed for not less 
than the sum of the following: 

(1) the load resting on the beams and their sup- 
ports, which shall include the complete weight of the 
machine, sheaves, controller, and any other equipment 
supported thereon 

(2) the sum of the tension on all suspension ropes 
or chains times 2 



(c) Factor of Safety for Overhead Beams and Supports. 
The factor of safety for overhead beams and supports 
based on ultimate strength of material shall be not less 
than 5 for steel, and 6 for timber and reinforced concrete. 

5.3.1.16.2 Driving Machines: General Require- 
ments 

(a) Types of Driving Means. The driving means shall (07) 
be one of the following types: 

(1) traction 

(2) winding drum (see 5.3.1.16.3) 

(3) direct plunger hydraulic (see 5.3.2) 
(4j roped-hydraulic (see 5.3.2) 

(5) screw machine (see 5.3.1.16.4) 

(6) chain drive 

(7) chain-hydraulic (see 5.3.2) 

(8) rack-and-pinion, in jurisdictions enforcing 
NBCC 

(h) Material for Sheaves and Drums and Minimum 
Diameter 

(1) Winding drums, traction sheaves, and overhead 
and deflecting sheaves shall be of cast iron or steel and 
the pitch diameter shall be not less than one of the 
following: 

(a) 30 times the diameter of the wire suspension 
means -^ 

(b) 21 times the diameter of the wire suspension ^|^ 
means for 8 x 19 steel rope or for 7 x 19 aircraft cable ^^9 
allowed by 5.3.1.12.1 

(2) The rope grooves shall be machined and 
designed to conform to 2.24.2.1 and 2.24.2.3. 

(3) The factor of safety, based on the static load (the 
rated load plus the weight of the car, ropes, counter- 
weights, etc.) to be used in the design of the driving 
machine and sheaves shall be not less than 8 for wrought 
iron and steel, and 10 for cast iron and cast steel and 
other metals. 

(c) Fastening of Driving Machines and Sheaves to Under- 
side of Overhead Beams 

(1) Overhead driving machines or sheaves shall not . 
be fastened to the underside of the supporting beams, 
except for idlers or deflecting sheaves including their 
guards and frames. 

(2) Cast iron in tension shall not be used for sup- 
porting idler and deflecting sheaves where they are hung 
beneath the beams. 

(d) Fastenings Transmitting Load. Fasteners transmit- 
ting load shall conform to 2.24.4. 

(e) Friction Gearing, Clutch Mechanisms, or Couplings. 
Friction gearings or clutch mechanisms shall not be used 
for connecting the drum or drive sheave to the main 
drive gear. Couplings shall not be used for connecting 
the output shaft to the main drive gear. 

(f) Use of Cast Iron in Gears. Worm gearing having 
cast iron teeth shall not be used. 



162 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(g) Driving-Machine Roller Chains and Sprockets. Driv- 
ing-machine chains and sprocl<:ets shall be of steel and 
shall conform in all particulars of design and dimensions 
to ASME B29.1. 

(h) Driving-Machine Brakes, Driving machines, except 
hydraulic driving machines, shall be equipped with elec- 
trically released, mechanically applied brakes conform- 
ing to 2.24.8. The operation of the brake shall conform 
to 2.26.8. 

(i) Manual Operation. Private residence elevators shall 
be arranged for manual operation in case of power fail- 
ure. The manual operating device shall conform to the 
following: 

(1) It shall not be accessible from inside the car. 

(2) It shall not release the brake. 

(3) Upon removal of the device, the car shall not 
move. 

(4) It shall be actuated by mechanical means only. 

(5) Elevators with hydraulic driving machines shall 
be provided with a manual lowering valve conforming 
to 3.19.4.4. 

(6) Instructions shall be posted at or near the man- 
ual operating device. 

(07) (j) Car Top Mounted Machine or Controller. Where the 
machine or its controls are located on top of the car 

(1) they shall be protected by a solid, noncombusti- 
ble enclosure 

(2) the car top enclosure shall be designed and 
installed in conformance with 2.14.1.6 

(3) a top-of-car operating device shall be provided 
in conformance with 2.26.1.4.2 

(4) access shall be provided to the machine or its 
controls for maintenance. Access panels shall conform 
to 5.3.1.8.1(d). 

5.3.1.16.3 Winding Drum Machines. Winding 
drum machines shall not be provided with counter- 
weights. 

5.3.1.16.4 Screw Machines. Screw machines, 
where used, shall conform to 4.2.15 and 4.2.20, except 
that the rated speed shall not exceed 0.20 m/s 
(40 ft/min). 

(07) 5.3.1.16.5 Traction Machines. Traction machines 

shall be provided with a suspension means retainer or 
restraint on the drive sheave conforming to one of the 
following: 

(a) Suspension Means Retainers, Suspension means 
retainers shall be continuous over not less than 
two-thirds of the arc of contact between the suspension 
means and its sheave or drum and shall be so located 
that not more than one-sixth of the arc of contact is 
exposed at each end of the retainer. For double-wrap 
traction applications the arc of contact for sheaves or 
drums shall be that length of arc that is uninterrupted 
by the entry /exit of the suspension means leading 
to /from the car or counterweight. 



(b) Suspension Means Restraints. One suspension 
means restraint, where the arc of contact is 30 deg or 
less, shall be located at the midpoint of the arc of contact; 
or, where the arc of contact exceeds 30 deg, suspension 
means restraints shall be provided at intervals not 
exceeding 30 deg of arc along the arc of contact and at 
each end of the arc of contact. 

5.3.1.17 Terminal Stopping Devices 

5.3.1.17.1 Stopping Devices Required 

(a) Upper and lower normal terminal stopping 
devices operated by the car shall be provided, and shall 
be set to stop the car at or near the upper and lower 
terminal landings. 

(b) Upper and lower final terminal stopping devices 
operated by the car to remove power from the motor 
and the brake shall be provided. They shall be set to 
stop the car after it travels past the normal terminal 
stopping device and before an obstruction is struck. 

A slack-rope switch conforming to 2.26.2.1 shall be 
permitted to be used as the lower final terminal stopping 
device. 

(c) If the driving machine is of the winding drum or 
sprocket and chain-suspension type 

(1) a final terminal stopping device operated by the 
driving machine shall also be provided. 

(2) driving-machine-operated final terminal stop- 
ping devices are not required when a lower final termi- 
nal stopping device is used in addition to the slack- 
rope switch, and two independent upper final terminal 
stopping devices are provided. A separate device shall 
be used to operate the lower final terminal and one 
upper final terminal stopping devices. All final terminal 
stopping and slack-rope devices shall operate indepen- 
dently of one another. The power feed lines to the driving 
machine and brake shall be opened by one or both of 
the upper final terminal stopping devices and either the 
slack-rope switch or the lower terminal stopping device, 
or both. 

(3) indirect connections between the final terminal 
stopping device and the driving machine shall be 
designed to prevent slippage. 

(b) Terminal stopping switches shall conform to 
2.25.1. 

5.3.1.17.2 Operation of the Stopping Devices. The 

final terminal stopping device shall act to prevent move- 
ment of the car in both directions of travel. The normal 
and final terminal stopping devices shall not control the 
same switches on the controller unless two or more 
separate and independent switches are provided, two 
of which shall be closed to complete the motor and brake 
circuit in each direction of travel. 

5.3.1.18 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

5.3.1.18.1 Type of Operation. The operation of the 
car shall be by continuous-pressiire means or by auto- 
matic means. 



163 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) 5.3.1.18.2 Control and Operating Circuit Require- 

ments. The design and installation of the operating 
circuits shall conform to the following: 

(a) The completion or maintenance of an electric cir- 
cuit shall be used neither to interrupt the power to the 
elevator driving machine or brake at the terminal land- 
ings, nor to stop the car when any electrical protective 
device operates. 

(b) If springs are used to actuate switches, contactors, 
or relays to stop an elevator at the terminal landings, 
they shall be of the restrained compression type. 

(c) In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, the occur- 
rence of a single ground or the failure of any single 
magnetically operated switch, contactor, or relay; or the 
failure of any single solid-state device; or a software 
system failure, shall not 

(1) render any electrical protective device inef- 
fective 

(2) permit the car to move beyond the leveling or 
anticreep zones, if any hoistway door interlock is 
ur\locked or if any hoistway door or car door or gate 
electric contact is not in the closed position 

(d) In jurisdictions enforcing NBCC, the occurrence of 
a single ground or the failure of any single magnetically 
operated switch, contactor, or relay, or the failure of any 
single solid-state device, or a software system failure, 
shall not permit the car to start if any hoistway door or 
car door or gate is not in the closed position. When any 
failure specified above occurs, the elevator shall not be 
permitted to restart. 

(e) If an instantaneous reversible motor is not used, 
a protective device or circuit shall be provided to prevent 
the motor from continuing in the same direction if the 
reversing control is actuated. 

5.3.1.18.3 Key-Operated Switches. Any car exte- 
rior to a residence shall be operated by means of a key 
switch. Key-operated switches shall be of continuous- 
pressure spring-return type, and shall be operated by a 
cylinder-type lock having not less than a five-pin or five- 
disk combination with the key removable only when 
the switch is in the off position. The key shall be Group 
4 Security (see 8.1). 

5.3.1.18.4 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

(a) All electrical equipment and wiring shall conform 
to NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable. 
(07) (b) Electrical equipment shall be listed /certified and 
labeled/marked. CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5 defines the 
scope and applicable requirements for this 
listing / certification. 

(c) The installation of capacitors or other devices, the 
operation or failure of which will cause an unsafe opera- 
tion of the elevator, is prohibited. 

5.3.1.18.5 Disconnecting Means. Where the con- 
troller is located on the car, the disconnecting means 



shall be located adjacent to the controller. Auxiliary dis- 
connect means shall be provided at the main landing 
when the main power supply disconnect means is 
mounted adjacerit to the controller on the car. 

5.3.1.18.6 Pliase Reversal and Failure Protection. 

If polyphase alternating-current power supply is used, 
provide protection in conformance with 2.26.6 and 
3.26.5. 

5.3.1.18.7 Emergency Stop Switch. An emergency 
stop switch, conforming to 2.26.2.5(a), (b), and (c), shall 
be provided in every car and shall have contacts that 
are positively opened mechanically; their openings shall 
not be solely dependent on springs. 

5.3.1.18.8 Slaclc-Rope and Slaclc-Chain Devices for 
Winding Drum and Roller-Cliain-Type Driving Machines. 

Winding drum machines with rope suspension shall be 
provided with a slack-rope device of the manually reset 
type that will remove power from the motor and brake 
if the car is obstructed in its descent and the hoisting 
ropes slacken. 

Elevators with roller-chain suspension shall be pro- 
vided with a slack-chain device that will remove power 
from the motor and brake if the car is obstructed in its 
descent and the suspension means slacken. This device 
need not be of the manually reset type if the chain 
sprockets are guarded to prevent the chain from becom- 
ing disengaged from the sprockets. 

5.3.1.19 Emergency Signaling Devices. A telephone 
connected to a central telephone exchange shall be 
installed in the car and an emergency signaling device 
operable from inside the car and audible outside the 
hoistway shall be provided. 

5.3.1.20 Marking Plates 

5.3.1.20.1 Capacity Plate. A capacity plate indi- 
cating the rated load of the elevator in poimds shall 
be furnished by the manufacturer and fastened in a 
conspicuous place inside the car. The letters and figures 
on such plates shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in 
height. 

5.3.1.20.2 Data Plates. A data plate indicating the 
weight of the elevator, the rated speed, the suspension 
means, the manufacturer's name, and the date of instal- 
lation shall be furnished by the manufacturer. This plate 
shall be installed in a conspicuous place in the machinery 
area. The letters and figures on such plates shall be not 
less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 

5.3.2 Private Residence Hydraulic Elevators 

Machinery and equipment for hydraulic elevators 
shall conform to 5.3.2. 

5.3.2.1 General Requirements for Hydraulic Private 
Residence Elevators. Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, 
and related construction; cars; counterweights; safeties 



164 



ASME A17.1-2007/C5A B44-07 



• 



and governors; guide rails and fastenings; car and coun- 
terweight buffer; operating devices and suspension 
means shall meet the requirements of 5.3.1.1 through 
5.3.1.16, and 5.3.1.18 through 5.3.1.20, except as modified 
in 5.3.2. 

5.3.2.2 Driving Machines, Sheaves, and Supports for 
Direct-Plunger and Roped-Hydraulic Driving Machines 

(07) 5.3.2.2.1 Direct-plunger, roped-hydraulic, and 

chain-hydraulic private residence elevator driving 
machines, sheaves, valves, supply piping, fittings, and 
tanks shall conform to 3.18, 3.19, and 3.24, except as 
modified by 5.3.1.16.2 and 5.3.2. 

5.3.2.2.2 A pressure switch shall be provided to 
remove power from the pump motor and the control 
valve unless there is positive pressure at the control 
valve. 

(07) 5.3.2.3 Terminal Stopping Devices. Direct-plunger, 
roped-hydraulic, and chain-hydraulic private residence 
elevator terminal stopping devices shall conform to 3.25, 
except as modified in 3.25.2. 

5.3.2.4 Anticreep Leveling Devices. Each elevator 
shall be provided with an anticreep leveling device con- 
forming to 5.3.2.4.1 through 5.3.2.4.7. 

5.3.2.4.1 The anticreep leveling device shall 
maintain the car within 25 mm (1 in.) of the landing 
irrespective of the position of the hoistway door. 

5.3.2.4.2 For electrohydraulic elevators, the 
anticreep leveling device shall be required to operate 
the car only in the up direction. 

5.3.2.4.3 For maintained pressure hydraulic ele- 
vators, the anticreep leveling device shall be required to 
operate the car in both directions. 

5.3.2.4.4 The operation of the anticreep leveling 
device shall be permitted to depend on the availability 
of the electric power supply, provided that the power 
supply line disconnecting means is kept in the closed 
position at all times, except during maintenance, repairs, 
and inspection. 

5.3.2.4.5 The anticreep leveling device shall be 
permitted to be rendered inoperative during recycling 
operation. 

5.3.2.4.6 The following devices shall prevent 
operation of the elevator by the normal operating device 
and also the movement of the car in response to the 
anticreep leveling device: 

(a) low pressure switch when required by 5.3.2.2.2 

(b) slack-rope switch when required by 3.18.1.2.7 

(c) platform switch when required by 5.3.1.1.1 

(d) hatch cover switch when required by 5.3.1.1.3(c) 

(e) speed governor switch when required by 5.3.1 .11 .6 



5.3.2.4.7 The following devices shall prevent the 
operation of the elevator by the normal operating device, 
but the anticreep leveling device shall remain operable: 

(a) hoistway door locking device when required by 
5.3.1.7.4 

(b) car door or gate electric contacts when required 
by 5.3.1.8,2(c) 

(c) emergency stop switch when required by 5 .3. 1 . 1 8.7 

SECTION 5.4 
PRIVATE RESIDENCE INCLINED ELEVATORS 

Requirement 5.4 applies to inclined elevators installed 
in or at a private residence. Requirement 5.4 also applies 
to similar elevators installed in buildings as a mearis 
of access to private residences within such buildings, 
provided the inclined elevators are so installed that they 
are not accessible to the general public or to other occu- 
pants in the building. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
private residence inclined elevators. 

5.4.1 Runway Protection 

If the car sides extend less than 1 825 mm (72 in.) 
above the jQoor of the car, there shall be no obstruction 
along the runway, within the arc formed by a 600 mm 
(24 in.) radius whose center is the outer comer of the 
top rail of the car enclosure. 

When solid guards are installed on the obstruction in 
both directions of travel, which project at least 350 mm 
(14 in.) in line with the direction of travel, the running 
clearance shall be permitted to be reduced to 175 mm 
(7 in.). The exposed edge of the guard shall be roimded 
to eliminate shear hazards, 

5.4.2 Landing Enclosures and Gates (Where 
Required) 

5.4.2.1 Landing Enclosures. Where a landing plat- 
form is provided or if a portion of an existing structure 
is used as a landing platform, it shall be protected by 
an enclosure not less than 915 mm (36 in.) high. 

5.4.2.2 Landing Gates. The opening in the enclosure 
shall be guarded by a gate to a height equal to that of 
the enclosure. The gates shall be permitted to be of the 
horizontally sliding or of the swinging type and shall 
be equipped with a combination mechanical lock and 
electric contact conforming to 2.12,4, 5.3.1.7.4, 5.3.1.7.5, 
5.3.1.7.6, and 5.3.1.7.7 where doors and gates exceed 
915 mm (36 in.) in height. 

5.4.2.3 Construction of Landing Enclosures and 
Gates. The landing enclosure and gates shall either be 
of solid construction or of openwork rejecting a 25 mm 
(1 in.) ball. A force of 670 N (150 Ibf) applied at any 
area 100 mm x 100 mm (4 in. X 4 in.) on the walls of 
the enclosure shall not reduce the running clearance 



165 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



below 19 mm (0.75 in.) nor cause a deflection exceeding 
25 mm (1 in.). 

5.4.2.4 Clearance Between Landing Doors or Gates 
and Landing Sills and Car Doors or Gates. The clearance 
between landing doors or gates and the nmway edge 
of the landing sill shall not exceed 75 mm (3 in.). The 
distance between the runway face of the landing doors 
or gates and the car door or gate shall not exceed 175 mm 
(7 in.). 

5.4.2.5 Horizontal Clearance Between Car and Land- 
ing Sills. The horizontal clearance between the car and 
landing sills shall conform to 5.3.1.4.2. 

5.4.3 Machinery Beams and Supports 

5.4.3.1 Securing of Macliinery Beams and Type of 
Support. All machinery and sheaves shall be so sup- 
ported and secured as to effectually prevent any part 
from becoming loose or displaced. Beams directly sup- 
porting machinery shall be of steel, sound timber, or 
reinforced concrete. 

5.4.3.2 Loads on Beams and Supports. Loads on 
beams and their supports shall be computed as follows: 

(a) The total load on the beams shall be equal to the 
weight of all apparatus resting on the beams plus twice 
the maximum load suspended from the beams. 

(b) The load resting on the beams shall include the 
complete weights of the driving machine, sheaves, con- 
troller, etc. 

(c) The load suspended from the beams shall include 
the sum of the load in every rope or chain suspended 
from the beams. 

5.4.3.3 Fastening of Driving Machines and Slieaves 
to Underside of Beams. Elevator driving machine and 
sheaves, except idlers or deflecting sheaves with their 
guards and frames, shall not be fastened to the underside 
of the supporting beams at the top of the hoistway. 

Cast iron in tension shall not be used for supporting 
members for sheaves where they are hung beneath 
beams. 

5.4.3.4 Factor of Safety of Beams and Supports. 

The factor of safety for beams and their supports shall 
be not less than 5 for steel and 6 for timber and reinforced 
concrete. 

5.4.4 Car Enclosures, Car Doors, and Gates 
5.4.4.1 Car Enclosures 

5.4.4.1.1 Car Enclosures Required. Except at the 
entrance, cars shall be enclosed on all sides to a height 
of not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.). 

5.4.4.1.2 Securing of Car Enclosures. The car 

enclosure shall be securely fastened to the car platform 
and so supported that it cannot loosen or become dis- 
placed in ordinary service or on the application of the 



car safety or on bumper or buffer engagement. 

5.4.4.1.3 Deflection of Car Enclosure Walls. The 

car enclosure walls shall be of such strength and so 
designed and supported that when subjected to a force 
of 334 N (75 Ibf ) applied horizontally at any point on 
the walls of the enclosure, the deflection will not reduce 
the running clearance below 19 mm (0.75 in.) nor to 
exceed 25 mm (1 in.). 

5.4.4.1.4 Platform Guards (Aprons). Requirement 
5.3.1.9.1(b) applies, and the guard shall extend horizon- 
tally within the zone where the doors or gates are 
unlocked. 

5.4.4.2 Car Doors or Gates 

5.4.4.2.1 Doors or Gates Required. A car door or 
gate that, when closed, will guard the opening to a 
height of at least 1 070 mm (42 in.) or to the height of 
the car enclosure, whichever is greater, and shall be 
provided at each entrance to the car. Car doors shall be 
permitted to be of solid or openwork construction that 
will reject a ball 75 mm (3 in.) in diameter. 

5.4.4.2.2 Door or Gate Electric Contacts. Car doors 
or gates shall be provided with an electric contact con- 
forming to 2.U.42.3 and 2.14.4.2.5. 



Car doors or gates 



5.4.4.2.3 Manual Operation. 

shall be manually operated. 

5.4.4.2.4 Latching of Swinging Gates. If the car 

gate is of the swinging type, opening outward from the 
car, the electric contact required by 5.4.4.2.2 shaU not 
close until the gate is securely latched. 

5.4.4.3 Use of Glass, Plastics, or Acrylics 

5.4.4.3.1 Qlass, plastics, or acrylics, where used 
in elevator cars, shall conform to the following: 

(a) if of glass, meet the requirements of 2.14.1.8 

(b) if of plastic or acrylic, it shall meet the require- 
ments of ANSI Z97.1, 16 CFR Part 1201, or 
CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, and CAN/CGSB- 
12.12, whichever is applicable 

5.4.4.3.2 Glass, plastics, or acrylics shall be 
secured as required by 5.4.4.1.2. 

5.4.4.3.3 Weatlier-Resistant Plastics. Plastics 
shall be of a weather-resistant type. 

5.4.5 Car and Chassis Construction 

5.4.5.1 Car and Platform. Inclined elevator cars shall 
have frames and platforms of metal or combination 
metal and wood, or other materials of equal strength. 
Car frames and platforms shall have a factor of safety 
of not less than 5, based on the rated load, they suitably 
prepared and /or protected for exposure to the weather. 

5.4.5.2 Chassis Construction. Inclined elevator 
chassis shall be constructed of metal, except for guiding 



166 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



members. Chassis shall have a factor of safety of not 
less than 5, based on the rated load. The chassis-guiding 
members shall be retained and /or enclosed in guides 
or tracks in such a manner that the chassis cannot be 
derailed. 

5.4.5.3 Use of Cast Iron. Cast iron shall not be used 
in the construction of any member of the car frame or 

chassis. 

5.4.5.4 Number of Compartments. The car shall not 
have more than one compartment. 

5.4.6 Capacity 

5.4.6.1 Rated Load and Platform Area. The rated 
load and net platform area shall conform to 5.3.1.10.1. 

5.4.6.2 Shelves or Benches. Shelves or benches per- 
manently fixed to the car structure, which reduce the 
standing area of the platform, are permitted and shall 
not exceed 0.55 m^ (1.8 ft^). Fifty percent of the net area 
of shelves or benches shall be added to the standing 
platform area to calculate the net platform area. 

5.4.6.3 Rated Speed. The rated speed measured 
along the incline shall not exceed 0.38 m/s (^5 ft/min). 

5.4.7 Safeties and Governors 

5.4.7.1 Car Safeties Required. Each inclined eleva- 
tor shall be provided with a car safety capable of stop- 
ping and sustaining the car with rated load. 

5.4.7.2 Operation of Car Safeties. The car safety 
shall be of Type A, B, or C, as specified in 2.17.5, and 
shall be operated by a speed governor, complying with 
the following requirements: 

(a) The governor shall be set to trip at not less than 
115% nor more than 140% of the rated speed. 

(h) Type A safeties shall operate as required by 
2.17.8.1. 

(c) Type C safeties shall operate as required by 
2.17.8.2. 

5.4.7.3 Counterweight Safeties. If the construction 
at the lower end of the rail is not at or below grade 
at the termination of the rail, counterweight safeties 
conforming to 5.4.7 shall be provided, except governor 
operation of the safeties is not required. 

5.4.7.4 Location of Speed Governor. The speed gov- 
ernor shall be located where it cannot be struck by the 
car or coimterweight in case of overtravel and where 
there is sufficient space for full movement of the gover- 
nor parts and where it is accessible for examination. 

5.4.7.5 Opening of Bralce and Motor Control Circuits 
on Safety Application. Power shall be removed from 
the driving-machine motor and brake before or at the 
time the safety applies. 



5.4.7.6 Governor Ropes. The governor ropes, where 
used, shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, or phosphor 
bronze not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. Tiller- 
rope construction shall not be used. 

5.4.7.7 Slaclc-Rope and Slaclc-Chain Devices for Wind- 
ing Drum and Roller-Chain-Type Driving JVlachines 

5.4.7.7.1 Inclined elevators of the winding-drum 
type with rope suspension shall be provided with a 
slack-rope device of the manually reset type, which will 
remove the power from the motor and brake if the car 
is obstructed in its descent and the suspension rope 
slackens. 

5.4.7.7.2 Inclined elevators with roller-chain sus- 
pension shaU be provided with a slack-chain device, 
which will remove the power from the motor and brake 
if the car is obstructed in its descent and the suspension 
chains slacken. This device need not be of the manually 
reset type if the chain sprockets are guarded to prevent 
the chain from jumping off the sprockets. 

5.4.7.8 Application of Car Safety. The application 
of car safeties shall comply with 5.3.1.11.3. 

5.4.7.9 Use of Cast Iron in Car Safeties. Cast iron 
shall not be used in the construction of any part of a 
car safety, the breakage of which would result in failure 
of the safety to fimction to stop and sustain the car. 

5.4.7.10 Corrosion-Resistant Bearings in Safeties. 

Materials used in safeties shall meet the requirements 
of 2.17.13. 

5.4.8 Suspension Means 

5.4.8.1 Types Permitted. Where the chassis is sus- 
pended from the driving machine by a wire rope or roller 
chain, a single suspension means shall be permitted to 
be used. The suspension means shaU be any one of the 
following: 

(a) steel elevator wire rope 

(h) steel aircraft cable 

(c) roller chain conforming to ASME B29.1 

5.4.8.2 Types Prohibited. Steel tapes shall not be 
used as suspension means. 

5.4.8.3 Minimum Diameter of Suspension Means. 

The diameter of hoist rope(s) or cable(s) shall not be less 
than the following: 

(a) 6 mm (0.25 in.) for elevator wire rope 

(b) 5 mm (0.1875 in.) for galvanized aircraft cable 

5.4.8.4 Factor of Safety of Suspension Means. The 

suspension means shall have a factor of safety of not 
less than 8, based on the tension in the rope(s) or chain(s) 
when raising the car and its rated load. In no case shall 
the rated breaking strength of the rope(s) or chain(s) be 
less than 17 800 N (4,000 Ibf ). 



167 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



5.4.8.5 Arc of Contact of Suspension Means on 
Sheaves and Sprockets. The arc of contact of a wire 
rope on a traction sheave shall be sufficient to produce 
adequate traction under all load conditions. The arc of 
contact of a chain with a driving sprocket shall be not 
less than 140 deg. 

5.4.8.6 Idle Turns of Ropes on Winding Drums. All 

wire ropes anchored to a winding drum shall have not 
less than one full turn of rope on the drum when the 
car or counterweight has reached its limit of possible 
overtravel. 

5.4.8.7 Lengthening, SpUcing, Repairing, or Replac- 
ing Suspension Means. No car or counterweight wire 
rope shall be lengthened or repaired by splicing. Broken 
or worn suspension chains shall not be repaired. If one 
wire rope or a chain of a set is worn or damaged and 
requires replacement, the entire set of ropes or chains 
shall be replaced/In the event that a worn chain is 
replaced, the drive sprocket shall also be replaced. 

5.4.8.8 Securing Ends of Suspension Ropes in Wind- 
ing Drums. The winding-drum ends of car and counter- 
weight wire ropes shall be secured by clamps on the 
inside of the drum or by one of the methods specified in 
5.4.8.9 for fastening wire ropes to car or counterweight. 

5.4.8.9 Fastening of Rope Suspension Means to Cars 
and Counterweights. The car or counterweight ends of 
wire ropes shall be fastened by return loop, by properly 
made individual tapered sockets or by properly attached 
fittings as recommended by wire-rope manufacturers. 
Clamps of the U-bolt type shall not be used. 

Tapered rope sockets and the method of socketting 
shall conform to 2.20.9.4 through 2.20.9.6. The diameter 
of the hole in the small end of the socket shall not exceed 
the nominal diameter of the rope by more than 2.3 mm 
(0.094 in.). 

5.4.9 Counterweight Guiding and Construction 

5.4.9.1 Guiding. Counterweights, where used, shall 
be in a guide or track. 

5.4.9.2 Construction. Counterweights shall not be 
of sufficient weight to cause undue slackening of any 
car suspension means during acceleration or retardation 
of the car. Weight sections, if used, shall be mounted in 
structural or formed metal frames so designed as to 
retain weights securely in place. Counterweights shall 
be permitted to be constructed of a single metal plate. 

5.4.10 Bumpers and Buffers 

5.4.10.1 Solid Bumpers. For rated speeds not 
exceeding 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), if spring- or equivalent- 
type buffers are not used, solid bumpers shall be 
installed. 

5.4.10.2 Construction and Requirements for Solid 
Bumpers. Solid bumpers shall be made of wood or 



other suitable resilient material of sufficient strength to 
withstand, without failure, the impact of the car with 
rated load or the counterweight, descending at 125% of 
the rated speed. 

The material used shall be of a type that will resist 
deterioration or be so treated as to resist deterioration. 

5.4.10.3 Spring Buffers. For rated speeds exceeding 
0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), buffers of the spring type shall be 
installed. 

5.4.10.4 Construction and Requirements for Spring 
Buffers. Spring buffers shall be constructed so as to 
have a minimum stroke of 19 mm (0.75 in.) and a maxi- 
mum stroke of 38 mm (1.5 in.) and shall not be fully 
compressed when struck by the car with its rated load 
or counterweight traveling at 125% of the rated speed. 

5.4.11 Car and Counterweight Guide and Tracl< 
Supports and Fastenings 

5.4.11.1 Material. Guide rails, guide-rail brackets, 
splice plates, and their fastenings shall be of steel or 
other metals conforming to 5.3.1.15 and 5.4.11. 

5.4.11.2 Stresses of Deflections. The guide-rail 
brackets, their fastenings and supports, shall be capable 
of resisting the horizontal forces imposed by loading 
with a total deflection at the point of support not in 
excess of 3 mm (0.125 in.). The guide rails shall not 
deflect in any direction 6 mm (0.25 in.) measured at the 
midpoint between brackets. 

5.4.11.3 Overall Length of Guide Rails or Traclc. The 

top and bottom ends of each rim of guide rail shall be 
so located in relation to the extreme positions of travel 
of the car and counterweight that the car and counter- 
weight guiding members cannot travel beyond the ends 
of the guide rails. 

5.4.12 Track(s)/Guide(s) Supporting Structure 

All supporting structures shall meet the requirements 
of the building code. 

5.4.13 Driving Machines and Sheaves 

5.4.13.1 Materials for Drums and Sheaves and Mini- 
mum Diameters. Winding drums, traction sheaves, and 
overhead and deflecting sheaves shall be of cast iron or 
steel and of a diameter of not less than 30 times the 
diameter of the wire suspension ropes, except that where 
8 X 19 steel ropes or 7 x 19 aircraft cable are used, the 
diameter of drums and sheaves shall be permitted to be 
reduced to 21 times the diameter of the rope.- The rope 
grooves shall be machined. 

5.4.1 3.2 Factor of Safety. The factor of safety, based 
on the static load (the rated load plus the weight of the 
car, ropes, counterweights, etc.) to be used in the design 
of driving machines and sheaves, shall be not less than 



168 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



• 



8 for wrought iror\ steel and 10 for cast iron, cast steel, 
and other metals. 

5.4.13.3 Set-Screw Fastenings. Set-screw fastenings 
shall not be used in lieu of keys or pins if the connection 
is subject to torque or tension. 

5.4.13.4 Friction Gear, Clutch Mechanism, or Cou- 
pling. Friction gear, clutch mechanism, or coupling 
shall not be used for connecting the drum or sheaves 
to the main driving gear. 

5.4.13.5 Use of Cast Iron in Gears. Worm gearing 
having cast iron teeth shall not be used. 

5.4.13.6 Driving-Machine Brakes. Driving machines 
shall be equipped with electrically released spring- 
applied brakes meeting the requirements of 2.24.8 and 
2.26.8. 

5.4.13.7 Operation of Brake. A single ground or 
short circuit, a coimter voltage or a motor field discharge 
shall not prevent the brake magnet from allowing the 
brake to set when the operating device is placed in the 
stop position. 

5.4.13.8 Location of Driving Machine, Alignment, and 
Guarding of Sheaves. The driving machine shall be 
permitted to be mounted on the car chassis or placed 
at a remote location. If remotely located, all intervening 
sheaves or sprockets shall be placed to ensure that ropes 
or chains travel in proper alignment. All sheaves or 
sprockets shall be guarded. 

5.4.13.9 Driving-Machine Roller-Chain Sprockets. 

Driving-machine roller-chain sprockets shall be steel 
and shall conform in all particulars of design and dimen- 
sions to ASME B29.L 

5.4.13.10 Manual Operation. Manual operation 
shall conform to 5.3.1.16.2(1). 

5.4.14 Terminal Stopping Devices 

5.4.14.1 Terminal Stopping Devices. Upper and 
lower normal terminal stopping switches, operated by 
the movement of the car, shall be provided and set to 
stop the car at normal top and bottom terminals of travel. 

5.4.14.2 Final Stopping Devices. Final terminal 
stopping devices, operated by the movement of the car, 
shall be provided and set to stop the car should it 
overtravel the normal terminals. 

5.4.14.3 Operation of Stopping Devices. The final 
terminal stopping device shall act to prevent the move- 
ment of the car in both directions of travel. The normal 
and final terminal stopping devices shall not control the 
same switches on the controller imless two or more 
separate and independent switches are provided, two 
of which shall be closed to complete the motor and brake 
circuits in each direction of travel. 



5.4.15 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

5.4.15.1 Type of Operation. The inclined elevator 
shall be operated by weatherproof constant pressure or 
momentary pressure key switches at each landing and 
on the car. Key-operated switches shall be of the spring- 
return type and shall be operated by a cylinder-type 
lock having not less than five-pin or five-disk combina- 
tion with the key removable only when the switch is 
in the off position. The key shall be Group 4 Security 
(see 8.1). 

5.4.15.2 Emergency Stop Switches in Cars. An 

emergency stop switch shall be provided on or adjacent 
to the car operating panel. Stop switches shall be of the 
manually opened and manually closed type with red 
handles or buttons and conspicuously marked ''STOP." 
Where springs are used, their failure shall not prevent 
opening of the switch. 

5.4.15.3 Control and Operating Circuit Require- 
ments. The design and installation of the control and 
operating circuits shall conform to 5.3.1.18.2. 



5.4.15.4 Hand Rope Operation. 

tion shall not be used. 



Hand rope opera- 



5.4.15.5 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

5.4.15.5.1 Electrical Equipment and Wiring Require- 
ments. Requirements 5.3.1.18.4, 5.3.1.18.5, and 
5.3.1.18.6 apply 

5.4.15.5.2 Electrical Connections. If the driving (07) 
machine is mounted on the car chassis, electrical connec- 
tions between the car and power source shall be pro- 
vided with a means to remove power if the connecting 
traveling cable part. All electrical connections to the 
moving chassis and the stationary connections shall be 
insulated flexible conductors, in accordance with 
NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see 
Part 9). 

5.4.15.5.3 Traveling Cables. Traveling cables shall 
be Type EO, ETT, or ETP and shall conform to the 
requirements of NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is 
applicable (see Part 9). Where traveling cable voltage 
exceeds 30 V, a means shall be provided to remove the 
power automatically upon parting of the traveling cable. 

5.4.16 Marking Plates 

Capacity, data, and code data plates shall be provided 
as required in 5.3.1.20.1, 5.3.1,20.2, and 8.9. All plates 
shall be weather resistant. 

SECTION 5.5 
POWER SIDEWALK ELEVATORS 

Requirement 5.5 applies to power sidewalk elevators. 
Requirement 5.5.1 applies to electric elevators. Require- 
ment 5.5.2 applies to direct-plunger hydraulic elevators. 



169 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
power sidewalk elevators. 

5.5.1 Electric Sidewalk Elevators 

5.5.1.1 Construction of Hoistways and Hoistway 
Enclosures. The construction of hoistway enclosures 
shall conform to 2.1, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.1.1.1. Hoistways are not required to 
be enclosed above the top landing. 

(b) Requirement 2.1.1.3 does not apply. 

(c) Requirement 2.1.2.1 does not apply. 

(d) Requirement 2.1.3 does not apply. 

(e) Requirement 2.1.4 does not apply. 

5.5.1.2 Pits. Pits shall conform to 2.2. Means shall 
be provided to automatically remove water from the pit. 

5.5.1.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweiglit. 

The location and guarding of counterweights shall con- 
form to 2.3. 

5.5.1.4 Vertical Clearances and Runbys. Where a 
car top is provided, bottom and top clearances and run- 
bys for cars and counterweights shall conform to 2.4. 

Where no car top is provided, they shall conform to 
2.4.1 through 2.4.4 and 2.4.9. When the car has reached 
its maximum upward movement, no equipment shall 
strike the overhead structure or other obstructions. 

On elevators with vertical lifting covers, there shall 
be a clearance of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between 
the top of the cover and any obstruction vertically above 
it when the car has reached its maximum upward 
movement. 

The clearance required by 2.4.1 does not apply below 
underslung elevators with the car resting on its fully 
compressed buffers, when a refuge space not less than 
either of the following is provided: 

(a) a horizontal area 600 mm X 1 200 mm (24 in. x 
48 in.), with a height of 600 mm (24 in.) 

(h) a horizontal area 450 mm x 900 mm (18 in. x 
36 in.), with a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.) 

5.5.1.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clear- 
ances. Horizontal car and counterweight clearances 
shall conform to 2.5, except as modified by 5.5.1.5. 

For sidewalk elevators with adjacent openings, the 
maximum clearance required by 2.5.1.5 shall be permit- 
ted to be increased on the side where the overhead 
sheaves are located, provided that in such cases this 
clearance shall not be greater than that required for the 
installation of the sheaves or sheave beams plus running 
clearance of not more than 25 mm (1 in.). 

5.5.1.6 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistway. Where 
the hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the 
building, it shall conform to 2.6. 

5.5.1.7 Machine Rooms and Machinery Spaces. 

Machine rooms and machinery spaces shall conform 
to 2.7. 



5.5.1.8 Equipment in Hoistways and Machine 
Rooms. Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts 
in hoistways and machine rooms shall conform to 2.8 
and 5.5.1.8.1 through 5.5.1.8.3. 

5.5.1.8.1 Slack-rope switches (where required), 
lower normal and final terminal stopping devices, and 
pit stop switches shall be located not less than 600 irun 
(24 in.) above the pit floor. 

5.5.1.8.2 All electrical equipment in the hoistway 
shall be weatherproof. 

5.5.1.8.3 Electrical metal tubing (EMT) shall not 

be used. 

5.5.1.9 Machinery and Sheave Beams, Supports, and 
Foundations. Machinery and sheave beams, supports, 
and foimdations shaU conform to 2.9. 

5.5.1.10 Guarding. The guarding of exposed auxil- 
iary equipment shall conform to 2.10. 

5.5.1.11 Protection of Hoistway Landing Openings 

5.5.1.11.1 Vertical Openings. Vertical hoistway 
landing openings shall conform to 2.11, except that 
2.11.2.1 does not apply. 

5.5.1.11.2 Horizontal Openings in Sidewallcs and 
Other Areas Exterior to the Building 

(a) The clear opening in a sidewalk that is accessible 
to the general public when the sidewalk door or cover is 
open shall be such that the sidewalk permits a minimum 
1 200 mm (48 in.) wide unobstructed pedestrian path, 
which is not nornially accessible to vehicular traffic. 

(b) Hoistways shall not be located either wholly or 
partially in front of any entrance to a building. 

(c) The side of the door opening nearest to any build- 
ing wall or other obstruction shall be less than or equal 
to 100 mm (4 in.), or greater than 914 mm (36 in.), from 
the wall or obstruction. 

(d) Horizontal openings in sidewalks or other areas 
exterior to the building shall be protected by hinged 
metal doors or vertically lifting covers having a nonslip 
upper surface. Such doors or covers shall not be used 
where the hoistway is located inside the building. Doors 
or covers shall be of sufficient strength to safely support 
a static load of not less than 1 460 kg/m^ (300 Ib/ft^), 
imiformly distributed. 

(e) When in the closed position, doors shall be flush 
with the adjacent sidewalk or other surface. 

if) Such doors and covers shall conform to 5.5.1.11.3 
or 5.5.1.11.4. 

(g) All openings between sidewalk door panels and 
frames shall be provided with gutters to collect rain- 
water Their gutters shall be piped rigidly to a discharge 
point exterior to the hoistway and pit or to the sump 
pit when provided and designed in accordance with 
5.5.1.2. 



170 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(h) When subject to vehicular traffic, the doors or 
covers shall be designed to safely support the loads 
likely to be imposed on them. 

5.5.1.113 Hinged-Type Swing Sidewalk Doors 

(a) The line of the hinges shall be at right angles to 
the building wall. 

(b) There shall be a minimum clearance of 450 mm 
(18 in.) between the face of the doors and any obstruction 
when the doors are in the open position. 

(c) The doors shall be opened by the ascending car 
and shall be self-closing as the car descends, and shall 
be kept in the closed position when the car is not at the 
top landing, except as provided for in 5.5.1.11.3(d), 

(d) The doors shall be permitted to be held or fastened 
in the open position when the car is not at the top 
landing, provided self-closing hinged metal screen pan- 
els, which will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter 
and which will support a static load of not less than 
1 136 kg (300 Ibf ) applied on any area 600 mm (24 in.) 
on a side and not less than 68 kg (150 lb) applied at 
any point, are installed directly below the watertight 
sidewalk doors. Screen panels shall be opened and 
closed automatically by the ascending and descending 
car and shall always be closed when the car is not at 
the top landing. 

(e) Stops shall be provided to prevent the doors from 
opening more than 90 deg from their closed position. 

5.5.1.11*4 Vertical Lifting Sidewall^ Covers 

(a) The covers shall be raised and lowered vertically 
by the ascending and descending car and shall not be 
held or fastened in the open position when the car is 
not at the top landing. 

(h) Recesses or guides, which will securely hold the 
cover in place on the stanchions^ shall be provided on 
the underside of the cover. 

5.5.1.12 Holstway Door Lodging Devices and Electric 
Contacts, and Hoistway Access Switches. Hoistway 
door locking devices, car door or gate electric contacts, 
and hoistway access switches shall conform to 2.12, 
except as modified by 5.5.1.12.1 through 5.5.1.12.3. 

5.5.1.12.1 Requirement 2.12.1.1 does not apply. 

5.5.1.12.2 Interlocks or electric contacts are not 
required on horizontal hinged-type swinging covers and 
vertical lifting covers used at the top landing in side- 
walks or other areas exterior to the building. Locks, if 
used, shall be of the spring type and shall be automati- 
cally unlocked by the bow irons or stanchions of the 
car, unless the locks are of the lype that permit operation 
of the elevators to open the cover only if the locking 
device is in the unlocked position. 

5.5.1.12.3 Requirement 2.12.7. Hoistway access 
switches are not required for access to the top of the car. 



5.5.1.13 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and Car 
Doors. Power operation, power opening, and power 
closing of the hoistway doors and car doors or gates 
shall conform to 2.13. 

5.5.1.14 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and 
Car Illumination 

5.5.1.14.1 Car Enclosures. Car enclosures shall 
conform to 2.14.1 and 2.14.3, except as modified by the 
following: 

(a) Car tops are not required. Where provided, the 
distance between the top of the car and the bow iron 
or stanchions shall be not less than 1 067 mm (42 in.). 

(b) Requirements 2.14.1.5 and 2.14.1.6 apply only 
when a car top is provided. 

(c) The height of the car enclosure required by 2.14.3.1 
shall be permitted to be reduced when the height of 
the bow iron or stanchion is reduced as permitted by 
5.5.1.15.2(a). 

5.5.1.14.2 Car Doors and Gates. Car doors and 
gates shall conform to 2.14.4 and 2.14.6. 

5.5.1.14.3 Illumination of Cars. Illumination of 
cars and lighting fixtures shall conform to 2.14.7, except 
as modified by the following: 

(a) Lighting devices are not required in the car if there 
are lighting devices exterior to the car, which will pro- 
vide the minimum illumination specified in 2.14.7.1.2(b) 
for the full travel of the car. 

(b) Requirement 2.14.7.1.3 does not apply. 

(c) Requirement 2.14.7 A A applies only where a car 
top is provided. 



5.5.1.15 Car Frames and Platforms. 

platforms shall conform to 2.15. 



Car frames and 



5.5.1.15.1 Car Frames and Platforms of Elevators 
Traveling Above the Level of the Sidewallc. Sidewalk 
elevators arranged to travel above the level of the side- 
walk or other area exterior to the building shall conform 
to the following: 

(a) Car frames of the underslung rope-suspended- 
type elevators shall be of sufficient depth to provide the 
minimum vertical clearance between the car rope hitches 
or car sheaves and any obstruction in the hoistway verti- 
cally above them, as specified in 2.4.8, when the car floor 
is level with its upper landing level. 

(b) The depth of the car frame and the length and 
spacing of guiding members shall conform to 2.15.4 and, 
in addition, shall be such as to prevent tipping of the 
platform when it is at the highest upper landing level. 

(c) The car platform shall be provided with metal 
aprons or guards on all exposed sides conforming to 
the following: 

(1) They shall be made of metal of not less than 
1.5 mm (0.059 in.) in thickness. 



171 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(2) They shall have a straight vertical face flush 
with the outer edge of the platform having a depth of 
not less than the distance between the normal upper 
terminal landing level and the highest upper landing 
level plus 75 mm (3 in.). 

(3) The lower portion of the guard shall be rounded 
or beveled at an angle of approximately 75 deg with the 
horizontal. 

5.5.1.15.2 Bow Irons and Stanchions. Where 
hinged doors or vertically lifting covers are provided at 
the sidewalk or other exterior area, bow irons or stan- 
chions shall be provided on the car to operate the doors 
or covers. 

Bow irons and stanchions shall conform to the fol- 
lowing: 

(a) They shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) high, 
except that this height shall be permitted to be reduced 
by an amount necessary to permit the doors or covers 
to close when the car is at the landing next to the top 
terminal landing. 

(b) They shall be so designed, installed, and braced 
as to withstand the impact when striking the doors or 
covers. 

(c) Bow irons shall be located approximately symmet- 
rical with respect to the center of the car platform. 

(d) Stanchions shall be framed together at tiieir upper 
ends and provided with spring buffers at the top. 

5.5.1.16 Capacity and Loading. Capacity and load- 
ing shall conform to 2.16, except as modified by the 
following: 

(a) Requirement 2.16.1 does not apply. 

(b) Requirement 2.16.4 does hot apply. Sidewalk ele- 
vators shaU not be permitted to carry passengers. 

5.5.1.17 Car and Counterweight Safeties. Safeties 
shall conform to 2.17, except as modified by the fol- 
lowing: 

Where the rated speed does not exceed 0.25 m/s 
(50 ft/min), car safeties that operate as a result of break- 
ing or slackening of the hoisting ropes shall be permitted 
to be used in lieu of governor-actuated safeties required 
by 2.17.7.1. The safety shall operate without delay. 

5.5.1.18 Speed Governors. Governors, where pro- 
vided, shall conform to 2.18. 

5.5.1.19 Suspension Ropes. Suspension ropes shall 
conform to 2.20. 

5.5.1.20 Counterweights. Counterweights shall 
conform to 2.21. 

5.5.1.21 Buffers and Bumpers. Buffers and bumpers 
shall conform to 2.22. 

5.5.1.22 Guide Rails. Guide rails shall conform to 
2.23. 



5.5.1.23 Driving Machines and Sheaves. Driving 
machines and sheaves shall conform to 2.24, except that 
the ratio of the drum diameter to the rope diameter (see 
2.24.2) shall be permitted to be reduced to 24. 

5.5.1.24 Terminal Stopping Devices. Terminal stop- 
ping devices shaU conform to 2.25 (see also 5.5.1.8). 

5.5.1.25 Operating Devices and Control Equipment. 

Operating devices and control equipment shall conform 
to 2.26, except as modified by 5.5,1.25.1 through 
5.5.1.25.4. Where the top opening is located in an area 
exterior to the building, all electrical equipment on the 
car shall be weatherproof. 

5.5.1.25.1 Types of Operating Devices. Operating 
devices shall be of the automatic or continuous-pressure 
type. Operation through openings in the sidewalk or 
other area exterior to the building shall conform to 

5.5.1.25.2. 

5.5.1.25.2 Operation Through Openings in Side- 
walk or Other Area Exterior to the Building. The opera- 
tion of elevators through openings in the sidewalk, or 
through openings in other exterior areas, and which are 
protected by hinged doors or vertically lifting covers, 
shall conform to the following: 

(a) The elevator shall be operated through the open- 
ing, in both the iip and down directions, only from 
the sidewalk or other exterior area and at a speed not 
exceeding 0.13 m/s (25 ft/min). The operation shall be 
by means of 

(1) key-operated continuous-pressure-type up- 
and-down switches; or 

(2) continuous-pressure-type up-and-down 
operating buttons on the free end of a detachable, flexi- 
ble cord not more than 1 525 mm (60 in.) in length. 

(b) Key-operated switches shall be of the continuous- 
pressure spring-return type and shall be operated by a 
cylinder-type lock having not less than a five-pin or five- 
disk combination with the key removable only when 
the switch is in the "OFF" position. 

(c) Key-operated switches and plug receptacles for 
flexible cords shall be weatherproof and shall be 
installed above the sidewalk or other area on the side 
of the building wall, located 450 mm (18 in.) or less 
horizontally from one side of the opening. 

(d) Operating buttons, if provided in the elevator car 
and at any landing below the top landing, shall operate 
the car only when the bow iron or stanchions are not 
in contact with the doors or covers in the sidewalk or 
other exterior area. 

(e) When the bow iron or stanchions are in contact 
with the doors or covers at the sidewalk or other exterior 
area, it shall be possible to operate the car only by means 
of either the key switches or the continuous-pressure- 
type up-and-down buttons on the free end of the flexible 
cord specified in 5.5.1.25.2(a). 



172 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(/) Flexible cords and operating keys shall not be left 
where they are accessible to unauthorized persons for 
operation of the elevator. 

5.5.1.25.3 Top-of-Car Operating Devices and Stop 
Switch. The requirement for a top-of-car operating 
device (see 2.26,1.4) applies only where a car top is 
provided. It shall operate the car at a speed not greater 
than 0.13 m/s (25 ft/min). It shall not operate when the 
bow iron or stanchions are in contact with the doors or 
covers in the sidewalk or other exterior area. 

The requirement for a stop switch on top of the car 
(see 2.26.2.8) applies only where a car top is provided. 

5.5.1.25.4 Maximum Rated Speed. Where the car 
is not fully enclosed, the rated speed shall not exceed 
0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), except as required by 5.5.1.25.2(a) 
and 5.5.1.25.3. 

Where the car is fully enclosed, there is no limit on 
the rated speed, except as required by 5.5.1.25.2(a) and 
5.5.1.25.3. 

(ED) 5.5.1.26 Car Emergency Signaling Devices. If car 

operating buttons are provided, car emergency signaling 
devices shall be provided conforming to 2.27.1.1.1 and 
2.27.1.2. If the rise is more than 7.6 m (25 ft), the signaling 
devices shall also conform to 2.27.1.1.2. 

5.5.1.27 Layout Data. The information provided on 
layout data shall conform to 2.28. 

5.5.1.28 Welding. Welding shall conform to 8.8. 
5.5.2 Direct-Plunger Hydraulic Sidewalk Elevators 

5.5.2.1 Hoistways, Hoistway Enclosures, and Related 
Construction. Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and 
related construction shall conform to 5.5.1.1 through 
5.5.1.13, and 5.5.2.1 through 5.5.2.18, except 5.5.1.4 and 

5.5.1.6. 

5.5.2.2 Vertical Clearances and Runbys. Where a 
car top is provided, bottom and top clearances and run- 
bys for cars and counterweights shall conform to 3.4. 

Where no car top is provided, they shall conform to 
3.4.1, 3.4.2.1, and 3.4.6.2. When the car has reached its 
maximum upward movement, no equipment shall strike 
the overhead structure or other obstruction. 

5.5.2.3 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistway. Where 
the hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the 
building, it shall conform to 3.6. 

5.5.2.4 Machine Rooms and Machinery Spaces. 

Machine rooms and machinery spaces shall conform 
to 3.7. 

5.5.2.5 Emergency Doors. The requirements for 
emergency doors in single-blind hoistways apply only 
where a car safety is provided. 

5.5.2.6 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car 
Illumination. Car enclosures, car doors and gates, and 



car illumination shall conform to 5.5.1.14. 

5.5.2.7 Car Frames and Platforms. Car frames and 
platforms shall conform to 3.15, 5.5.1.15.1, and 5.5.1,15,2. 

5.5.2.8 Capacity and Loading. Capacity and loading 
shall conform to 2.16, except as modified by 3.16 and 

5.5.1.16. 

5.5.2.9 Car and Counterweight Safeties. Car safe- 
ties, where provided, shall conform to 5.5.1.17 and shall 
be of the t)rpe that can be released only by moving the 
car in the up direction. 

Counterweight safeties, where provided, shall con- 
form to 3.17.2. 

5.5.2.10 Hydraulic Jaclcs. Hydraulic jacks shall con- 
form to 3.18. 

5.5.2.11 Valves, Pressure Piping, and Fittings. 

Valves, pressure piping, and fittings shall conform to 
3.19. 

5.5.2.12 Counterweights. Where provided, counter- 
weights shall conform to 3.21. 

5.5.2.13 Buffers and Bumpers. 

shaU conform to 3.22. 



Buffers and bumpers 



5.5.2.14 Guide Rails, Guide-Rail Supports, and Fas- 
tenings. Guide rails and their supports and fastenings 
shall conform to 3.23. 

5.5.2.15 Tanlcs. Tanks shall conform to 3.24. 

5.5.2.16 Terminal Stopping Devices. Terminal stop- 
ping devices shall conform to 3.25 (see also 5.5.1.8). 

5.5.2.17 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

5.5.2.17.1 Operating devices and control equip- 
ment shall conform to 3.26, 5.5.1.25.1, 5.5.1.25.2, and 
5.5.1.25.4 and all electrical equipment on the car shall 
be weatherproof. 

5.5.2.17.2 The requirement for a top-of-car 
operating device (see 3.26.2) applies only where a car 
top is provided. It shall operate the car at a speed not 
greater than 0.13 m/s (25 ft/min). It shall not operate 
when the bow iron or stanchions are in contact with the 
doors or covers in the sidewalk or other exterior area. 

5.5.2.17.3 The requirement for a stop switch on 
top of the car (see 2.26.2.8 and 3.26.4.1) applies orUy 
where a car top is provided. 

5.5.2.18 Layout Data. The information provided on 
layout data shall conform to 3.28. 

SECTION 5.6 
ROOFTOP ELEVATORS 

Requirement 5.6 applies to rooftop elevators. Require- 
ment 5.6.1 applies to electric elevators. Requirement 5.6.2 



173 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



applies to direct-plunger hydraulic elevators. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
rooftop elevators. 

5.6.1 Electric Rooftop Elevators 

5.6.1.1 Construction of Hoistway and Hoistway Enclo- 
sures. The construction of hoistway enclosures shall 
conform to 2.1, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.1.1.1. Hoistways are not required to 
be enclosed above the rooftop landing. 

(b) Requirement 2.1.1.3 does not apply. 

(c) Requirement 2.1.2.1 does not apply. 

(d) Requirement 2.1.3 does not apply. 

5.6.1.2 Pits. Pits shaU conform to 2.2. Means shall 
be provided to automatically remove water from the pit. 

5.6.1.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweight. 

The location and guarding of counterweights shall con- 
form to 2.3. 

5.6.1.4 Vertical Clearances and Runbys. Bottom and 
top clearances and runbys for cars and counterweights 
shall conform to 2.4, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Table 2.4.2.2, maximum speed 0.25 m/s 
(50 ft/min). See 5.6.1.25.4. 

(b) Requirement 2.4.10 does not apply. 

(c) Requirement 2.4.11 does not apply. 

(ED) (d) Requirement 2.4.12 does not apply if rise is 6.1 m 
(20 ft) or less. When refuge space is required, it shall be 
measured to the underside of the roof door when the 
bow iron or stanchion is in contact with the door. 

5.6.1.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clear- 
ances. Horizontal car and counterweight clearances 
shall conform to 2.5. 

5.6.1.6 Protection ofSpaces Below Hoistway. Where 
the hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the 
building, it shall conform to 2.6. 

5.6.1.7 Machine Rooms and Machinery Spaces. 

Machine rooms and machinery spaces shall conform to 
2.7, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.7.3.2.2 does not apply. 

(b) Requirement 2.7.3.5 does not apply. 

5.6.1.8 Equipment in Hoistways and Machine 
Rooms. Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts 
in hoistways and machine rooms shall conform to 2.8 
and the following: 

(a) Slack-rope switches (where required), lower nor- 
mal and final terminal stopping devices, and pit stop 
switches shall be located not less than 600 mm (24 in.) 
above the pit floor. 

(b) All electrical equipment in the hoistway shall be 
weatherproof. 

(c) Electrical metallic tubing (EMT) shall not be used. 



5.6.1.9 Machinery and Sheave Beams, Supports, and 
Foundations. Machinery and sheave beams, supports, 
and foundations shall conform to 2.9. 

5.6.1.10 Guarding. The guarding of exposed auxil- 
iary equipment shall conform to 2.10. 

5.6.1.11 Protection of Hoistway Landing Openings 

5.6.1.11.1 Vertical Openings. Vertical hoistway 
landing openings shall conform to 2.11. 

5.6.1.11.2 Horizontal Openings in Rooftops 

(a) The pedestrian path on a rooftop, when the door 
or cover is open, shall be such that it permits a minimum 
1 200 mm (48 in.) wide unobstructed path that is not 
normally accessible to vehicular traffic. 

(b) Hoistways shall not be located either wholly or 
partially in front of any entrance to a building or open- 
able window. 

(c) The side of the door opening nearest to any build- 
ing wall or other obstruction shall be 100 mm (4 in.) or 
less, or greater than 900 mm (36 in.), from the wall or 
obstruction. 

(d) Horizontal openings in rooftops shall be protected 
by hinged metal doors or vertically lifting covers having 
a nonslip upper surface. Doors or covers shall be of 
sufficient strength to safely support a static load of not 
less than 14.4 kPa (300 Ib/ft^), uniformly distributed. 

(e) When in the closed position, doors shall be flush 
with the landing sill. 

(f) Such doors and covers shall conform to 5.6.1.11.3 
or 5.6.1.11.4. 

(g) All openings between rooftop door panels and 
frames shall be provided with minimum 50 mm (2 in.) 
gutters to collect rainwater. The gutters shall be piped 
rigidly to a discharge point exterior to the hoistway 
and pit. 

5.6.1.11.3 Hinged-Type Rooftop Doors 

(a) There shall be a minimum clearance of 450 mm 
(18 in.) between the face of the doors and any obstruction 
when the doors are in the open position. 

(b) The doors shall be opened by the ascending car 
and shall be self-closing as the car descends, and shall 
be kept in the closed position when the car is not at the 
top landing. 

(c) Stops shall be provided to prevent the doors from 
opening more than 90 deg from their closed position. 

(d) Means shall be provided at the meeting edge of 
biparting rooftop doors to collect and discharge rain 
water. 

(e) The landing sill shall be substantially flush with 
the floor surface of the elevator landings. 

5.6.1.11.4 Vertical Lifting Rooftop Covers 

(a) The covers shall be raised and lowered vertically 
by the ascending and descending car and shall not be 



174 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



held or fastened in the open position when the car is 
not at the top landing. 

(b) Recesses or guides, which will securely hold the 
cover in place on the stanchions, shall be provided on 
the underside of the cover. 

(c) The landing sill shall be substantially flush with 
the floor surface of the elevator landings. 

5.6.1.11.5 Setting of the Door. The door shall be 
set in the roof in such a manner that the upper surface 
of the rooftop door is at least 25 mm (1 in.) above the 
surface of the roof and pitched at the same angle. The 
edge aroimd the rooftop door and the surface of the 
roof shall be such that a gradual change in surface height 
is provided. 

5.6.1.12 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Electric 
Contacts and Hoistway Access Switches. Hoistway door 
locking devices, car door or gate electric contacts, and 
hoistway access switches shall conform to 2.12 or 2.14.4, 
except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirements 2.12.2 and 2.12.3. Interlocks or elec- 
tric contacts are not required on hinged-type swinging 
covers and vertical lifting covers used at the top landing 
in rooftops. Locks, if used, shall be of the spring type 
and shall be automatically unlocked by the bow irons 
or stanchions of the car, unless the locks are of the type 
that permit operation of the elevators to open the cover 
only if the locking device is in the unlocked position. 

(b) Requirement 2.12.7. Hoistway access switches are 
not required for access to the top of the car. 

5.6.1.13 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and Car 
Doors. Power operation, power opening, and power 
closing of the hoistway doors and car doors or gates 
shall conform to 2.13. 

5.6.1.14 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and 
Car Illumination. Car enclosures, car doors, gates, and 
car illumination shall conform to 2.14, except as modi- 
fied by 5.6.1.14.1 and 5.6.1.14.2. 

5.6.1.14.1 Requirement 2.14.3.1, The height of the 
car enclosure shall be permitted to be reduced when 
the height of the bow iron or stanchion is reduced as 
permitted by 5.6.1.15.2(a). 

5.6.1.14.2 All electrical equipment on the car 
shall be weatherproof. 

5.6.1.15 Car Frames and Platforms. Car frames and 
platforms shall conform to 2.15, 5.6.1.15.1, and 5.6.1.15.2. 

5.6.1.15.1 Platforms 

(a) Car frames of the imderslung rope-suspended- 
type elevators shall be of sufficient depth to provide the 
minimum vertical clearance between the car rope hitches 
or car sheaves and any obstruction in the hoistway verti- 
cally above them, as specified in 2.4.8, when the car floor 
is level with its upper landing level. 



(b) The depth of the car frame and the length and 
spacing of guiding members shall conform to 2.15.4 and, 
shall be such as to prevent tipping of the platform when 
it is at the highest upper landing level. 

(c) The car platform shall be provided with metal 
aprons or guards on all exposed sides conforming to 
the following: 

(1) They shall be made of metal of not less than 
1.5 mm (0,059 in.) in thickness. 

(2) They shall have a straight vertical face flush 
with the outer edge of the platform having a depth of 
not less than the distance between the normal upper 
terminal landing level and the highest upper landing 
level plus 75 mm (3 in.). 

(3) The lower portion of the guard shall be rounded 
or beveled at an angle of approximately 75 deg with the 
horizontal. 

5.6.1.15.2 Bow Irons and Stanchions. Where 
hinged doors or vertically lifting covers are provided at 
the rooftop bow irons or stanchions shall be provided 
on the car to operate the doors or covers. Bow irons and 
stanchions shall conform to the following requirements: 

(a) They shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) high, 
measured from the finished car floor, except that this 
height shall be permitted to be reduced by an amount 
necessary to permit the doors or covers to close when 
the car is at the landing next to the top terminal landing. 

(b) They shall be so designed, installed, and braced 
as to withstand the impact when striking the doors or 
covers. 

(c) Bow irons shall be located approximately symmet- 
rical with respect to the center of the car platform. 

(d) Stanchions shall be framed together at their upper 
ends and provided with spring buffers at the top. 

5.6.1.16 Capacity and Loading. Capacity and load- 
ing shall conform to 2.16. 

5.6.1.17 Safeties. Safeties shall conform to 2.17. 

5.6.1.18 Governors. Governors, where provided, 
shall conform to 2.18. 

5.6.1.19 Suspension Ropes. Suspension ropes shall 
conform to 2.20. 

5.6.1.20 Counterweights. Counterweights, when 
provided, shall conform to 2.21. 

5.6.1.21 Buffers and Bumpers. Buffers and bumpers 
shall conform to 2.22. 

5.6.1.22 Guide Rails. Guide rails shall conform to 

2.23. 

5.6.1.23 Driving Machines and Sheaves. Driving 
machines and sheaves shall conform to 2.24, except that 
on freight elevators the ratio of the drum diameter to 
the rope diameter (see 2.24.2) shall be permitted to be 



175 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



reduced to 24 for elevators with a rated load of 1 150 kg 
(2 500 lb) or less. 

5.6.1.24 Terminal Stopping Devices. Terminal stop- 
ping devices shall conform to 2.25 and 5.6.1.8. 

5.6.1.25 Operating Devices and Control Equipment. 

Operating devices and control equipment shall conform 
to 2.26, except as modified by 5.6.1.25.1 through 
5.6.1.25.5. 

All electrical equipment on the car shall be weather- 
proof. 

Actuation of a landing call button when the car is at 
the roof level shall illuminate a visual ''in-use" signal 
at the landing station at which the landing call was 
registered, and sound an audible and visual alarm at 
the roof level. The audible alarm shall have a sound 
pressure rating of not less than 80 dBA nor greater than 
90 dBA at 3.05 m (10 ft). 

Operation to the roof level shall be in accordance with 
5.6.1.25.1. 

5.6.1.25.1 Types of Operating Devices. Operating 
devices in the car and at the lower landing are prohibited 
on two-stop elevators. 

5.6.1.25.2 Operation to the Roof Level. The opera- 
tion of elevators shall conform to the following: 

(a) The operation of elevators between openings in 
the roof, which are protected by hinged doors or verti- 
cally lifting covers, and the first landing below the roof 
level shall conform to the following: ^ 

(1) key-operated continuous-pressure-type up- 
and-down switches; or 

(2) continuous-pressure-type up-and-down 
operating buttons on the free end of a detachable, flexi- 
ble cord not more than 1 525 mm (60 in.) in length. 

(b) Key-operated switches shall be of the continuous- 
pressure spring-return type and shall be operated by a 
cylinder-type lock having not less than a five-pin or five- 
disk combination with the key removable only when 
the switch is in the "OFF" position. The key shall be 
Group 2 Security (see 8.1). 

(c) Key-operated switches and plug receptacles for 
flexible cords shall be weatherproof and shall be 
installed above the roof level, located within 1 525 mm 
(60 in.) horizontally from one side of the opening in 
such a manner that the opening is within clear sight of 
the operator. 

(d) It shall be possible to operate the car only by 
m.eans of either the key switches or the continuous- 
pressure-type up-and-down buttons on the free end of 
the flexible cord specified in 5.6.1.25.2(a). 

(e) Flexible cords and operating keys shall not be left 
where they are accessible to unauthorized persons for 
operation of the elevator. 

(f) Means of two-way communication shall be pro- 
vided between the car, lower terminal landing, the first 



landing below the roof level, and the rooftop operating 
station. 

(g) On multiple-stop elevators, the car operating pan- 
els shall only be operational for floors below the roof 
level. 

5.6.1.25.3 Top-of-Car Operating Devices and Stop (ed) 
Switch. A top-of-car operating device shall not be pro- 
vided if the rise is 6.1 m (20 ft) or less. 

Top-of-car operating devices, when required, shall 
conform to 2.26.1.4. 

A stop switch shall be provided on top of the car, 
conforming to 2.26.2.8. 

5.6.1.25.4 Maximum Rated Speed. When the car 
bow iron or stanchion is in contact with the rooftop 
door or cover, the rated speed shall not exceed 0.13 m/s 

(25 ft/min). 

When the car is fully enclosed, other than when it is 
running through the rooftop door or cover, there is no 
limit on the rated speed except as required by 5.6.1.25.2 
and 5.6.1.25.3. 

5.6.1.25.5 Operation to the Roof Level. Operation 
to the roof level shall be in accordance with 5.6.1.25.2. 

5.6.1.26 Emergency Operation and Signaling 
Devices. Emergency operation and signaling devices 
shall conform to 2.27. 

5.6.1.27 Welding. Welding shall conform to 8.8. 
5.6.2 Direct-Plunger Hydraulic Rooftop Elevators 

5.6.2.1 Hoistways, Hoistway Enclosures, and Related 
Construction. Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and 
related construction shall conform to 5.6.1.1 through 
5.6.1.13, and 5.6.2.2 through 5.6.2.5, except 5.6.1.4 and 
5.6.1.6. 

5.6.2.2 Vertical Clearances and Runbys. Where a 
car top is provided, bottom and top clearances and nm- 
bys for cars and counterweights shall conform to 3.4. 

Where no car top is provided, they shall conform to 
3.4.1, 3.4.2.1, and 3.4.6.2. 

5.6.2.3 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistway. Where 
the hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the 
building, it shall conform to 3.6. 

5.6.2.4 Machine Rooms and Machinery Spaces. 

Machine rooms and machinery spaces shall conform 
to 3.7. 

5.6.2.5 Emergency Doors. The requirements for 
emergency doors in single blind hoistways shall conform 
to 2.11. 

5.6.2.6 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car 
Illumination. Car enclosures, car doors, gates, and car 
illumination shall conform to 2.14. 

5.6.2.7 Car Frames and Platforms. Car frames and 
platforms shall conform to 3.14, 5.6.1.15.1, and 5.6.1.15.2. 



# 



176 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(07) 



5.6.2.8 Capacity and Loading. Capacity and loading 
shall conform to 2.16, except as modified by 3.16. 

5.6.2.9 Car and Counterweight Safeties 

5.6.2.9.1 Car safeties, where provided, shall con- 
form to 2.17, except as modified for freight elevators by 
5.6.1.17 and shall be of the type that can be released 
only by moving the car in the up direction. 

5.6.2.9.2 Counterweight safeties, where pro- 
vided, shall conform to 3.16. 

5.6.2.10 Hydraulic Jacks. Hydraulic jacks shall con- 
form to 3.18. 

5.6.2.11 Valves, Pressure Piping, and Fittings. 

Valves, pressure piping, and fittings shall conform to 
3.19. 

5.6.2.12 Counterweights. Where provided, counter- 
weights shall conform to 3.15. 

5.6.2.13 Buffers and Bumpers. Buffers and bumpers 
shall conform to 3.21 and 3.22.2. 

5.6.2.14 Guide Rails. Guide rails and their supports 
and fastenings shall conform to 3.23 and 3.28. 

5.6.2.15 Tanlcs. Tanks shall conform to 3.24. 

5.6.2.16 Terminal Stopping Devices. Terminal stop- 
ping devices shall conform to 3.25 and 5.6.1.8. 

5.6.2.17 Operating Devices and Control Equipment. 

Operating devices and control equipment shall conform 
to 3.26. Requirements 5.6.1.25.1, 5.6.1.25.2, 5.6.1.25.4, 
5.6.1.25.5, 5.6.1.26, and 5.6.1.27 and all electrical equip- 
ment on the car shaU be weatherproof. 

5.6.2.17.1 Top-of-Car Operating Device and Stop 
Switch. Top-of-car operating device when required 
shall conform to 5.6.1.25.3. 



SECTION 5.7 
SPECIAL PURPOSE PERSONNEL ELEVATORS 

In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, requirement bH 
applies to elevators permanently installed in a wide 
variety of structures and locations to provide vertical 
transportation of authorized personnel and their tools 
and equipment only. Such elevators are typically 
installed in structures such as grain elevators, radio 
antennas and bridge towers, underground facilities, 
dams, power plants, and similar structures where, by 
reason of their limited use and the types of construction 
of the structures served, fuU compliance with Part 2 is 
not practicable or necessary. 

Requirement 5^ applies to special purpose personnel 
elevators having a traction, winding drum, screw, or 
rack-and-pinion driving machine. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
special purpose personnel elevators. 



5.7.1 Construction of Hoistways and Hoistway 
Enclosures 

5.7.1.1 Hoistways and Hoistway Enclosures. Where 
the hoistway is adjacent to areas permitting passage of 
people (e.g., passageways, stairwells, elevator landings), 
it shall be enclosed to a height of not less than 2 130 mm 
(84 in.) above the floor or stair treads. The enclosure 
shall be of sufficient strength to prevent contact between 
the enclosure and the car or coimterweight when the 
enclosure is subjected to a force of 1 112 N (250 Ibf) 
appHed at right angles at any point over an area of 
100 mm X 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.). Openwork enclosures 
shall be permitted to be used and shall reject a ball 
25 mm (1 in.) in diameter. 

5.7.1.2 Floor Over Hoistway. A floor conforming to 
2.1.3.1 and 2.1.3.4 shall be provided at the top of the 
hoistway. 

5.7.2 Pits 

A pit conforming to 2.2 shall be provided for every 

elevator. 

5.7.3 Location and Enclosing of Counterweights 

5.7.3.1 Counterweight Coming Down to Floors or 
Passing Floors or Stairs. Where a counterweight run- 
way comes down to a floor or passes a floor or stairs, 
it shall be enclosed to a height of at least 2 130 mm 
(84 in.) above the floor or the stair treads by a solid or 
openwork enclosure. The enclosure shall be of sufficient 
strength to prevent contact between the enclosure and 
the counterweight when the enclosure is subjected to a 
force of 1 100 N (250 Ibf) applied at right angles at any 
point over an area of 100 mm x 100 nun (4 in. x 4 in.). 
Openwork enclosvtres shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) 
in diameter and shall be so located as to provide at least 
100 mm (4 in.) between the outside of the enclosure and 
the closest member of the counterweight assembly. 

5.7.3.2 Access to Enclosed Counterweights and 
Ropes. Access shall be provided for inspection, mainte- 
nance, and repair of an enclosed counterweight and its 
ropes. Doors in the counterweight enclosures shall be 
self-closing and shaU be provided with 

(a) an electric contact, the opening of which will 
remove power from the elevator driving-machine motor 
and brake 

(b) a self-locking keyed tumbler lock 

5.7.4 Vertical Clearances and Runby 

5.7.4.1 Bottom Runby. Bottom runby shall conform 
to 2.4.2, 2.4.3, and 2.4.4. 

5.7.4.2 Top Car Clearance. There shaU be a clearance 
of not less than 762 mm (30 in.) from the highest projec- 
tion of the car top or the car crosshead or the equipment 
moimted on the car top and the nearest part of the 



177 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



overhead structure, when the counterweight is resting 
on its fully compressed buffer as required in 2.4.6. 

For rack-and-pinion elevators without counter- 
weights, there shall be a clearance of not less than 
762 mm (30 in.) from the highest projection of the car 
top and the nearest part of the overhead structure, when 
the car has reached the uppermost limit of its travel. 
The top car clearance shall conform to 2.4.6 and 2.4.7. 

5.7.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clearances 

Horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall 
conform to 2.5 and 5.7.3.1. 

5.7.6 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistway 

Protection of spaces below hoistways not extending 
to the lowest level of the structure shall conform to the 
applicable requirements of 2.6.1. 

5.7.7 Overhead Machinery Beams and Supports 

5.7.7.1 Securing of Machinery Beams and Type of 
Supports 

5.7.7.1.1 All machinery and sheaves shall be so 
supported and secured as to effectively prevent any part 
beconning loose or displaced. 

5.7.7.1.2 Beams directly supporting machinery 
shall be of steel or reinforced concrete. 

5.7.7.1.3 Machinery or equipment shall be 
secured to and supported on, or from the top of, over- 
head beams or floors, except for the following 
equipment: 

(a) secondary or deflecting sheaves of traction ele- 
vators 

(b) devices and their accessories for limiting or 
retarding car speed 

(c) driving machines on the car 

5.7.7.1.4 Cast iron in tension shall not be used for 
supporting members for sheaves where they are hung 
beneath beams. 

5.7.7.2 Loads on Overhead Beams and Supports. 

The total load on overhead beams shall be equal to the 
weight of all apparatus resting on the beams, plus twice 
the maximum load suspended from the beams. 

5.7.7.2.1 The load resting on the beams shall 
include the complete weights of the driving machine, 
sheaves, controller, etc. 

5.7.7.2.2 The load suspended from the beams 
shall include the sum of the tensions in aU ropes sus- 
pended from the beams. 

NOTE (5.7.7.2): The object in doubling the suspended load is to 
allow for impact, accelerating stresses, etc. 

5.7.7.3 Factor of Safety of Overhead Beams and Sup- 
ports. The factor of safety for overhead beams and their 



supports shall be not less than 5 for steel and 6 for 
reinforced concrete. 

5.7.7.4 Allowable Stresses and Deflections. Over- 
head beams and supports shall conform to 2.9.4 and 
2.9.5. 

5.7.8 Hoistway Doors and Gates 

5.7.8.1 Where Required. The full width of each 
landing opening shall be protected by doors or gates. 
The landing opening shall be at least 2 030 mm (80 in.) 
in height. The entire entrance assembly shall be capable 
of withstanding a force of 1 100 N (250 Ibf) applied on 
the landing site at right angles to, and approximately 
at the center of, a panel. This force shall be distributed 
over an area of 100 mm x 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.). There 
shall be no permanent displacement or deformation of 
any parts of the entrance assembly resulting from this 
test. Openwork entrances shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) 
in diameter. 

5.7.8.2 Projections of Hoistway Doors or Gates Into 
Hoistway. The hoistway face of the landing doors or 
gates shall not project into the hoistway beyond the 
landing sill. No hardware, except that required for door 
locking devices or contacts, signals, or door operating 
devices, shall project into the hoistway beyond the line 
of the landing sill. 

5.7.8.3 Access to Hoistways for Emergency and 
Inspection Purposes. A device to imlock and permit 
opening of the hoistway door from the landing side, 
regardless of the location of the car in the hoistway, shall 
be provided at the top and bottom landings and shall 
be permitted at all landings. This device shall be 
designed to prevent unlocking the door with common 
tools. 

The operating means for imlocking the door shall be 
of Group 1 Security (see 8.1). 

5.7.8.4 Opening of Hoistway Doors and Gates. 

Hoistway doors or gates shall be so arranged that it will 
not be necessary to reach behind any panel or jamb to 
operate them. 

5.7.8.5 Hangers and Stops for Sliding Hoistway 
Doors. Hangers, conforming to 2.11.11.4.1 and 
2.11.11.4.2, shall be provided. 

5.7.8.6 Distance Between Hoistway Doors or Gates 
and Landing Sills and Car Doors or Gates. The distance 
between the hoistway doors or gates and the hoistway 
edge of the landing siU shall not exceed 57 mm (2.25 in.), 
and the distance between the hoistway faces of the land- 
ing door or gate and the car door or gate shall not exceed 
133 mm (5.25 in.). 

5.7.9 Lodging Devices for Hoistway Doors or Gates 

Hoistway doors or gates shall be provided with 
hoistway door interlocks or with locking devices and 
electric contacts conforming to 2.12. 



• 



178 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



5.7.10 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car 
Illumination 

5.7.10.1 Enclosures Required. Except at the 
entrance, cars shall be fully enclosed with metal at the 
sides and top. The enclosure at the sides shall be solid 
or of openwork that will reject a ball of 25 mm (1 in.) 
in diameter. The minimum clear height inside the car 
shall be 1 980 mm (78 in.), 

5.7.10.2 Securing Enclosures. The car enclosure 
shall be secured to the platform in such a manner that 
it cannot work loose or become displaced in regular 
service. 

5.7.10.3 Illumination in Car. Each car shall be pro- 
vided with an electric light and a light control switch. 
The light shall provide illumination of at least 27 Ix 
(2.5 fc) at the landing edge of the car platform. 

5.7.10.4 Emergency Exits. When car size and con- 
struction permit, and other conditions warrant, an emer- 
gency exit with a cover shall be permitted in the top 
of the car enclosure conforming to 5.7.10.4.1 through 
5.7.10.4.4. 

5.7.10.4.1 The exit opening shall have an area 
of not less than 0.227 m (352 in.), and shall not measure 
less than 406 mm (16 in.) on any side. 

5.7.10.4.2 The exit shall be so located as to pro- 
vide a clear passageway unobstructed by fixed elevator 
equipment located in, or on top of, the car. 

5.7.10.4.3 The exit cover shall open outward and 
shall be hinged, or otherwise attached, to the car top. 

5.7.10.4.4 The exit cover shall be equipped with 
a switch or contact that, when opened, will cause a 
device to remove power from the machine motor and 
brake. The exit cover switch or contact shall be of a 
manual reset type. 

5.7.10.5 Car Doors or Gates. A car door or gate 
that, when closed, shall guard the opening to its full 
height, shall be provided at each entrance to the car. Car 
doors shall be of solid or openwork construction that 
will reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter. Collapsible 
car gates shall be of a design that, when fully closed 
(extended position), wiU reject a ball 75 mm (3 in.) in 
diameter. 

5.7.11 Car Construction 

5.7.11.1 Car Frames and Platforms. Elevator car 
frames shall be metal. Elevator car platforms shall be 
metal or a combination of metal and wood. Where wood 
is used, the platform shall conform to 2.15.8. Car frames 
and platforms shall have a factor of safety of not less 
than 5, based on the rated load- 

5.7.11.2 Use of Cast Iron. Cast iron shall not be 
used in the construction of any member of the car frame 



or platform other than for guide shoes and guide-shoe 
brackets. 

5.7.11.3 Use of Glass. Glass shall not be used in 
elevator cars, except for the car light and accessories 
necessary for the operation of the car or car vision panels 
that, if provided, shall conform to 2.14.2.5. 

5.7.11.4 Number of Compartments. The car shall 
not have more than one compartment. 

5.7.12 Capacity and Loading 

5.7.12.1 Capacity and Data Plates. Capacity and 
data plates, conforming to 2.16.3, shall be provided. 

5.7.12.2 Limitation of Load, Speed, and Platform 
Area. The rated load shall not exceed 454 kg (1,000 lb). 
The inside net platform area shall not exceed 1.208 m^ 
(13 ft^). The minimum rated load shall not be less than 
that based on 3.35 kPa (70 Ibf /ft^) of inside net platform 
area or 113 kg (250 lb), whichever is greater. The rated 
speed shall not exceed 0.76 m/s (150 ft/min). Winding 
drum machines shall comply with 2.24.1. 

5.7.13 Car Safeties and Governors 

5.7.13.1 Car Safeties and Governors for Traction and 
Winding-Drum-Type Elevators. Cars suspended by wire 
ropes shall be provided with a car safety capable of 
stopping and sustaining the car with rated load. The 
safeties shall be Type A and shall conform to 2.17.5.1. 

The car safety shall be actuated by a speed governor. 
The governor shall be operated to set the safety when 
the car has attained a maximum speed of 0.9 m/s 
(175 ft/min). The operation of the safety shall conform 
to 2.17.8.1. 

The speed governor shall be located where it Ccinnot 
be struck by the car or counterweight in case of 
overtravel and where there is sufficient space for full 
movement of the governor parts. Governor ropes shall 
conform to 2.18.5. 

5.7.13.2 Car Safeties and Governors for Raclc-and- 
Pinion-Type Elevators. The car shall be provided with 
one or more safeties identified in 2.17.5. The safeties shall 
be attached to the car frame or supporting structure. AU 
car safeties shaU be mounted on a single car frame and 
shall operate on one pair of guide members or on one 
vertical rack. 

Rack-and-pinion machines have safeties consisting of 
a freely rotating safety pinion, a governor, and a safety 
device that shall be permitted to form an integral unit 
mounted on the car. The freely rotating pinion travels 
on a stationary rack mounted vertically in the hoistway. 
The rotating pinion drives the governor. When the 
downward speed of the car reaches the tripping value, 
the rotating governor actuates the safety device, which, 
in turn, brings the car to a gradual stop. 



179 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



5.7.13.2.1 Stopping Distances. The travel of the 
car measured from the governor tripping to the full stop 
shall not exceed the following values: 

(a) for car safeties: 1 625 mm (64 in.) 

(b) for counterweight safeties: 1 980 mm (78 in.) 

5.7.13.2.2 Marking Plates. A metal plate shall be 
securely attached to each safety so as to be readily visible 
and shall be marked in a legible and permanent manner 
with letters and figures not less than 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) 
in height, indicating the following: 

(a) the maximum governor tripping speed, in m/s 
(ft/min), for which the safety is rated to be used 

(b) the maximum weight, in kg (lb), which the safety, 
as installed, is designed to stop and sustain 

5.7.13.2.3 Governor Ropes. Governor ropes shall 
conform to 2.18.5, when applicable. 

5.7.13.3 Opening of Bralce and Motor Control Circuits 
on Safety Application. The motor control circuit and 
the brake control circuit shall be opened before, or at 
the time, the safety applies. 

5.7.13.4 Application of Car Safety. A car safety 
device that depends upon the completion or mainte- 
nance of an electric circuit for the application of the 
safety shall not be used. Car safeties shall be applied 
mechanically. 

5.7.13.5 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses 
of Safety Parts and Rope Connections. The minimum 
factors of safety and stresses of safety parts and any 
associated rope connections shall conform to 2.17.12. 

5.7.14 Suspension Ropes 

5.7.14.1 Types Permitted. Suspension means shall 
consist of not less than two wire ropes. 

Only iron (low-carbon steel) or steel wire ropes, hav- 
ing the commercial classification "Elevator Wire Rope," 
or wire rope specifically constructed for elevator use 
shall be used for the suspension of elevator cars and for 
the suspension of counterweights. The wire material 
for ropes shall be manufactured by the open-hearth or 
electric furnace process or their equivalent. 

5.7.14.2 Minimum Diameter of Suspension Ropes. 

The minimum diameter of any suspension rope shall be 
not less than 9.5 mm (0.375 in.). 

5.7.14.3 Factor of Safety of Suspension Means. The 

factor of safety of the suspension means shall be not 
less than 7.95. 

5.7.14.4 Arc of Contact of Suspension Means on 
Sheaves. The arc of contact of a wire rope on a traction 
sheave and the shape of the grooves shall be sufficient 
to produce adequate traction under all load conditions. 

5.7.14.5 Arrangement of Wire Ropes on Winding 
Drums. All wire ropes anchored to a winding drum 



shall have not less than one full turn of rope on the 
drum when the car or counterweight has reached its 
limit of possible overtravel, including a fully compressed 
buffer. Each turn of the wire rope on the winding drum 
shall be in a separate groove on the drum. 

5.7.14.6 Lengthening, Splicing, Repairing, or Replac- 
ing Suspension Means. No car or counterweight rope 
shall be lengthened or repaired by splicing. If one wire 
rope of a set is worn or damaged and requires replace- 
ment, the entire set of ropes shaU be replaced. 

5.7.14.7 Securing Ends of Suspension Ropes in Wind- 
ing Drums. The winding drum ends of car and counter- 
weight wire ropes shall be secured by clamps on the 
inside of the drum or by one of the methods specified in 
5.7.14.8 for fastening wire ropes to car or counterweight. 

5.7.14.8 Fastehingof Rope Suspension Means to Cars 
and Counterweights. The car or counterweight ends of 
wire ropes shall be fastened by properly made individ- 
ual tapered babbitted sockets or by properly attached 
fittings as recommended by wire-rope manufacturers. 

Tapered babbitted rope sockets and the method of 
babbitting shall conform to 2.20.9.4 and 2.20.9.6. The 
diameter of the hole in the small end of the socket shall 
not exceed the nominal diameter of the rope by more 
than 2.4 mm (0.094 in.). 

5.7.15 Counterweight Guiding and Construction 

5.7.15.1 Guiding. Counterweights shall be guided 
to prevent horizontal movement. Guide rails, where 
used, shall conform to 5.7.17. 

5.7.15.2 Car Counterweights. A car counterweight 
on winding drum elevators shall not be of sufficient 
weight to cause slackening of any car hoisting rope dur- 
ing acceleration or retardation of the car. 

5.7.15.3 Types of Counterweight Construction 

(a) One-piece solid or laminated steel coimterweights 
shall be permitted to be used. 

(h) Means shall be provided to retain coimterweight 
sections, if used, in place if they become broken, whether 
carried in a frame or not. If tie rods are used, the sections 
shall be fastened together by a minimum of two tie rods 
that pass through all weight sections. Tie rods shall be 
provided with locknuts and cotter pins at each end. 

5.7.16 Car and Counterweight Buffers 

5.7.16.1 Car and counterweight buffers shall be 
provided and shall conform to the applicable require- 
ments of 2.22. 

5.7.16.2 For rack-and-pinion elevators, spring 
buffers, where used, shall be so designed and installed 
that they will not be fully compressed when struck by 
the car with its rated load at governor tripping speed 
where the safety is governor operated, or at 125% of 



180 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



rated speed where the safety is not governor operated. 
Kinetic energy from the drive imit shall be taken into 
account in the design calculations. The effect of the coun- 
terweight, where used, shall be permitted to be taken 
into account in the design calculations. 

5.7.17 Car Guide Rails and Guide-Rail Fastenings 

Car guide rails shall be provided. 

5.7.1 7.1 JVlaterial. Guide rails and guide-rail fasten- 
ings shall be of steel, or where steel presents a hazard, 
as in chemical or explosive atmospheres, guide rails shall 
be permitted to be of selected wood or other suitable 
nonferrous materials. 

5.7.17.2 Fastenings, Deflections, and Joints. Guide 
rails shall be securely fastened, shall not deflect more 
than 6 mm (25 in.) under normal operation, and shall 
have their joints well-fitted and strongly secured. Guide 
rails and their joints and fastenings shall withstand with- 
out failure the application of the car safety when stop- 
ping the car with its rated load. 

5.7.17.3 Extension of Guide Rails at Top and Bottom 
of Hoistway. Guide rails shall extend from the bottom 
of the hoistway to a sufficient height above the top land- 
ing to prevent the guide shoes from rurming off the rails 
when the car or counterweight is at its extreme upper 
position. 

5.7.18 Driving Machines and Sheaves 

5.7.18.1 Types of Driving Machines. Driving 
machines shall be of the traction, drum, screw, or rack- 
and-pinion type. The installation of belt-drive and chain- 
drive machines is prohibited. 



5.7.18.1.1 Screw Machines. 

conform to 4.2.15. 



Screw machines shall 



5.7.18.1.2 Rack-and-Pinion Machines. The rack- 
and-pinion drive shall consist of one or more power- 
driven rotating pinions mounted on the car and 
arranged to travel on a stationary vertical rack mounted 
in the hoistway. The drive shall have at least one pinion, 
one rack, and two backup rollers. The pinions and rack 
shall be of steel with a minimum safety factor of 8 for 
the pinion and the rack. Driving machines located within 
the car shall be fully enclosed with solid or openwork 
metal that shall reject a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter 
and that shall be locked. 

5.7.18.2 Material and Grooving for Sheaves and 
Drums. Winding drums, traction sheaves, and overhead 
and deflecting sheaves shall be of cast iron or steel and 
of a pitch diameter of not less than 30 times the diameter 
of the wire suspension ropes, except that where 8 x 19 
steel ropes are used on a drum-type machine installa- 
tion, the pitch diameter of drums and sheaves shall be 
permitted to be reduced to 21 times the diameter of the 



rope. The rope grooves shall be machined. 

5.7.18.3 Factor of Safety for Driving Machines and 
Sheaves. The factor of safety for driving machines and 
sheaves shall conform to 2.24.3. 

5.7.18.4 Bolts Transmitting Torque, and Set Screws. 

Bolts transmitting torque, and set screws shall conform 

to 2.24.4. 

5.7.18.5 Friction-Gearing or Clutch Mechanism. 

Friction-gearing or clutch mechanisms shall not be used 
for connecting the drum or sheaves to the main driving 
mechanism. 

5.7.18.6 Use of Cast Iron in Gears. Worms and 
worm gears made of cast iron shall not be used. 

5.7.18.7 Driving-Machine Brakes. Driving machines 
shall be equipped with electrically released spring- 
applied friction brakes. 

5.7.18.8 Operation of Brake. A single ground or 
short circuit, a countervoltage, or a motor field discharge 
shall not prevent the brake magnet from allowing the 
brake to set when the operating device is placed in the 
stop position. 

5.7.18.9 Access to Machines and Sheaves. A per- 
manent, safe, and convenient means of access to elevator 
machine rooms and overhead machinery spaces shall 
be provided for authorized personnel. 

5.7.19 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

Operating devices and control equipment shall con- 
form to 2,26, except for the following, which do not 
apply: 

2.26.1.2 For Car-Switch Operation Elevators 

2.26.1.3 Additional Operating Devices for Elevators 
Equipped to Carry One-Piece Loads 
Greater Than the Rated Load 

2.26.1.4 Inspection Operation (NOTE: A top-of-car 
operating station may be provided, and if 
provided, shall conform to 2.26.1.4) 

2.26.1.6 Operation in Leveling or Truck Zone 

2.26.2.12 Emergency Terminal Speed-Limiting 
Devices 

2.26.2.13 Buffer Switches for Oil Buffers Used With 
Type C Car Safeties 

2.26.2.14 Hoistway Door Interlocks and Hoistway- 
Door Electric Contacts 

2.26.2.20 Electric Contacts for Hinged Car Platform 

Sills 
2.26.10 Absorption of Regenerated Power 

5.7.20 Operation 

5.7.20.1 Types of Operation. The following types 
of operation shall be permitted: 
(a) continuous-pressure operation. 



181 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(b) momentary-pressure operation with up-down 
buttons or switches in the car and up-down buttons or 
switches, or call buttons, at each landing. It is not 
required that the operation be selective. 

(c) single automatic operation. 



5.7.20.2 Hand-Rope Operation. 

tion shall not be used. 



Hand-rope opera- 



5.7.21 Emergency Signal and/or Communication 

Each elevator shall be equipped with an alarm button 
or switch in the car operating station and an alarm 
device mounted in a location that shall be readily avail- 
able to a person who is normally situated in the vicinity 
when the elevator is in use, or a means of voice commu- 
nication to a receiving station always attended when 
the installation is in use. If the alarm device or means 
of voice communication is normally activated by utility 
power supply it shall be backed up by a manual or 
battery-operated device. 

5.7.22 Layout Drawings 

Information provided on layout drawings shall con- 
form to 2.28.1. 

5.7.23 Welding 

All welding shall conform to 8.8. 

SECTION 5.8 
SHIPBOARD ELEVATORS 

Requirement 5.8 applies to elevators installed on a 
ship or offshore drilling rigs for the purpose of trans- 
porting personnel maintenance equipment, and ship 
stores. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
shipboard elevators. 

5.8.1 Electric Shipboard Elevators 

Electric shipboard elevators shall conform to Part 2, 
except as modified by 5.8. 

(07) 5.8.1.1 Hoistway Enclosures. The hoistway shall be 
entirely enclosed over all of its height by means of a 
continuous solid steel fire-resistivie enclosure with an 
equivalent fire-resistance rating of 1 h as defined in the 
1974 Amendment of SOLAS Regulation 3. Elevators with 
total travel within one compartment of the vessel shall 
be permitted to be enclosed with expanded metal having 
openings the maximum of 25 mm (1 in.). The hoistway 
enclosure shall be of sufficient strength to prevent con- 
tact between the enclosure and the car or counterweight 
when the enclosure is subjected to a force of 1 112 N 
(250 Ibf) applied at right angles at any point over an 
area of 100 mm x 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.). 

(07) 5.8.1.2 Separate Counterweight Hoistways. The 

hoistway shaU be entirely enclosed over all of its height 



by means of a continuous solid steel fire-resistive enclo- 
sure with an equivalent fire-resistance rating of 1 h as 
defined in the 1974 Amendment of SOLAS Regulation 
3. Where a separate counterweight hoistway is provided 
on an elevator that has total travel within a single com- 
partment of the vessel, it shall be permitted to be 
enclosed with expanded metal having openings the 
maximum of 25 mm (1 in.). The hoistway enclosure shall 
be of sufficient strength to prevent contact of the car or 
counterweight and its enclosure when the enclosure is 
subjected to a force of 1 112 N (250 Ibf) applied at right 
angles at any point over an area of 100 mm x 100 mm 
(4 in. X 4 in.). 

5.8.1.3 Protection of Space Below Hoistway. All 

elevators shall be provided with elevator coimterweight 
safeties conforming to 2.17.4. 

5.8.1.4 Hoistway Entrances. Except when opening 
and closing in response to control signals, each hoistway 
door shall have means to prevent door movement and 
slamniing when the vessel is subjected to conditions 
up to and including a 30-deg roll and a 10-deg pitch 
simultaneously. 

5.8.1.5 Top Emergency Exits. It shall be permissible 
to open the top emergency exit cover from the top of 
car or from within the car. This exit cover shall be pro- 
vided with an electric contact conforming to 2.12.5. The 
breaking of this contact shall cause the power to be 
removed from the elevator driving motor and brake and 
the power shall be restored only by a manually operated 
reset switch located inside the elevator enclosure. Means 
shall be provided within the elevator car to gain access 
to the top emergency exit. A fixed vertical ladder of 
noncombustible material shall be provided on the inside 
of the hoistway to permit access from the top of the car 
to the hoistway entrance above. Means shall be provided 
to snap latch the cover closed or fully open. 

5.8.1.6 Illumination of Cars. Elevators used primar- 
ily for the movement of personnel shall have the electri- 
cal power meet the requirements of IEEE 45 with car 
enclosure lighting to be supplied from the vessel's final 
emergency power source. In addition, a standby (emer- 
gency) lighting power source shall be furnished con- 
forming to 2.14.7.1.3. 

5.8.1.7 Traction Driving Machines 

5.8.1.7.1 Traction driving machines shall be pro- 
vided with a device to cause the elevator to stop and 
remain stopped if 

(a) when a start is initiated, the driving machine does 
not rotate 

(b) the car or counterweight is stopped in a downward 
motion by an obstruction that causes the suspension 
ropes to slip on the driving sheave 



182 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



5.8.1.7.2 This device shall function in a time that 
does not exceed the smaller of the following values: 

(a) 45 s 

(b) time for car traveling the full travel, plus 10 s with 
a minimum of 20 s if the full travel time is less than 10 s 

5.8.1.7.3 This device shall not affect operation 
from top-of-car inspection station. 

5.8.1.7.4 Driving machines shall be provided 
with a manual means of operation, allowing the car to 
be moved to the nearest landing in the event of a power 
failure. This shall be done by having the end of the drive 
motor shaft arranged to receive a crank. The manual 
effort required to move the car in the upward direction 
with rated load shall not exceed 400 N. One crarvk or 
tool shall be furnished for this purpose. 

5.8.1.8 Emergency Operation and Signal Devices 

(a) Shipboard elevators shall be required to conform 
to 2.27.1.1. 

(b) In ships or offshore drilling rigs in which a watch- 
man is not continuously available to take action when 
the required emergency signal is operated, the elevator 
shall be provided with one of the following additional 
emergency signaling devices: 

(1) a. telephone cormected to a central telephone 
exchange system 

(2) means within the car for communicating with 
or signaling to an emergency service that operates 24 h 
each day 

5.8.1.9 Special Conditions. Elevators shall be 
designed and installed to function in accordance with 
2.14 through 2.28 when operating under the following 
conditions inherent to the installation location: 

(a) continuous vibration: 2 mm peak to peak of fre- 
quency to 25 Hz 

(h) rolling: ±10 deg, period 10 s 

(c) pitching: ±5 deg, period 7 s 

(d) heaving amplitude: A 3.8, period 10 s, calculated 
the formula A = 3.8 - 0.01 (L - 250), where L is the 
length of the ship, in meters, measured between the 
perpendicular taken at extremities of the deepest subdi- 
vision loadline 



5.8.1.10 Handrails. 

one handrail. 



Cars shaU be fitted with at least 



5.8.1.11 Flooring. Cars shall be fitted with slip- 
resistant flooring. 

5.8.2 Hydraulic Sliipboard Elevators 

Hydraulic shipboard elevators shall conform to Part 
3, except as modified by 5.8.1 and 5.8.2. 

5.8.2.1 Storage Tanlcs. Power unit oil storage tanks 
shall be constructed in such a manner to prevent spillage 
of hydraulic fluid under the following conditions inher- 
ent to the installation location: 



(a) rolling: ±45 deg 

(b) pitching: ±5 deg 

5.8.2.2 Special Conditions. Elevators shall be 
designed and installed to function in accordance with 
Part 3 when operating under the following conditions 
inherent to the installation location: 

(a) continuous vibration: 2 mm peak to peak of fre- 
quency to 25 Hz 

(b) rolling: ±10 deg, period 10 s 

(c) pitching: ±5 deg, period 7 s 

(d) heaving amplitude: A 3.8, period 10 s, calculated 
by the formula A = 3.8 - 0.01 (L - 250), where L is the 
length of the ship, in meters, measured between the 
perpendicular taken at extremities of the deepest subdi- 
vision loadline 

5.8.2.3 Handrails. Cars shall be fitted with at least 
one handrail. 

5.8.2.4 Flooring. Cars shall be fitted with slip- 
resistant flooring. 

5.8.3 Rack-and-Pinion Shipboard Elevators 

Rack-and-pinion shipboard elevators shall conform to 
4.1, except as modified by 5.8.1 and 5.8.3. 

5.8.3.1 Special Conditions. Elevators shall be 
designed and installed to function in accordance with 
4.1 when operating under the following conditions 
inherent to the installation location: 

(a) continuous vibration: 2 ixtm peak to peak of fre- 
quency to 25 Hz 

(b) rolling: ±10 deg, period 10 s 

(c) pitching: ±5 deg, period 7 s 

(d) heaving amplitude: A 3.8, period 10 s, calculated 
by the formula A = 3.8 - 0.01 (L - 250), where L is the 
length of the ship, in meters, measured between the 
perpendicular taken at extremities of the deepest subdi- 
vision loadline 

5.8.3.2 Handrails. Cars shall be fitted with at least 
one handrail. 

5.8.3.3 Flooring. Cars shall be fitted with slip- 
resistant flooring. 



SECTION 5.9 
MINE ELEVATORS 

In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, requirement 5.9 
applies to elevators as covered by Part 2, permanently 
installed in mine shafts. The purpose is to provide verti- 
cal transportation of mine personnel, their tools, equip- 
ment, and mine supplies. By reason of their limited 
use and the types of construction of the mines served, 
compliance with Part 2 is modified as follows (see 
also 1.3): 



(07) 



183 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(a) Substitute "Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations" 
or "State Mine Laws" (if applicable) for "building code." 

(b) Substitute "mine" for "building." 

(c) Requirenients modified in 5.9. 

NOTES (5.9): 

(1) Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations provides for certain addi- 
tional and more stringent requirements. Where applicable. Title 
30 requirements have been addressed in this Section. 

(2) See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to mine 
elevators. 

5.9.1 Construction of Hoistways and Hoistway 
Enclosures 

The construction of hoistway enclosures shall conform 
to 2.1, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 21.1 does not apply, except for 2.1.1.3 
and 2.1.1.5, which do apply. 

(b) Requirement 2.1.6.2 does not apply. 

5.9.2 Pits 

Pits or the area below the elevator shall conform to 
2.2, except as modified by 5.9.2.1 and 5.9.2.2. 

5.9.2.1 When the pit extends below the mine level, 
a pit water level alarm shall be provided in an attended 
location to annunciate water accumulation in the eleva- 
tor pit. This water level alarm shall be powered from 
the elevator electrical source. The elevator shall return 
to the surface and shall not be permitted to start if the 
power to the water level annunciator is interrupted. 

5.9.2.2 When the bottom of the hoistway is located 
at or above the mine level, a walk-in pit is permitted. 
A ramp shall be permanently installed to provide access 
to the mine level from the bottom landing. Required 
bottom nmby and space for the buffers, tension frames, 
and other equipment normally installed in the pit must 
be considered when determining the location of the bot- 
tom landing. The pit floor shall be so designed to prevent 
accumulation of water in the area. The area shall be 
protected with either an unperforated metal guard, or 
if of openwork, guards shall reject a ball 50 nun (2 in.) 
in diameter. Guards shall extend not less than 2 000 mm 
(78 in.) above the level of the pit floor. 

5.9.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweiglits 

The location and guarding of counterweights shall 
conform to 2.3. 

5.9.4 Vertical Clearances and Runbys for Cars and 
Counterweights 

Bottom and top car clearances and nmbys for cars 
and counterweights shall conform to 2.4, except 2.4.12 
shall have the minimum vertical distance in the refuge 
area increased from 1 100 mm (43 in.) to 2 000 mm 
(78 in.). 



5.9.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clearances 

Horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall 
conform to 2.5, except as modified by 5.9.5, 

Requirement 2.5.1.5 only applies when the car is 
located at the lower landing. 

5.9.6 Protection of Space Below Hoistways 

The protection of space below the hoistways shall 
conform to 2.6. 

5.9.7 Machine Rooms and Machinery Spaces 

Machine rooms and machinery spaces shall conform 
to 2.7, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.7.1.1.2 does not apply. 

(b) Note (3) in 2.7.1.1 does not apply. 

5.9.8 Equipment in Hoistways and Machine Rooms 

Electrical equipment, wiring, pipes, and ducts in 
hoistways and machinery rooms shall comply with 2.8, 
except as modified by 5.9.8.1 and 5.9.8.2. 

5.9.8.1 Hoistway and Car Wiring. In addition to the 
requirements of 2.8.1, all wiring, raceways, and traveling 
cables installed in the hoistway or on the car, used 
directly in connection with the elevator, shall be suitable 
for weatherproof (NEMA 4) application. Suitable expan- 
sion joints shall be provided in vertical raceways, if nec- 
essary, to prevent damage caused by extreme 
temperature changes. 

5.9.8.2 Requirement 2.8.2 does not apply. 

(a) All pipes shall be secured to prevent interference 
with the elevator equipment. 

(b) The clearance between pipes, fittings, brackets, 
and elevator equipment shall be not less than 25 mm 
(1 in.). 

(c) All pipes shall be suitably identified as to its con- 
tents. 

NOTE (5.9.8): Note (1) in 2.8.4 does not apply. 

5.9.9 Machinery and Siieave Beams, Supports, and 
Foundations 

Machinery and sheave beams, supports, and founda- 
tions shaU conform to 2.9. 

5.9.10 Guarding 

The guarding of equipment and standard railing shall 
conform to 2.10. 

5.9.11 Protection of Hoistway Openings 

The protection of hoistway landing openings shall 
conform to 2.11, except as modified by the following: 

(a) Requirement 2.11.7.2 does not apply. Glass 
hoistway doors are prohibited. 

(b) Requirement 2.11.14 does not apply. 

(c) Requirement 2.11.15 does not apply. 



184 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(d) Requirement 2.11.16 does not apply. 

(e) Requirement 2.11.17 does not apply. 

(f) Requirement 2.11.18 does not apply. 

(g) Requirement 2.11.19 does not apply. 

5.9.12 Hoistway Door Locking Devices and Electric 
Contacts, and Hoistway Access Switches 

Hoistway door locking devices, hoistway door and 
car door or gate electric contacts, and hoistway access 
switches shall conform to 2.12, except as modified by 
the following: 

(a) In addition, a car door interlock shall be provided. 

(b) Hoistway access switches are not required if a car 
top access panel is provided. 

5.9.13 Power Operation of Hoistway Doors and Car 
Doors 

When provided, power operation of hoistway doors 
and car doors and gates shall conform to 2.13. 

5.9.14 Car Enclosures, Car Doors and Gates, and Car 
Illumination 

Car enclosures, car doors and gates, and car illumina- 
tion shall conform to 2.14, except as modified by 5.9.14.1 
through 5.9.14.5. 

5.9.14.1 Car Top Access Panel. A car top access 
panel shall be provided in the top of all elevator cars. 
Car top access panels shall conform to the following: 

(07) (a) Requirement 2.14.1.5 applies, except as modified 
by this requirement. The car top access panel will substi- 
tute for the car top emergency exit panel. 

(07) (b) The car top access panel shall have an area of not 
less than 0.58 m^ (900 in.^) and shall measure not less 
than 635 mm (25 in.) on any side. The panel shaU open 
outward or slide over the car top. It shall be hinged, or 
be retained in a track. The movable portion of the access 
panel, if hinged, shall be provided with means to coun- 
terbalance the panel and restrain it from closing when 
in the open position. The force required to open the 
access panel or prevent it from closing shall not exceed 
45 N (10 Ibf). When in the fully opened position, the 
access panel shall resist accidental closing. The movable 
portion of the access panel shall not reduce the rimning 
clearance. The access panel shall be openable without 
the use of tools or keys. 

(07) (c) The car top access panel shall be provided with a 
switch whose contacts are positively opened mechani- 
cally and their opening shall not be dependent on 
springs that will initiate a controlled slow down and 
stop when the access panel is opened. A permanently 
mounted emergency stop switch shall be located on top 
of the car, adjacent to the access panel to secure the car 
prior to transferring to inspection operation. 

5.9.14.2 A permanent fixed ladder shall be pro- 
vided for passage through the car top access panel. The 



ladder shall project through the car canopy at least 
1 070 mm (42 in.) above the car top, or handgrips shall 
be provided to the same height. 

The rungs, cleats, or steps shall be spaced 300 mm 
(12 in.) on center. A clear distance of not less than 115 mm 
(4.5 in.) from the centerline of the rungs, cleats, or steps 
to the nearest permanent object in the back of the ladder 
shall be provided. Handgrips, if provided, shall have a 
clear distance of not less than 115 mm (4.5 in.) from 
their centerline to the nearest permanent object. 

5.9.14.3 Car Top Protection. Protection from falling 
debris shall be provided on all car tops. The car top 
protection shall 

(a) not interfere with the use of the car top access 
panel 

(b) be solid without perforations and shall comply 
with strength requirements of 2.14.1.6 

(c) provide a minimum head height clearance of 2 m 
(78 in.) 

(d) be removable if the car top protection interferes 
with normal inspection, maintenance, and repairs 

5.9.14.4 Requirement 2.14.1.7.2 does not apply. 

5.9.14.5 Requirement 2.14.7.1.3 does not apply. 

5.9.15 Car Frames and Platforms 

Car frames and platforms shall conform to 2.15 and 
5.9.15.1. 

5.9.15.1 Corrosion Protection. Car frames, plat- 
forms, bolts, rivets, and fastenings shall be treated with 
a corrosion-resistant protective coating, be electroplated, 
or be made of corrosion-resistant material. 

5.9.16 Capacity and Loading 

Capacity and loading requirements shall conform to 
2.16. 

5.9.17 Car and Counterweight Safeties 

Car and counterweight safeties shall conform to 2.17, 
except as modified by 5.9.17.1 through 5.9.17.6. 

5.9.17.1 Requirement 2.17.7.2 applies, except every 
safety shall be provided with a switch, operated by the 
safety mechanism (see 2.26.2.9). 

The counterweight safety switch shall be operated by 
the safety mechanism or a means to detect application of 
the safety independent from the counterweight governor 
switch(es) shall be provided. 

5.9.17.2 Requirement 2.17.7.3 applies to both car 
and counterweight safety mechanism switches. 

5.9.17.3 Requirement 2.17.7.4 applies to both car 
and counterweight safety mechanism switches. 

5.9.17.4 Requirement 2.17.9.1 applies, except safe- 
ties applied by rope drums are prohibited. 



185 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



5.9.17.5 Requirement 2.17.9.3 applies to both car 
and counterweight safeties. When the counterweight 
safeties are furnished, means shall be provided to release 
the safeties if both safeties are applied simultaneously. 

(ED) 5.9.17.6 Requirement 2.21.4.2 does not apply. 

5.9.18 Speed Governors 

Speed governors shall conform to 2.18, except as mod- 
ified by 5.9.18.1. 

5.9.18.1 Governor Rope Tension Sheaves. In addi- 
tion to the requirements of 2.18.7, the governor rope 
tension sheave shall be provided with a governor rope 
tension sheave switch or switches mechanically opened 
by the governor rope tension sheave before the sheave 
reaches its upper or lower limit of travel, to cause the 
elevator speed to be reduced to 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min). 
This switch shall be manually reset. 

5.9.19 Ascending Car Overspeed and Unintended Car 
Movement Protection 

Ascending car overspeed and unintended car move- 
ment protection shall conform to 2.19. 

5.9.20 Suspension Ropes and Their Connections 

Suspension ropes and their connections shall conform 
to 2.20. 

5.9.21 Counterweights 

Coimterweights shall conform to 2.21. 

5.9.22 Buffers and Bumpers 

Buffers and bumpers shall conform to 2.22, except as 
modified by the following: 

(a) Oil buffers shall be suitable for operation at 
extreme temperatures experienced in the anticipated 
mining envirorm\ent. 

(b) Requirement 2.22.4.5(c) applies, except that all oil 
buffers shall be provided with a switch conforming to 
2.26.4.3 that will cause the power to be removed from 
the driving machine when the plunger is not within 
13 mm (0.5 in.) of the fully extended position. 

5.9.23 Car and Counterweight Guide Rails, Guide- 
Rail Supports, and Fastenings 

Car and counterweight guide rails, guide-rail sup- 
ports, and fastenings shall conform to 2.23. 

5.9.24 Driving Machines and Sheaves 

Driving machines and sheaves shall conform to 2.24. 

5.9.25 Terminal Stopping Devices 

Terminal stopping devices shall conform to 2.25. 

5.9.26 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

Operating devices and control equipment shall con- 
form to 2.26, except 2.26.2.5, 2.26.2.21, and 2.26.12. 



An emergency stop switch shall be provided in the 
car, and located in or adjacent to each car operating 
panel. 

When open ("STOP" position), this switch shall cause 
the electric power to be removed from the elevator driv- 
ing-machine motor and brake. 

Emergency stop switches shall 

(a) be of the manually opened and closed type 

(h) have red operating handles or buttons 

(c) be conspicuously and permanently marked 
"STOP," and shall indicate the "STOP" and "RUN" posi- 
tions 

(d) while opened, cause the audible device to sound 
(see 2.27.1.1.1) 

(e) conform to 2.26.4.3 

5.9.27 Emergency Operations and Signaling Devices 

Conformance to 2.27 is not required, except 2.27.1 and 
2.27.2 apply. 

5.9.28 Layout Drawings 

Information required on layout drawings shall con- 
form to 2,28. 

5.9.29 Identification 

Identification of equipment shall conform to 2.29, 
except 2.29.2 does not apply. 

5.9.30 Welding 

Welding shall conform to 8.8, except when welding 
in or above the hoistway, requirements of 30 CFR 75.1106 
and 75.1106-1 apply 

SECTION 5.10 
ELEVATORS USED FOR CONSTRUCTION 

Requirement 5.10 applies to elevators temporarily 
used for construction or demolition to provide transpor- 
tation for construction personnel, tools, and materials 
orUy. 

Such elevators utilize temporary or permanent equip- 
ment in a temporary or permanent location. Because of 
their special use in a special envirorunent, full compli- 
ance with Part 2 and Part 3 is not practical or necessary. 

Requirement 5.10.1 applies to electric elevators used 
for construction. 

Requirement 5.10.2 applies to hydraulic elevators of 
the direct-plunger type used for construction. 

Elevators used for construction shall not be accessible 
to the general public imless they comply with Part 2 or 
Part 3. 

NOTE (5.10): See also Part 8 for additional requirements that 
apply to elevators used for construction. 

5.10.1 Electric Elevators Used for Construction 

5.10.1.1 Construction of Hoistways and Hoistway 
Enclosures 



186 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



5.10.1.1.1 Hoistway Enclosures 

(a) Where the hoistway is adjacent to areas permitting 
passage of people (e.g., stairwells, floors, and work space 
exterior to the hoistway), it shall be hilly enclosed. The 
enclosure shall be of sufficient strength to prevent con- 
tact between the enclosure material and the car or coim- 
terweight when the enclosure is subjected to a force of 
890 N (200 Ibf ) applied at right angles at any point on 
an area 100 mm x 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.). Openwork 
enclosures shall be permitted to be used on all but the 
entrance side of the hoistway and shall reject a ball 
25 mm (1 in.) in diameter. Openwork enclosures shall be 
so located as to provide at least 150 mm (6 in.) clearance 
between the outside of the enclosure and the closest 
member of the car or counterweight assembly. Open- 
work enclosures shall not be used on elevators with car 
speeds of over 1.75 m/s (350 ft/min). 

(b) Overhead protection shall be provided across the 
entire cross-sectional area of the hoistway. It shall be 
located above the machine when the machine is located 
directly over the elevator, and shall be capable of sus- 
taining a concentrated load of 1 335 N (300 Ibf) on any 
area 100 mm x 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.). 

(c) Where the elevator is operating in a multiple 
hoistway, and work is to be performed in an adjacent 
portion of that multiple hoistway, the construction eleva- 
tor 's hoistway shall be fully separated. The material used 
for this separation shall 

(1) be equal to or stronger than 1 mm (0.0437 in.) 
diameter wire 

(2) have openings not exceeding 25 mm (1 in.) 

(3) be so supported and braced that when subjected 
to a pressure of 4.79 kPa (100 Ibf/ft^) applied horizon- 
tally at any point, the deflection shall not exceed 
25 mm (1 in.) 

5.10.1.1.2 Working Requirements in the Hoistway 

(a) Hoisting of materials in any portion of the 
hoistway of the elevator used for construction is prohib- 
ited unless the car is not in use and is unoccupied. 

(b) Conformance with 5.10.1.1 .1(c) is required to allow 
work in adjacent portions of a multiple hoistway. 

(c) Hoisting of materials in adjacent portions of a mul- 
tiple hoistway is prohibited unless under the direct 
supervision of the elevator contractor. 

5.10.1.2 Pits 

(a) A pit shall be provided for every elevator. 

(b) The design shall conform to 5.10.1.1.1. 

(c) Guards between adjacent pits shall conform to 
5.10.1.1.1(c). 

(d) The minimum pit depth required shall conform 
to 2.2.7. 

5.10.1.3 Location and Guarding of Counterweights 

5.10.1.3.1 Location of Counterweiglits. The loca- 
tion of the counterweights shall conform to 2.3.1. 



5.10.1.3.2 Counterweight Pit Guards 

(a) Counterweight guards shall be installed in the pit 
on all open sides of the counterweight runway, except 
as follows: 

(1) Where compensating chains or ropes are 
attached to the counterweight, the guard shall be permit- 
ted to be omitted on the side facing the elevator car. 

(2) Where pit-mounted buffers are used, the guard 
is permitted to be omitted where the bottom of the 
counterweight resting on its compressed buffer is 
2 130 mm (84 in.) or more above the pit floor. 

(b) The design, construction, and location of the 
guards shall conform to 2.3.2.2. Perforated material that 
will reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter shall be 
permitted to be used. 

5.10.1.3.3 Separate Counterweight Hoistways. 

Where separate counterweight hoistways are provided, 
they shall conform to 

(a) requirement 2.3.3 for permanent separate 
hoistway 

(b) requirement 5.10.1.1.1 for temporary separate 
hoistway 

5.10.1.4 Vertical Car Clearances and Runby. Top and 

bottom car clearances and runby shall conform to 2.4. 

5.10.1.5 Horizontal Car and Counterweight Clear- 
ances 

(a) Horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall 
conform to 2.5.1.1, 2.5.1.2, 2.5.1.3, and 2.5.1.6. 

(b) The clearance between the car and landing sills 
shall conform to 2.5.1.4, except that the maximum clear- 
ance shall be not more than 100 mm (4 in.). 

5.10.1.6 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistways. 

Protection of spaces below hoistways not extending to 
the lowest level of the structure shall conform to the 
applicable requirements of 2.6, or the space below the 
hoistway shall be temporarily secured from occupancy 
with a fence or wall. 

5.10.1.7 JVlachine Rooms and Machinery Spaces 

5.10.1.7.1 General Requirements 

(a) Spaces containing machines, control equipment, 
sheaves, and other machinery shall be fully enclosed 
and protected from the elements. Enclosures shall be so 
supported and braced as to deflect not over 25 mm (1 in.) 
when subjected to a force of 450 N (100 Ibf) applied 
horizontally over an area of 100 mm x 100 mm (4 in. 
X 4 in.). The overhead protection of the machine room 
shall conform to 5.10.1.1.1(b). The floor of the machine 
room shall conform to 5.10.1.7.2. 

(b) A safe means of access to the machine room and 
machinery spaces shall be provided for authorized per- 
sonnel. Access doors shall be of a minimum height of 
1 830 mm (72 in.), and shall be kept closed and locked. 



187 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(c) Temporary electric lighting shall be provided in 
the machine room and machinery spaces. The illimiina- 
tion shall be not less than 100 Ix (10 fc) at the floor level. 

(d) Machine rooms shall be maintained free of refuse, 
and shall not be used for the storage of material unneces- 
sary for the construction, maintenance, or operation of 
the elevator. Flammable liquids having a flash point of 
less than 38°C (lOO^F) shall not be kept in the machine 
room. 

5.10.1.7.2 Machine Room and Machinery Space 
Floors 

(a) A metal, concrete, or wood floor shall be provided, 
except that floors are not required below: 

(1) secondary and deflecting sheaves of traction- 
type machines located over the hoistway 

(2) overhead sheaves, governors, and other equip- 
ment where the elevator machine is located below or at 
the side of the hoistway, provided that 

(a) means of access for inspection and servicing 
of governors is provided 

(b) sheaves and other equipment (except gover- 
nors) shall be permitted to be inspected and serviced 
from the top of the car or by other means 

(b) The floor shall be located above, level with, or 
directly below the machine beams. 

(c) Floors shall be designed to carry a minimum live 
load of 195 kg/m^ (40 Ib/ft^). 

(d) Floors shall be of concrete, wood, or of metal with 
or without perforations. Wood planking, when used, 
shall be scaffold grade or equivalent as recognized by 
approved grading rules for the species of wood used. 

(e) The area to be covered by the floor shall conform 
to 2.1.3.5. 

5.10.1.8 Machinery and Sheave Beams, Supports, 
and Foundations. Beams, supports, and foundations 
shall conform to 2.9. 

NOTE: Temporary structural reinforcement shall be permitted to 
be used to meet the requirements of 5.10.1. 

5.10.1.9 Hoistway Doors and Gates 

5.10.1.9.1 Where Required. The full width of each 
landing opening shall be protected to its full height by 
doors, gates, transoms, or any combination thereof. The 
entire entrance assembly shall be capable of withstand- 
ing a force of 1 112 N (250 Ibf) applied on the landing 
side at right angles to and approximately at the center 
of a panel. This force shall be distributed over an area 
of 100 mm X 100 mm (4 in. x 4 in.). There shall be no 
permanent displacement or deformation of any parts of 
the entrance assembly resulting from this test. Open- 
work entrances shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diame- 
ter. Where permanent doors are provided, they shall 
conform to 2.11 through 2.13. 

5.10.1.9.2 Emergency Doors. Emergency doors 
shall conform to 2.11.1.2. 



5.10.1.9.3 Projection of Hoistway Doors or Gates 
Into the Hoistway. All projections of hoistway doors or 
gates into the hoistway shall conform to 2.11.5. 

5.10.1.9.4 Hoistway Door Vision Panels 

(a) Where permanent hoistway doors are installed, 
vision panels shall conform to 2.11.7. 

(b) Where temporary swinging solid hoistway doors 
are used, a vision panel covered with material that will 
reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter and have a deflec- 
tion not greater than any other part of the door shall be 
provided. The total area of the vision panel shall be 
not more than 0.016 m^ (25 in.^) and it shall be located 
between 1 370 mm (54 in.) and 1 675 mm (66 in.) above 
the floor level. 

5.10.1.9.5 Openings of Hoistway Doors or Gates 
From the Landing Side 

(a) For elevators with car speeds of up to 1.75 m/s 
(350 ft/min), hoistway doors or gates shall be provided 
with means that will latch the doors or gates mechani- 
cally so that they cannot be opened from the landing 
side, conforming to 5.10.1.21.1. Means shall be provided 
at a designated landing for unlatching the hoistway door 
or gate from the landing side to permit access to the car. 
At this landing, positive means shall be provided to lock 
the elevator entrance out of service. 

(b) For elevators with car speeds over 1.75 m/s 
(350 ft/min), hoistway doors shall be provided with 
either of the following: 

(1) interlocks conforming to 2.12.2 

(2) combination mechanical locks and electric con- 
tacts conforming to 2.12.3 

(c) The mechanical locking device, when used on tem- 
porary doors, shall be self-latching. 

NOTE [5.10.1.9.5(c)]: When permanent doors are installed, it is 
recommended that the mechanical locking function of the perma- 
nent interlocks be used. 

5.10.1.9.6 Closing of Hoistway Doors and Gates. 

Temporary hoistway doors and gates shall be considered 
to be in the closed position when the door or gate is 
fully closed and latched. 

Permanent hoistway doors shall conform to 2.12.1. 
The electrical circuitry for hoistway door interlocks, or 
combination mechanical locks and electric contacts, does 
not have to be operational at this time imless the car 
speed is over 1.75 m/s (350 ft/min). 

5.10.1.9.7 Hangers and Stops for Sliding Hoistway 
Doors. Hangers conforming to 2.11.11.4 shall be pro- 
vided. 

Where permanent hoistway doors are installed, they 
shall conform to 2.11, 2.12, and 2.13. 

5.10.1.9.8 Weights for Closing and/or Balancing 
Temporary Hoistway Doors or Gates. Weights used to 
close or balance hoistway doors or gates should be 
located outside the hoistway enclosure and shall run 



188 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



in guides or be enclosed. Weights located inside the 
hoist way enclosure shall conform to 2.11.8. Guides shall 
be of metal/ and the bottom of the guide or enclosure 
shall be so constructed as to retain the weights if their 
suspension members fail. 

5.10.1.10 Car Enclosure, Car Doors and Gates, and 
Car Illumination 

5.10.1.10.1 Enclosures Required. Except at the 
entrance, cars shall be fully enclosed with metal or wood 
on the sides and top. The enclosures shall be solid. The 
minimum clear height inside the car shall be 1 980 mm 
(78 in.). Car top enclosures shall be constructed to sustain 
a load of 135 kg (300 lb) on any 0.09 m^ (1 ft^) area. 

5.10.1.10.2 Securing Enclosure. The enclosure 
shall be securely fastened to the car platform and so 
supported that it cannot loosen or become displaced in 
regular service, on application of the car safety, or on 
engagement of the buffer. 

5.10.1.10.3 Illumination in the Car. Each car shall 
be provided with an electric light and a light control 
switch. The light shall provide illumination of at least 
50 Ix (5 fc) at the landing edge of the car platform. 
Light bulbs and tubes shall be suitably protected against 
accidental breakage. 

5.10.1.10.4 Top Emergency Exits. Emergency exits 
with a cover shall be provided in the top of all elevator 
cars and shall conform to the following: 

(a) The exit opening shall have an area of not less 
than 0.26 m^ (400 in.-^), and shall measure not less than 
400 mm (16 in.) on any side. 

(b) The exit shall be so located as to provide a clear 
passageway imobstructed by fixed elevator equipment 
located in or on top of the car. 

(c) The exit cover shall open outward and shall be 
hinged or otherwise attached to the car top and so 
arranged that the cover can be opened from the top of 
the car only. The cover when opened shall not protrude 
beyond the perimeter of the car. 

(d) Operation of the car with the top emergency exit 
open is prohibited, except as specified in 5.10.1.10.4(e). 

(e) Operation of the car with the top emergency exit 
open is permissible only when the load cannot be carried 
totally within the car enclosure and the operation is 
under the direct supervision of authorized personnel. 
The car shall not be operated at a speed of more than 
0.75 m/s (50 ft/min). 

5.10.1.10.5 Use of Glass, Glass shall not be used 
in elevator cars, except for the car light and accessories 
necessary for the operation of the car. Glass used for 
the car light and accessories shall be laminated and meet 
the requirements of ANSI Z97.1 or CAN/CGSB-12.1, 
whichever is applicable (see Part 9), except for 
transparency. 



5.10.1.10.6 Number of Compartments. The num- 
ber of compartments shall conform to 2.14.1.4. 

5.10.1.10.7 Car Emergency Signal. Elevators shall 
be provided with an audible signaling device, or a per- 
manent or portable means of two-way communication. 

5.10.1.10.8 Car Doors or Gates. A car door or gate 
shall be provided at each entrance to the car. When 
closed, it shall guard the opening to its full height. Car 
doors shall he solid or openwork construction that will 
reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter. Collapsible car 
gates shall be of a design that, when fully closed 
(extended position), will reject a ball 75 mm (3 in.) in 
diameter. Each door or gate shall be equipped with a 
car door or gate electric contact conforming to the 
requirements of 2.14.4.2. Operation of the car with the 
car door or gate open is prohibited. 

5.10.1.11 Car Frames and Platforms. Car frames 
and platforms shall conform to 2.15, except for 2.15.8. 

5.10.1.12 Rated Load and Speed 

5.10.1.12.1 Rated Load. The inside net platform 
area shall be determined by the temporary rated load 
and shall conform to 2.16.1. 

The maximum number of passengers shall be based 
on the temporary rated load divided by 90 kg (200 lb). 

5.10.1.12.2 Reduction of Inside Net Platform Area. 

Temporary partitions shall be permitted to be installed 
for the purpose of restricting the inside net platform 
area. Such partitions shall be securely fastened to pre- 
vent unauthorized removal. 

The temporary partitions shall be so installed as to 
provide for approximately symmetrical loading. 

Temporary partitions used within a car enclosure to 
reduce the inside net platform area shall be permitted 
to be removed only under the supervision of the elevator 
contractor to accommodate bulky loads that do not 
exceed the temporary capacity. 

5.10.1.12.3 Speed. The car speed shall not exceed 
5 m/s (1,000 ft/min) unless permission to do so is 
granted by the authority having jurisdiction. Related 
devices such as governors and buffers shall be calibrated 
to the car speed. 

5.10.1.13 Car and Counterweight Safeties. Car and 

counterweight safeties shall conform to 2.17. 

5.10.1.14 Governors. Governors shall conform to 
2.18. 

5.10.1.15 Ascending Car Overspeed and Unintended 
Car Movement Protection. Ascending car overspeed 
and unintended car movement protection shall be pro- 
vided on new elevators, and on elevators being altered 
if required in 8.7, in conformance with 2.19. 

5.10.1.16 Suspension Means. Elevator cars shall be 
suspended by steel wire ropes attached to the car frame 



189 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



or passing around sheaves attached to the car frame as 
required by 2.15.12, except as specified in 5.10.1.16.1 
through 5.10.1.16.8. 

Elevator cars arranged for progressive rises with con- 
tinuous suspension ropes on storage reels shall have 
steel wire ropes attached to the car frame or the station- 
ary hitch-ends with suitable anchorages on the basis of 
tensile and fatigue in accordance with manufacturer's 
specifications and conforrrung to 5.10.1.16.7. 

5.10.1.16.1 Types Permitted. Suspension means 
shall conform to 2.20.1. 

5.10.1.16.2 Minimum Number and Diameter of Sus- 
pension Ropes. Ropes shall conform to 2.20.4. 

5.10.1.16.3 Factor of Safety. Ropes shall conform 
to 2.20.3. The -factor of safety of the suspension wire 
ropes shall be based on the requirements for freight 
elevators. 

5.10.1.16.4 Spare Rope Turns on Winding Drums. 

Ropes shall conform to 2.20.7. 

5.10.1.16.5 Splicing and Replacement of Suspen- 
sion Ropes. Suspension wire ropes shall not be length- 
ened or repaired by splicing. Damaged ropes in a set 
shall be permitted to be replaced without replacing the 
whole set. 

5.10.1.16.6 Securing of Suspension Wire Ropes to 
Winding Drums. Ropes shall conform to 2.20.6. 

5.10.1.16.7 Suspension-Rope Fastenings. The car 

and counterweight ends of suspension wire ropes, or 
the stationary hitch-ends where multiple roping is used, 
shall be fastened in such a manner that all portions of 
the rope, except the portion inside the rope sockets, shall 
be readily visible. Fastening shall be 

(a) by individual tapered babbitted rope sockets (see 
2.20.9.4) 

(b) by means of clamps and wire-rope thimbles or by 
special fastening devices. Where clamps are used, the 
fastening shall conform to the following: 

(1) Clamps shall not be of the U-bolt type. 

(2) Both members of the clamps shall be provided 
with seats conforming to the lay of the rope. 

5.10.1.16.8 Rope Data Tag. Tags shall conform to 
2.20.2.2. 

5.10.1.17 Counterweights. Coimterweight guiding 
and construction shall conform to 2.21. 

5.10.1.18 Car and Counterweight Buffers. Car and 

counterweight buffers shall conform to 2.22. 

5.10.1.19 Car Guide Rails and Guide-Rail Fasten- 
ings. Car guide rails and guide-rail fastenings shall 
conform to 2.23. 

5.10.1.20 Driving Machines and Sheaves 



5.10.1.20.1 Driving Machines. All driving 
machines shall conform to 2.24.1, except that winding- 
drum machines shall be permitted to be used for passen- 
ger elevators subject to the requirements of 2.24.1(a), (b), 
and (c). 

5.10.1.20.2 Material and Grooving for Sheaves and 
Drums. Permanent sheaves and drums shall conform 
to 2.24.2. Temporary sheaves and drums shall conform 
to 5.7.18.2. 

5.10.1.20.3 Factor of Safety for Driving Machines 
and Sheaves. The factor of safety for driving machines 
and sheaves shall conform to 2.24.3. 

5.10.1.20.4 Bolts Transmitting Torque, and Set 
Screws. Bolts transmitting torque, and set screws shall 
conform to 2.24.4. 

5.10.1.20.5 Friction Gearing or Clutch Mechanism. 

Friction gearing or clutch mechanism is prohibited. 

5.10.1.20.6 Use of Cast Iron in Gears. Worms and 
worm gears made of cast iron are prohibited. 

5.10.1.20.7 Driving-Machine Braises. Driving- 
machine brakes shall conform to 2.16.8, 2.24.8, and 
2.26.8. 

5.10.1.21 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

5.10.1.21.1 Applicable Requirements 

(a) Operating devices and control equipment on ele- 
vators with a car speed of up to 1.75 m/s (350 ft/min) 
shall conform to 2.26, except for 2.26.1.6, 2.26.2.14, 
2.26.4.4, and 2.26.12 that do not apply See 5.10.1.21.3 
regarding temporary wiring requirements. 

(b) Operating devices and control equipment on ele- 
vators with a car speed of over 1.75 m/s (350 ft/min) 
shall also conform to 2.26.2.14, where applicable. 

(c) Elevators used for construction shall not be 
required to conform to 2.26.11. 

5.10.1.21.2 Operation and Operating Devices. 

Operating devices shall conform to 2.26.1.1. All auto- 
matic operation elevators shall conform to 2.14. 

5.10.1.21.3 Temporary Wiring. Temporary wiring 
shall conform to Article 305 of NFPA 70 or Section 76 
of CSA-C22.1, Part I, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). 

5.10.1.22 Floor Numbers. Hoistways shall have 
floor numbers, not less than 100 mm (4 in.) in height, 
on the hoistway side of the enclosure or hoistway doors. 

5.10.1.23 Capacity and Data Plates or Signs 

5.10.1.23.1 Plates or Signs Required and Loca- 
tions. Every elevator car shall be provided with a capac- 
ity plate or sign and a data plate or sign temporarily 
fastened in place. The capacity plate or sign shall be 
located in a conspicuous position inside the car. 

The data plate or sign shall be located on the car 
crosshead, or if there is no crosshead, inside the car. 



190 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



5.10.1.23.2 Information Required on Plates or 
Signs 

(a) Temporary capacity plates or signs shall indicate 
the maximum load and the maximum number of passen- 
gers allowed in the car during the use of the elevator 
for construction. 

(b) Temporary data plates or signs shall indicate 

(1) the approximate temporary weight of the car 
including the car safety and all auxiliary equipment 
attached to the car 

(2) the temporary rated load and temporary speed 

(3) the wire rope data required by 2.20.2.1 

(4) the manufacturer's name and date of instal- 
lation 

5.10.1.23.3 JVIarlcing of Plates or Signs. Plates or 
signs shall have letters and figures stamped, cast, etched, 
stenciled, or painted on the surface in such a manner 
as to be legible. The height of the letters and figures 
shall be not less than 

(a) 15 mm (1 in.) for capacity plates 

(b) 3 mm (0.125 in.) for data plates 

5.10.2 Hydraulic Elevators Used for Construction 

5.10.2.1 Construction of Hoistways and Hoistway 
Enclosures. Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and 
related construction shall conform to 5.10.1.1. 

5.10.2.2 JMachine Rooms and Machinery Spaces. 

Machine rooms and machineiry spaces shall conform to 
5.10.1.7. 



5.10.2.3 Protection of Spaces Below Hoistway. Pro- 
tection of the space below the hoistway shall conform 
to 3.6. 

5.10.2.4 Vertical Clearances and Runby for Cars and 
Counterweights. Bottom and top clearances and runby 
for cars and counterweights shall conform to 3.4. 



5.10.2.5 Emergency Doors. 

conform to 3.11.1. 



Emergency doors shall 



5.10.2.6 Mechanical Equipment. Mechanical equip- 
ment shall conform to 5.10.1.10, 5.10.1.11, 5.10.1.13 
through 5.10.1.15, 5.10.1.17 through 5.10.1.19, and 
5.10.1.23. 

5.10.2.7 Hydraulic Jack. Hydraulic jacks shall con- 
form to 3.18. 

5.10.2.8 Valves, Pressure Piping, and Fittings. 

Valves, supply piping, and fittings shall conform to 3.19. 

5.10.2.9 Counterweight Ropes, Rope Connections, 
and Sheaves. Counterweight ropes, rope connections, 
and sheaves shall conform to 3.20. 

5.10.2.10 Tanlcs. Tanks shall conform to 3.24. 

5.10.2.11 Terminal Stopping Devices. Terminal 
stopping devices shaU conform to 3.25. 

5.10.2.12 Operating Devices and Control Equip- 
ment. Operating devices and control equipment shall 
conform to 5.10.1.21. 



191 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



Part 6 
Escalators and Moving Walks 



SCOPE 

Part 6 applies to escalators and moving walks used 
to transport passengers. 

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to 
escalators and moving walks. 

SECTION 6.1 
ESCALATORS 

6.1.1 Protection of Floor Openings 

6.1.1.1 Protection Required. Floor openings for 
escalators shall be protected against the passage of 
flame, heat, and /or smoke in accordance with the provi- 
sions of the applicable building code (see Part 9). 

6.1.2 Protection of Trusses and Machine Spaces 
Against Fire 

6.1.2.1 Protection Required. The sides and under- 
sides of an escalator truss or group of adjacent trusses 
in a single wellway shall be enclosed in materials defined 
as either noncombustible or limited-combustible by the 
building code or NFPA 101, whichever is applicable (see 
Part 9). Means provided for adequate ventilation of the 
driving machine and control spaces, when included in 
the truss enclosure area, shall be permitted. 

6.1.3 Construction Requirements 

6.1.3.1 Angle of Inclination. The angle of inclination 
shaU be designed not to exceed 30 deg from the hori- 
zontal, but due to field conditions at the site shall be 
permitted to exceed this maximum by 1 deg. The angle 
shall be measured at the centerline of the steps. 

6.1.3.2 Geometry 

6.1.3.2.1 The width of the escalator shall be the 
width of the step tread. See 6.1.3.5.2 for step width 
requirements. 

6.1.3.2.2 The handrail shall be a minimum of 
100 mm (4 in.) horizontally and 25 mm (1 in.) vertically 
away from adjacent surfaces, except that rounded fillets 
or beveled sides of the handrail stand are permitted to 
reduce the 25 mm (1 in.) clearance between the handrail 
and the point where the handrail stand is connected to 
the balustrade. The centerline of the handrail shall be 
not more than 240 mm (9.5 in.), measured horizontally, 
from the vertical plane through the edge of the exposed 



step. (See Nonmandatory Appendix I, Figs. I-l and 1-2.) 

6.1.3.3 Balustrades. Balustrades shall be installed 
on each side of the escalator. (See Nonmandatory 
Appendix I, Fig. 1-3.) 

6.1.3.3.1 Construction 

(a) For 

(1 ) escalators not equipped with dynamic skirt pan- 
els, the balustrade on the step side shall have no areas 
or moldings depressed or raised more than 6.4 mm 
(0.25 in.) from the parent surface, except as permitted 
in 6.1.3.3.10 

(2) escalators equipped with dynamic skirt panels, 
the balustrade on the step side shall have no areas or 
moldings parallel to the direction of travel that are 
depressed or raised more than 12 mm (0.47 in.) from 
the parent surface 

(3) all escalators, the depressed or raised areas or 
moldings shall have boundary edges bevelled or 
roimded 

(b) The balustrade shall be totally closed, except 

(1) where the handrail enters the newel base (see 
6.1.3.4.3). 

(2) gaps between interior panels shall be not wider 
than 5 mm (0.19 in.). The edges shall be rounded or 
beveled. 

(3) where the dynamic skirt panels enter the balus- 
trade [see 6.1.3.3.7(c)]. 

(c) The width between the balustrade interior panels 
in the direction of travel shall not be changed. 

6.1.3.3.2 Strength. Balustrades shall be designed 
to resist the simultaneous application of a static lateral 
distributed force of 585 N/m (40 Ibf/ft) applied to the 
side of the handrail and a vertical distributed force of 
730 N/m (50 Ibf/ft), applied to the top of the handrail. 

6.1.3.3.3 Use of Glass or Plastic. Glass or plastic, 
if used in balustrades, shall conform to the requirements 
of the following standards, whichever is applicable (see 
Part 9): 

(a) ANSI Z97.1 or 16 CFR Part 1201; or 

(h) one of the following CGSB Standards: CAN/ 

CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, or CAN/CGSB-12.12; 

except that there shaU be no requirement for the panels 

to be transparent. 
Plastic bonded to basic supporting panels is not 

required to conform to these requirements. 



(07) 



(07) 



192 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



6.1.3.3.4 Interior Low Deck. The interior low deck, 
where provided, shall conform to the following (see 
Norunandatory Appendix I, Fig. I-l): 

(a) The width from the vertical face of the interior 
panel to the vertical plane of the skirt panel, or dynamic 
skirt panel cover, where provided, shall not exceed 
150 mm (6 in.). 

(b) The angle between the surface of the deck and the 
plane of the nose line of the steps shall be not less than 
20 deg nor more than 30 deg. 

(c) A horizontal section shall be permitted immedi- 
ately adjacent to the interior panel. It shall be not greater 
than 35 mm (1.25 in.). 

(d) The deck and the d)mamic skirt panel cover, where 
provided, at the point closest to the step shall withstand 
a force of 900 N (200 Ibf ) perpendicular to the line of 
attachment of the element without detachment or per- 
manent deformation. The force shall be applied to an 
area of 645 mm^ (1 in.^). 

6.1.3.3.5 Loaded Gap Between Skirt and Step. The 

clearance (loaded gap) between the step tread and the 
adjacent skirt panel shall be not more than 5 mm (0.2 in.) 
when 110 N (25 Ibf) is laterally applied from the step 
to the adjacent skirt panel. The applied load shall not 
deviate from 110 N (25 Ibf) by more than ±11 N (2.5 Ibf). 
The load shall be distributed over an area not less than 
1 940 mm^ (3 in.^) and not more than 3 870 mm^ (6 in.^). 

6.1.3.3.6 Skirt Panels 

(a) The height of the skirt above the tread nose line 
shaU be at least 25 mm (1 in.) measured vertically (see 
Normnandatory Appendix I, Fig. 1-4). 

(b) Skirt panels shall not deflect more than 1.6 mm 
(0.0625 in.) under a force of 667 N (150 Ibf). 

(c) The exposed surfaces of the skirt panels adjacent 
to the steps shall be smooth. 

6.1.3.3.7 Dynamic Skirt Panels. Dynamic skirt 
panels, where provided, shall conform to the following: 

(a) The height of the dynamic skirt panel above the 
step tread nose line shall be at least 25 mm (1 in.) mea- 
sured vertically (see Nonmandatory Appendix I, 
Fig. 1-4). 

(b) The exposed surfaces of the dynamic skirt panels 
adjacent to the step treads shall be smooth and in one 
plane. Exposed edges shall be rounded or beveled. 

(c) Guarding shall be provided at the point where the 
dynamic skirt panels enter the balustrade. The clearance 
between the guard and the dynamic skirt panels shall 
not exceed 3 mm (0.125 in.). 

(d) The exposed panels that comprise the dynamic 
skirt shall overlap or interlock such that no clear-through 
spaces exist. The distance between exposed edges of 
dynamic skirt panel elements shall not exceed 4 mm 
(0.16 in.). 

(e) There must be a positive mechanical connection 
between the dynamic skirt panels and the nmning gear. 



(f) The distance between the dynamic skirt panel and 
the dynamic skirt panel cover shall not exceed 5 mm 
(0.20 in.). 

6.1.3.3.8 Dynamic Skirt Panel Loaded Gap. The 

gap clearance (loaded gap) at any point between the 
step tread and the adjacent dynamic skirt panel shall 
not exceed 5 mm (0.20 in.) when HON (25 Ibf) is laterally 
applied from the step to the adjacent dynamic skirt 
panel. The applied load shall not deviate from 110 N 
(25 Ibf) by more than ±11 N (2.5 Ibf). The load shall be 
distributed over an area not less than 1 940 mm^ (3 in.^) 
and not more than 3 870 mm"^ (6 in.^). 

6.1.3.3.9 Step/Skirt Performance Index 

(a) This requirement is not applicable to escalators 
with dynamic skirt panels. The step /skirt performance 
index, when the escalator is subjected to the test speci- 
fied in 8.11.4.2.19, shall be the maximum value of the 
recorded instantaneous step/skirt index e^/{e^ + 1), 
where 

(SI Units) 
e = 2.7183 

y = -3.77 + 2.37 (/x) + 0.37 (L^) 
JUL = the sliding coefficient of friction of a polycarbo- 
nate test specimen on the skirt panel at the 
measurement point calculated when subjected 
to a 110 N normal load. The coefficient of fric- 
tion shall be measured without addition of any 
field-applied lubricant. 
Lg = the clearance between the step and the adjacent 
skirt panel when 110 N is applied from the step 
to skirt panel, mm 

The applied load shall not deviate from 110 N by 
more than ±11 N. The load shall be distributed over a 
round or square area not less than 1 940 mm^ and not 
more than 3 870 mm^. 

(Imperial Units) 
e = 2.7183 

y = - 3.77 + 2.37 (/x) + 9.3 (L^) 
/jl = the sliding coefficient of friction of a polycarbo- 
nate test specimen on the skirt panel at the 
measurement point calculated when subjected 
to a 25 Ibf normal load. The coefficient of fric- 
tion shall be measured without addition of any 
field-applied lubricant. 
Lg = the clearance between the step and the adjacent 
skirt panel when 25 Ibf is applied from the step 
to skirt panel, in. 

The applied load shaU not deviate from 25 Ibf by more 
than ± 2.5 Ibf. The load shall be distributed over a round 
or square area not less than 3 in.^ and not more than 6 in.^ 

(b) The step /skirt performance index polycarbonate 
test specimen shall conform to the following 
specifications: 



193 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B4A-07 



Fig. 6.1.3.3.10 Dimensions 




18 mm 
- (0.72 in.)- 
max. 



(Not to scale) 



:l 



10 deg min. 



25 mm 
(1 in.) min. 
incline 



50 mm 
(2 in.) min. 
landing 



(1) Material: Polycarbonate without fillers 

(2) Color: Natural, no pigments 

(3) Finish: Glossy (roughness less than 0.8 (jim 
(32 fxin.) 

(4) Area in contact with skirt panel: 
2 900 ± 325 mm^ (4.5 ± 0.5 in.^) and at least 0.8 mm 
(0.03 in.) thick 

(5) Specification: GE Lexan 100 series or equivalent 
polycarbonate 

(c) The escalator step /skirt performance index shall 
be either of the following: 
(1) <0.15 
(ED) (2) < 0.25 when a skirt deflector device complying 

with the requirements of 6.1.3.3.10 is provided 

6.1.3.3.10 Skirt Deflector Devices. Deflector 
devices shall be permitted. Where provided, deflector 
devices shall extend from skirt panels parallel to the 
escalator path of travel. Means to secure such deflector 
devices are permitted to be on the exposed surface of 
the skirt. Any exposed fastener heads shall be of the 
tamper-resistant type and flush to within 1 mm (0.04 in.). 
(a) Rigid elements shall be in conformance with the 
following conditions: 

(1) Horizontal protrusions extending above the 
step shall be 18 mm (0.75 in.) maximum. Comers or 
changes in profile shall be rounded or beveled. The 
exposed surfaces of such elements shall be smooth and 
permanently treated with a low-friction material. 

(2) On the incline, the area of any protrusion shall 
lie entirely above a line on the skirt panel positioned at 
least 25 mm (1 in.) vertically above the step nose line. 
The lower surface shall be beveled not less than 10 deg 
upward and the upper surface shall be beveled not less 
than 15 deg downward. (See Fig. 6.1.3.3.8.) 



(3) At the upper and lower landing, any protrusion 
shall lie entirely above a line on the skirt panel posi- 
tioned at least 50 mm (2 in.) vertically above the step 
nose line. The lower surface shall be beveled not less 
than 10 deg upward and the upper surface shall be 
beveled not less than 15 deg downward. Any rigid ele- 
ments at the landings shall smoothly blend into the rigid 
elements along the incline in accordance with the radius 
of curvature of the transition zone. 

(4) When attached to the skirt, rigid elements shall 
withstand a force of 900 N (200 Ibf ) perpendicular to the 
line of attachment of the element without detachment or 
permanent deformation. The force shall be applied to 
an area of 645 mm^ (1 in.^). 

(b) Flexible elements shall be in conformance with the 
following conditions: 

(1) The horizontal protrusion extending from the 
skirt surafce above the step shall be 50 mm (2 in.) 
maximum. 

(2) They shall be capable of deflecting to an angle 
of 10 deg or greater above the horizontal. 

(3) Noncontinuous flexible elements shall be 
allowed to deflect to allow a maximum of 9.5 mm 
(0.375 in.) interference with any point on the step surface. 

(4) Continuous flexible elements shall not deflect 
such that they can contact the steps. 

6.1.3.3.11 Guard at Ceiling intersection 

(a) On high deck balustrades, a solid guard shall be 
provided in the intersection of the angle of the outside 
balustrade deck and the ceiling or soffit, under the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

(1) where the clearance between the outside edge 
of the deck and the ceiling or soffit is 300 mm (12 in.) 
or less; or 

(2) where the projected intersection of the outside 
deck and the ceiling or soffit is 600 mm (24 in.) or less 
from the centerline of the handrail. 

(b) On low deck balustrades, a soHd guard shall be 
provided to protect the intersection formed by the top 
of the handrail and the plain of the ceiling or soffit where 
the centerUne of the handrail is 350 mm (14 in.) or less 
from the ceiling or soffit. 

(c) The vertical edge of the guard shall be a minimum 
of 350 mm (14 in.) in length. 

(d) The escalator side of the vertical face of the guard 
shall be flush with the face of the wellway 

(e) The exposed edge of the guard shall present a 
minimum width of 25 mm (1 in.) and a minimum radius 
of 12 mm (0.5 in.). 

(f) Guards are permitted to be of glass or plastic, 
provided they meet the requirements of 6.1.3.3.3. 

See also Nonmandatory Appendix I, Fig. 1-5. 

6.1.3.3.12 Antislide Devices. On high deck balus- 
trades, antislide cievices shall be provided on decks or 
combinations of decks when the outer edge of the deck 



194 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



is greater than 200 mm (8 in.) from the edge of the 
handrail, or on adjacent escalators when the unob- 
structed distance between the edge of the facing handrail 
is greater than 300 mm (12 in.). 

These devices shall consist of raised objects fastened 
to the decks, no closer than 100 mm (4 in.) to the handrail 
nor greater than 300 mm (12 in.) from the handrail. They 
shall be spaced not greater than 2 000 mm (78 in.) apart 
as measured on a line parallel to the direction of travel 
and not greater than 300 mm (12 in.) as measured on a 
horizontal line perpendicular to the direction of travel. 
The height shall be not less than 50 mm (2 in.). There 
shall be no sharp corners or edges. See Nonmandatory 
Appendix I, Fig. 1-6. 

6.1.33.13 Deck Barricades 

(a) A barricade to restrict access to the outer deck on 
low deck exterior balustrades shall be provided at the 
top and bottom ends of each escalator where the outer 
deck width exceeds 125 mm (5 in.). On parallel abutting 
tmits, this protection shall be provided where the com- 
bined outer deck width exceeds 125 mm (5 in.). The 
barricade shall extend to a height that is nominally 
100 mm (4 in.) below the top of the handrail. 

(h) When an escalator is not located at the edge of a 
floor surface, the barricade shall be installed on the outer 
deck at a point 1 000 mm (40 in.) above the floor where 
the bottom of the barricade intersects the outer deck. 

(c) On parallel adjacent escalators, where the common 
low deck between adjacent interior panels exceeds 
400 mm (16 in.), deck barricades should be spaced evenly 
up the incline at no greater than 4.6 m (15 ft) measured 
on a line parallel to the direction of travel. 

(d) Barricades made of glass or plastic shall conform 
to the requirements of 6.1.3.3.3. All exposed barricade 
attachment fastener heads shall be of the tamper- 
resistant type. 

6.1.3.4 Handrails 

6.1.3.4.1 Type Required. Each balustrade shall be 
provided with a handrail moving in the same direction 
and at substantially the same speed as the steps. In the 
case of curved escalators, this shall be substantially the 
same angular velocity. The speed of the handrail shall 
not change when a retarding force of 450 N (100 Ibf) is 
applied to the handrail opposite to the direction of travel. 

6.1.3.4.2 Extension Beyond Combplates. Each 
moving handrail shall extend at normal handrail height 
not less than 300 mm (12 in.) beyond the line of points 
of the combplate teeth at the upper and lower landings. 

6.1.3.4.3 Guards. Hand or finger guards shall be 
provided at a point where the handrail enters the 
balustrade. 

6.1.3.4.4 Splicing. SpUcing of handrails shall be 
done in such a manner that the joint is free of any pinch- 
ing effect. 



6.1.3.4.5 Vertical Height. The vertical height from 
step nose to top of handrail shall be not less than 900 rmn 
(35 in.) nor more than 1 000 nun (39 in.). See 6.1.3.6.6 for 
floor opening protection adjacent to escalator wellways. 

6.1.3.4.6 Handrail Clearance. The horizontal clear- 
ance between either lip of the handrail and the handrail 
stand shall not exceed 10 mm (0.375 in.). (See Nonman- 
datory Appendix I, Fig. 1-2.) 

6.1.3.5 Steps 

6.1.3.5.1 iVlaterial and Type 

(a) Step frames, treads, risers, and dynamic skirt pan- 
els, excluding the step's attachments or inserts, shall be 
metal, except that magnesium alloys shall not be used; 
or the materials, in their end-use configuration, shall 
have a flame spread index of to 50 based on the tests 
conducted in accordance with the requirements of 
ASTM E 84, UL 723, NFPA 255, or CAN/ULC-S102.2, 
whichever is applicable (see Part 9). 

(b) Nonmetallic attachments and inserts (excluding 
wheels) shall be classified 94 HB or better in accordance 
with ANSI/UL 94. 

(c) Step treads shall be horizontal, and shall afford a 
secure foothold. The step supporting system shall be so 
designed so that the back of the step cannot tip upward 
more than 6 mm (0.25 in.) at any point. 

6.1.3.5.2 Dimensions of Steps. The depth of any 
step tread in the direction of travel shall be not less than 
400 mm (15.75 in.), and the rise between treads shall be 
not more than 220 mm (8.5 in.). The width of a step 
tread shall be not less than 560 mm (22 in.) nor more 
than 1 020 mm (40 in.). (See Nonmandatory Appendix 
I, Fig. 1-7.) 

6.1.3.5.3 Cleated Step Risers. The step riser shall 
be provided with vertical cleats, which shall mesh with 
slots on the adjacent step tread wherever the steps are 
exposed. (See Nonmandatory Appendix I, Fig. 1-8.) 

6.1.3.5.4 Clearance Between Steps. The maxi- 
mum clearance between step treads on the horizontal 
run shall be 6 mm (0.25 in.). (See Nonmandatory Appen- 
dix I, Fig. 1-6.) 

6.1.3.5.5 Slotting of Step Treads. The tread sur- 
face of each step shall be slotted in a direction parallel 
to the travel of the steps. Each slot shall be not more 
than 6.5 mm (0.25 in.) wide and not less than 9.5 mm 
(0.375 in.) deep, and the distance from center to center of 
adjoining slots shall be not more than 9.5 mm (0.375 in.). 

Slots shall be so located on the step tread surface as 
to form a cleat on each side of the step tread adjacent 
to the skirt or dynamic skirt panel. 

6.1.3.5.6 Step Demarcation. There shall be demar- (07) 
cation lines on the step tread along the back of the step 

to delineate the division between steps. These lines shall 
be marked by a yellow strip a mirumum of 38 mm 



195 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(1.5 in.) in width and a maximum of 50 mm (2 in.). [See 
6.1.3.5.1(b).] 

There shall be demarcation lines on the step tread 
along the sides of the step. These side lines shall be 
yellow and at least 13 mm (0.5 in.) wide and shall not 
exceed 50 mm (2 in.). [See 6.1.3.5.1(b).] 

6.1.3.5.7 Step Fatigue Tests. Each step width shall 
be subjected to the step fatigue test as described in 8.3.11. 

6.1.3.5.8 Step Wheels. Where support wheels 
attached to the steps are not located within the width 
of the step, provision shall be made to prevent the step 
from falling into the escalator interior due to a loss of 
one or more of the support wheel assemblies. 

6.1.3.6 Entrance and Egress Ends 

6.1.3.6.1 Combplates 

(a) There shall be a combplate, to which the combs 
shall be fastened, at the entrance and at the exit of every 
escalator. 

(b) The comb teeth shall be meshed with and set into 
the slots in the tread surfaces so that the points of the 
teeth are always below the upper surface of the treads. 

(c) Combplates shall be adjustable vertically. Sections 
forming the comb teeth shall be readily replaceable. 

(d) The comb section, combplate, and landing plate 
assemblies shaU not make contact with the step treads 
when a weight of 160 kg (350 lb) is applied to any area 
200 mm x 300 mm (8 in. x 12 in.) centered on the 
plates with the 300 mm (12 in.) dimension parallel to 
the direction of travel. 

6.1.3.6.2 Distinction Between Comb and Step. 

There shall be a visual contrast between the comb and 
step, achieved by color, pattern, or texture. 

6.1.3.6.3 Adjacent Floor Surfaces. The adjacent 
floor surfaces at each landing shall be continuous with 
the top of the landing plate with no abrupt change in 
elevation of more than 6 mm (0.25 in.). 

6.1.3.6.4 Safety Zone. The entry and exit zone 
shall be kept clear of all obstacles. The width of the zone 
shall be not less than the width between the centerlines 
of the handrails plus 200 mm (8 in.). The length of the 
zone, measured from the end of the newel, shall be not 
less than twice the distance between the centerlines of 
the handrails. Space shall be provided to accommodate 
all traffic in the safety zone. 

NOTE: These dimensions are absolute minimums. 

6.1.3.6.5 Flat Steps. There shall be a minimum of 
two and a maximum of four flat steps at the entrance 
and exit of every escalator. (See 1.3 and 6.1.3.5.2.) 

6.1.3.6.6 Floor Opening Protection Adjacent to Esca- 
lator Wellway. Floor openings adjacent to the entire 
length of the escalator wellway shall be provided with 



protection in accordance with the applicable building 
code (see Part 9). 

6.1.3.7 Trusses or Girders. The truss or girder shall 
be designed to safely sustain the running gear in opera- 
tion. In the event of failure of the track system, it shall 
retain the running gear within the confines of this truss. 

Where tightening devices are operated by means of 
tension weights, provision shall be made to retain these 
weights in the truss if they should be released. 

6.1.3.8 Step Wheel Trades. Step wheel tracks shall 
be designed so as to prevent displacement of the running 
gear if a step chain breaks. 

6.1.3.9 Rated Load 

6.1.3.9.1 Structural. For the purpose of structural 
design, the rated load shall be considered to be not less 
than the following: 

(SI Units) 

Structural rated load (kg) = 0.27 (W + 203)A 

(Imperial Units) 

Structural rated load (lb) = 4.6 (W + S)A 

where 

A = length of the horizontal projection of the entire 

truss measured along its centerline, m (ft) 
W = width of the escalator, mm (in.) (see 6.1.3.2) 

6.1.3.9.2 Machinery 

(a) For the purpose of driving machine and power 
transmission calculations, the rated load for all single 
driving machines shall be considered to be not less than 
the following: 

(SI Units) 

Machinery rated load (kg) = 0.21 (W + 203)Bi 

(Imperial Units) 

Machinery rated load (lb) = 3.5 (W + S)Bi 

(b) The rated load per module for two or more modu- 
lar driving machines shall be considered to be not less 
than: 

(SI Units) 

Machinery rated load (kg) = 0.21 (W + 203)B2 

(Imperial Units) 

Machinery rated load (lb) = 3.5 (lA^ + 8)B2 

where 

Bi = cot X total rise, m (ft) 

B2 == cot X rise per module, m (ft) 



196 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



6 = the angle of inclination, deg (see 6.1.3.1) 
W = width of the escalator, mm (in.) (see 6.1.3.2) 

6.1.3.9.3 Brake 

(a) For the purpose of brake calculations, the rated 
load for all single driving machines shall be considered 
to be not less than the following: 

(1) with escalator stopped 

(SI Units) 

Brake rated load (kg) = 0.27 (W + 203)Bi 
(Imperial Units) 

Brake rated load (lb) = 4.6 (W + 8)Bi 

(2) with escalator running 
(SI Units) 

Brake rated load (kg) = 0.21 (W + 203)Bi 

(Imperial Units) 

Brake rated load (lb) - 3.5 (W + 8)Bi 

(h) The rated load per module for two or more modu- 
lar driving machines shall be considered to be not less 
than the following: 

(1) with escalator stopped 

(SI Units) 

Brake rated load (kg) = 0.27 (W + 203)B2 
(Imperial Units) 

Brake rated load (lb) = 4.6 (W + 8)B2 

(2) with escalator nmning 
(SI Units) 

Brake rated load (kg) = 0.21 (W + 203)B2 

(Imperial Units) 

Brake rated load (lb) - 3.5 (W + 8)B2 

where 

Bi = cot (9 X total rise, m (ft) 

B2 = cot $ X rise per module, m (ft) 

6 = the angle of inclination, deg (see 6.1.3.1) 

W = width of the escalator, mm (in.) (see 6.1.3.2) 

6.1.3.9.4 Step. The step shall be designed to sup- 
port a load of 135 kg (300 lb) on a 150 mm x 250 mm 
(6 in. X 10 in.) plate placed on any part of the step with 
the 250 nun (10 in.) dimension in the direction of step 
travel. 



6.1.3.10 Design Factors of Safety. Factors of safety 
are based on either single driving-machine design or 
modulcir driving-machine design. 

The factors of safety shall be at least the following. 

6.1.3.10.1 Trusses and all supporting structures, 
including tracks, shall conform to the AISC Specifica- 
tions for Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural 
Steel for Buildings, or the CSA Standard 
CAN/CSA-S16.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), 
based on the maximum static load calculated per 
6.1.3.9.1. 

6.1.3.10.2 For driving-machine parts based on 
not less than the loads calculated per 6.1.3.9.2: 

(a) where made of steel or bronze, the factor of safety 
shall be 8 

(h) where made of cast iron or other materials, the 
factor of safety shall be 10 

6.1.3.10.3 For power transnussion members, the 
factor of safety shall be 10, based on not less than the 
loads calculated per 6.1.3.9.2. 

6.1.3.10.4 For steps, the factor of safety shall be 
5, based on not less than the loads designated in 6.1.3.9.4. 

6.1.3.11 Chains. The use of chains with cast iron 
links shall not be permitted. 

6.1.3.12 Headroom. The minimum headroom shall 
be 2 130 mm (84 in.) measured vertically from the step 
noseline, landing plates, and landings. 

6.1.3.13 Welding. Welding shall conform to 8.8. 

6.1.3.14 Non-Escalator-Related Equipment. Com- 
ponents not used directly in connection with the escala- 
tor are prohibited to be installed on, in, or through the 
escalator. 

6.1.3.15 Pit Drains. Permanent provisions shall be 
made to prevent accumulation of water in the pit. Drains 
and sump pumps, where provided, shall comply with 
2.2.2.4. 

6.1.4 Rated Speed 

6.1.4.1 Limits of Speed. The rated speed shall be 
not more than 0.5 m/s (100 ft/min), measured along 
the centerline of the steps in the direction of travel. 

The speed attained by an escalator after start-up shall 
not be intentionally varied. 

6.1.5 Driving Machine, Motor, and Brake 

6.1.5.1 Connection Between Driving Machine and 
Main Drive Shaft. The driving machine shall be con- 
nected to the main drive shaft by toothed gearing, a 
mechanical coupling, or a chain. 

6.1.5.2 Driving Motor. An electric motor shall not 
drive more than one escalator driving machine. A driv- 
ing machine shall not operate more than one escalator. 



197 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



6.1.5.3 Brakes 

6.1.5.3.1 Escalator Driving-Machine Brake 

(a) Each escalator driving machine shall be provided 
with an electrically released and mechanically or mag- 
netically applied brake. If the brake is magnetically 
applied, a ceramic permanent magnet shall be used. 
There shall be no intentional time delay designed into 
the application of the brake. 

(h) The brake shall be applied automatically if the 
electrical power supply is interrupted. The brake shall 
be capable of stopping the down-rurming escalator with 
any load up to the brake rated load [see 6.1.3.9.3(a)(2) 
or (b)(2)]. The brake shall hold the stopped escalator with 
any load up to the brake rated load [see 6.1.3.9.3(a)(1) or 
(b)(1)]. 

(c) Driving-machine brakes shall stop the down-run- 
ning escalator steps at an average rate not greater than 
0.91 m/s^ (3 ft/s"^) as measured over the total retardation 
time. No peak horizontal retardation value exceeding 
0.91 m/s^ (3 ft/s^) shaU have a time duration greater 
than 0.125 s (see Nonmandatory Appendix I, Fig. I-ll). 
(See also 6.1.6.3.6.) 

(d) The escalator brake shall be provided with a data 
plate that is readily visible, located on the machine brake 
and when necessary, a duplicate data plate with the 
certification mark shall be placed adjacent to the 
machine brake. The data plate shall indicate: 

(l)(a) for fixed torque brakes, the range of brake 
torque that compUes with 6.1.5.3.1 and 6.1.6.3.6; or 

(l)(b) for variable torque brakes, the minimum 
brake torque for a loaded escalator and the minimum 
stopping distance for the unloaded escalator, which 
complies with 6.1.5.3.1 and 6.1.6.3.6; 

(2) the method of measuring the torque, designated 
"BREAKAWAY" or "DYNAMIC," based on the method 
used when measuring the torque; 

(3) the location where the torque is to be measured, 
e.g., "MOTOR SHAFT," "MACHINE INPUT SHAFT," 
"MAIN DRIVE SHAFT"; 

(4) the type of brake as fixed or variable torque; 

(5) the maximum stopping distance with rated load 
in the down direction that corresponds to the minimum 
distance between the comb and the step when the step 
is positioned to activate any of the electrical protective 
devices required in 6.1.6.3.6, 6.1.6.3.9, 6.1.6.3.11, or 
6.1.6.5. 

(e) Where means other than a continuous shaft, 
mechanical coupling, or toothed gearing is used to con- 
nect the motor to a gear reducer, the escalator driving- 
machine brake shall be located on the gear reducer or 
main drive shaft. 

6.1.5.3.2 Main Drive Sliaft Brake. If the escalator 
driving-machine brake is separated from the main drive 
shaft by a chain used to connect the driving machine to 
the main drive shaft, a mechanically or magnetically 



applied brake capable of stopping a down-running esca- 
lator with brake rated load (see 6.1.3.9.3) shall be pro- 
vided on the main drive shaft. If the brake is 
magnetically applied, a ceramic permanent magnet shall 
be used. 

6.1.5.3.3 Escalator driving-machine brakes shall 
be certified to the requirements of 8.3.1 and 8.3.6. 

6.1.6 Operating and Safety Devices 

6.1.6.1 General. Operating and safety devices con- 
forming to the requirements of this Section shall be pro- 
vided. When more than one driving machine per 
escalator is utilized, actuation of devices covered by this 
Section shall simultaneously control all driving 
machines. 

6.1.6.1.1 Automatic Operation. Automatic start- 
ing by any means, or automatic stopping, except as 
required in 6.1.6, shaU be prohibited. 

6.1.6.2 Starting and Inspection Control Switclies 

6.1.6.2.1 Escalators shall be provided with start- 
ing switch(es) conforming to the following: 

(a) Location and Design. The switch(es) shall be: 

(1) located so that the escalator steps are within 
sight. 

(2) key operated, of the continuous-pressure 
spring-return type, and shall be operated by a cylinder- 
type lock having not less than a five-pin or five-disk 
combination. 

(3) clearly and permanently marked "DOWN," 
"RUN," and "UP," in that order, with the key removable 
only in the "RUN" (spring return) position. The 
switch(es) shall be rotated clockwise to go from the 
"DOWN" to "RUN" to "UP" position. 

(b) Operating Requirements. The operation of the 
switch(es) shall initiate movement of the escalator. The 
escalator shall not start (restart) unless all starting 
switch(es) were first in the "RUN" position. 

(c) The starting switch(es) shall be located within 
reach of an emergency stop button (see 6.1.6.3.1). 

(d) The key shall be of Group 2 Security (see 8.1). 

6.1.6.2.2 Inspection Control. Each escalator shall 
be equipped with inspection controls not accessible to 
the general public during normal operation to provide 
constant pressure operation during maintenance, repair, 
or inspection by means of a manually operated control 
device. 

(a) General Requirements 

(1) Switches for transferring the control of the esca- 
lator to inspection operation shall be provided or a 
switch shall be provided at each landing in a portable 
control station; the switch(es) shall function as follows: 
(a) be through a contact that shall be positively 
opened mechanically and whose opening shall not 
depend solely on springs 



(07) 



198 



ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



(ED) 



(07) 



(b) be manually operated 

(c) be labeled "INSPECTION" 

(d) have two positions, labeled "INSPECTION" 
or "INSP" and "NORMAL" or "NORM" 

(e) when in the "INSPECTION" position, it shall 
cause the movement of the escalator to be solely imder 
the control of constant pressure operating devices at that 
landing or in that portable control station 

(f) be arranged so that if more than one inspec- 
tion transfer switch is in the "INSPECTION" position, 
then all constant pressure operating devices at all loca- 
tions shall be inoperative 

(g) be protected agaiiLst accidental contact 

(h) the completion or maintenance of an electric 
circuit shall not be used to initiate inspection control 

(2) Constant pressure operating devices shall 

(a) allow movement of the escalator only by con- 
stant application of manual pressure 

(h) be distinctly recognizable from indications on 
the device as to the direction of travel controlled 

(c) be protected against accidental contact 

(d) be located so thai: the escalator steps are 
within sight 

(3) A stop switch conforming to 6.1.6.3.15 shall be 
provided adjacent to the constant pressure operating 
devices. 

(4) When portable control stations are used, the 
cord length shall not exceed 3 000 mm (120 in.) in length. 

(b) Plug-in Portable Control Station. A plug-in portable 
control station shall be permitted, provided that 

(1) either a transfer switch conforming to 
6.1.6.2.2(a)(1) is complied with, or when plugged in, 
the escalator shall automatically transfer to inspection 
operation 

(2) when the switch, if provided, is in the "INSPEC- 
TION" position, or when the control station is plugged 
in, it shall cause the movement of the escalator to be 
solely under the control of constant pressure operating 
devices contained in the portable unit 

(3) the plug-in portable control station is stored at 
the upper landing machinery space 

6.1.6.3 Electrical Protective Devices. Electrical pro- 
tective devices shall be provided in accordance with 
6.1.6.3.1 through 6.1.6.3.16. 

6.1.6.3.1 Emergency Stop Buttons 

(a) Location. In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC, a 
red stop button shall be visibly located at the top and 
the bottom landings on the right side facing the escalator. 
Remote stop buttons are prohibited. In jurisdictions 
enforcing NBCC, a red stop button shall be visibly 
located at the top and the bottom landings on the right 
side facing the escalator. If auxiliary emergency-stop 
buttons are provided, they shall be located within view 
of the escalator. 



(1) On high deck balustrades, they shall be located 
on the curved newel deck in the upper quadrant, with 
the centerline of the button at a 45 deg angle from the 
horizontal. 

(2) On low deck balustrades, they shall be located 
below the handrail height. The centerline of the button 
shall be located on a radial line 45 deg above the hori- 
zontal, such that no part of the button assembly is within 
38 mm (1.5 in.) of the bottom of the handrail and the 
button is no more than 90 mm (3.5 in.) from the bottom 
of the handrail. 

(b) Cover, Alarm, and Marking. The buttons shall be 
covered with a transparent cover that can be readily 
lifted or pushed aside. When the cover is moved, an 
audible warning signal shall be activateji. The signal 
shall have a sound intensity of 80 dBA minimum at the 
button location. The cover shall be marked "EMER- 
GENCY STOP," "MOVE COVER" or equivalent legend 
(e.g., "LIFT COVER," "SLIDE COVER,"), and "PUSH 
BUTTON." "EMERGENCY STOP" shaU be in letters not 
less than 12 mm (0.5 in.) high. Other required wording 
shall be in letters not less than 4.8 mm (0.188 in.) high. 
The cover shall be self-resetting. 

(c) Operation. The operation of either of these buttons 
shall cause the electric power to be removed from the 
escalator driving-machine motor and brake. It shall not 
be possible to start the escalator by these buttons. 

6.1.63.2 Speed Governor. A speed governor shall 
be provided, except as specified in 6.1,6.3.2(b). 

(a) The operation of the governor shall cause the elec- 
tric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake should the speed of the steps exceed 
a predetermined value, which shall not be more than 
40% above the rated speed. 

(b) The speed governor is not required where an alter- 
nating current, squirrel cage induction motor is used, 
and the motor is directly connected to the driving 
machine. 

(c) All escalators equipped with variable frequency 
drive motor controls shall be provided with an 
overspeed governor. 

(d) The device shall be of the manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.3.3 Broken Step-Chain Device 

(a) A broken step-chain device shall be provided, 
which shall cause the electric power to be removed from 
the driving-machine motor and brake 

(1) if a step chain breaks 

(2) where no automatic chain tension device is pro- 
vided, if excessive sag occurs in either step chain 

(b) The device shall be of the manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.3.4 Drive-Chain Device. When the driving 
machine is connected to the main drive shaft by a chain, 
a device shall be provided that will cause the application 
of the brake on the main drive shaft, and will also cause 



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ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



the electric power to be removed from the driving- 
machine motor and brake if the drive chain between the 
machine and the main drive shaft becomes disengaged 
from the sprockets. The device shall be of the manual- 
reset type. 

6.1.6.3.5 Stop Switch in Machinery Spaces. A stop 
switch conforming to the following requirements shall 
be provided in each machinery space and other spaces 
where means of access to the interior space is provided 
(see 6.1.7.3), except for the machinery space where the 
mainline disconnect switch is located 

(a) when opened (''STOP" position), cause the electric 
power to be removed from the escalator driving- 
machine motor and brake 

(b) be of the manually opened and closed type 

(c) have red operating handles or buttons 

(d) be conspicuously and permanently marked 
"STOP/' and shall indicate the "STOP" and "RUN" posi- 
tions 

(e) shall have contacts that are positively opened 
mechanically and their opening shall not be solely 
dependent on springs 

6.1.6.3.6 Escalator Skirt Obstruction Device. 

Means shall be provided to cause the electric power to 
be removed from the escalator driving-machine motor 
and brake if an object becomes caught between the step 
and the skirt as the step approaches the upper or lower 
combplate. The device shall be located at a point at 
which the step assumes a flat step position (see 6.1.3.6.5). 
The escalator shall stop before that object reaches the 
combplate with any load up to full brake rated load 
with escalator running [see 6.1.3.9.3(a)(2) and (b)(2)]. 

6.1.6.3.7 Escalator Egress Restriction Device. 

Egress restrictors that would prevent the free and contin- 
uous exiting of passengers, if used, shall provide a signal 
to a device on the escalator that shall cause the electric 
power to be removed from the escalator driving- 
machine motor and brake when the exit restrictors begin 
to close. 

6.1.6.3.8 Reversal Stop Device. Means shall be 
provided to cause the electric power to be removed from 
the driving-machine motor and brake in case of reversal 
of travel while the escalator is operating in the ascending 
direction. The device shall be of the manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.3.9 Step Upthrust Device. Means shall be 
provided in the passenger-carrying line of the track sys- 
tem to detect a step forced upward in the lower transi- 
tion curve at or prior to the point of tangency of the 
horizontal and curved track. The means shall actuate 
when the riser end of the step is displaced upward more 
than 5 mm (0.20 in.) at the lower landing. Actuation of 
the means shall cause power to be removed from the 
driving-machine motor and brake. The escalator shall 
stop, before the detected step reaches the combplate 



with any load up to brake rated load with escalator 
running [see 6.1.3.9.3(a)(2) and (b)(2)]. 

6.1.6.3.10 Disconnected Motor Safety Device. If 

the drive motor is attached to a gear reducer by means 
other than a continuous shaft, mechanical coupling, or 
toothed gearing, a device shall be provided that will 
cause the electric power to be removed from the driving- 
machine motor and brake (see 6.1.5.3.1), if the motor 
becomes disconnected from the gear reducer. The device 
shall be of the manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.3.11 Step Level Device. Step level devices 
shall be located at the top and bottom of the escalator. 
These devices shall detect downward displacement of 
3 mm (0.125 in.) or greater at the riser end at either side 
of the step. When activated, the device shall cause the 
escalator to stop before the step enters the combplate. 
The device shall cause power to be removed from the 
driving-machine motor and brake. Devices shall be of 
the manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.3.12 Handrail Entry Device. A handrail entry 
device shall be provided at each newel. It shall be opera- 
tive in the newels in which the handrail enters the balus- 
trade. It shall be of the manually reset type and shall 
cause the escalator to stop by removing power from the 
driving-machine motor and brake. It shall operate in 
either of two ways: 

(a) if an object becomes caught between the handrail 
and the handrail guard 

(b) if an object approaches the area between the hand- 
rail and the handrail guard 

For those units that rely on an opening of the balus- 
trade to prevent entrapment, all handrail entry devices 
shall be operative whenever the handrails are operating. 

6.1.6.3.13 Comb-Step Impact Devices. Devices 
shall be provided that will cause the opening of the 
power circuit to the escalator driving-machine motor 
and brake if either 

(a) a horizontal force not greater than 1 780 N (400 Ibf ) 
in the direction of travel is applied at either side, or not 
greater than 3 560 N (800 Ibf) at the center of the front 
edge of the comb-plate; or 

(b) a resultant vertical force not greater than 670 N 
(150 Ibf) in the upward direction is applied at the center 
of the front of the combplate. 

These devices shall be of the manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.3.14 Step Lateral Displacement Device. A 

device shall be provided on curved escalators to cause 
the opening of the power circuit to the escalator driving- 
machine motor and brake, should a step be excessively 
displaced horizontally due to a failure in the lateral 
support system. The device shall be of the manual- 
reset type. 

6.1.6.3.15 Stop Switch in Inspection Controls. A 

stop switch conforming to the following requirements 



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ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 



shall be provided when required by 6.1.6.2,2: 

(a) when opened ("STOP" position), cause the electric 
power to be removed from the escalator driving- 
machine motor and brake 

(b) be of the manually opened and closed type 

(c) have red operating handles or buttons 

(d) be conspicuously and permanently marked 
"STOP/' and shall indicate the "STOP" and "RUN" posi- 
tions 

(e) shall have contacts that are positively opened 
mechanically and their opening shall not be solely 
dependent on springs 

6.1.6.3.16 Dynamic Skirt Panel Obstruction 
Device. Means shall be provided to cause the electric 
power to be removed from the escalator driving- 
machine motor and brake if an object becomes caught 
between the dynamic skirt panel and the dynamic skirt 
panel cover in the upper or lower transition zone. The 
device shall be of the manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.4 Handrail Speed Monitoring Device. A hand- 
rail speed monitoring device shall be provided that will 
cause the activation of the alarm required by 6.1.6.3.1(b) 
without any intentional delay, whenever the speed of 
either handrail deviates from the step speed by 15% or 
more. The device shall also cause electric power to be 
removed from the driving-machine motor and brake 
when the speed deviation of 15% or more is continuous 
within a 2 s to 6 s range. The device shall be of the 
manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.5 Missing Step and Missing Dynamic Sl<irt 
Devices 

(a) A device shall be provided to detect a missing 
step and bring the escalator to a stop, before the gap 
resulting from the missing step emerges from the comb. 
The device shall cause power to be removed from the 
driving-machine motor and brake. The device shall be 
of the manual-reset type. 

(b) For escalators with dynamic skirts, a device shall 
be provided to detect a missing dynamic skirt panel and 
bring the escalator to a stop, before the gap resulting 
from the missing dynamic skirt panel emerges from the 
balustrade. The device shall cause power to be removed 
from the driving-machine motor and brake. The device 
shall be of the manual-reset type. 

6.1.6.6 Tandem Operation. Tandem operation esca- 
lators shall be electrically interlocked where traffic flow 
is such that bunching will occur if the escalator carrying 
passengers away from the intermediate landing stops. 
The electrical interlocks shall stop the escalator carrying 
passengers into the common intermediate landing if the 
escalator carrying passengers away from the landing 
stops. These escalators shall also be electrically inter- 
locked to assure that they run in the same direction. 



6.1.6.8 Escalator Smolce Detectors. Smoke detectors 
shall be permitted that shall activate the alarm required 
by 6.1.6.3.1(b) and, after at least 15 s, shall cause the 
interruption of power to the driving-machine motor and 
brake. 

6.1.6.9 Signs 

6.1.6.9.1 Caution Signs. A caution sign shall be 
located at the top and bottom landing of each escalator, 
readily visible to the boarding passengers. 

The sign shall include the following wording: 

(a) "Caution" 

(b) "Passengers Only" 

(c) "Hold Handrail" 

(d) "Attend Children" 

(e) "Avoid Sides" 

The sign shall be standard for aU escalators and shall 
be identical in format, size, color, wording, and pictorials 
as shown in Fig. 6.1.6.9.1. The sign shall be durable and 
have a maximum thickness of 6.4 mm (0.25 in.), with 
rounded or beveled comers and edges. 

6.1.6.9.2 Additional Signs. Signs in addition to 
those required by 6.1.6.9.1 relating to cautions or warn- 
ings applying to escalator passengers, when provided, 
shall be in a readily visible location, and limited to con- 
veying any additional cautions and /or warnings. The 
additional signs shall be prohibited in the area starting 
from 3 000 mm (118 in.) horizontally outward from the 
end of the newel and to the point where the steps start 
to move vertically. Its location shall not impede or other- 
wise cause persons about to board the escalator to sud- 
denly pause or stop. The sign shall comply with 
ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is appHca- 
ble (see Part 9). 

6.1.6.10 Control and Operating Circuits. The design 
and installation of the control and operating circuits 
shall conform to 6.1.6.10.1 through 6.1.6.10.3. 

6.1.6.10.1 The occurrence of a single ground or 
the failure of any single magnetically operated switch, 
contactor, or relay; or any single solid-state device; or a 
software system failure, shall not 

(a) permit the escalator to start; or 

(b) render ineffective any electrical protective device 
required by 6.1.6.3, or the handrail speed monitoring 
device required by 6.1.6.4, or the missing step or missing 
dynamic skirt device required by 6.1.6.5. 

NOTE [6.1.6.10.1(b)]: Requirements only apply to the circuits in 
which the devices are used and not to the devices themselves. 

6.1.6.10.2 Redundancy used in the control and 
operating circuits to satisfy the requirements of 6.1.6.10.1 
shall be checked prior to each start of the escalator. When 
a single ground or failure as specified in 6.1.6.10